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we can travel back, in a moment, to the creation of THE MIND, ITS POWERS AND RESULTS. this world, when “God said let there be light, and

there was light;" by another flash of thought we Man, as is well known, is a compound being, behold this great orb enveloped by a flood, and all consisting of soul and body, of mind and matter, a its inhabitants buried in one common ruin; trace material and immaterial principle. The body, we we then by another act of thought, the rise and are told, was formed of the dust of the earth-10 fall of the great and powerful nations of the earth; dust it shall return, but the mind, the immortal prin- we stand where once stood Carthage and Palmyra ciple within us, is uncreated—it was breathed into and Memphis and other splendid cities of ancient this mechanism of clay by the Great First Cause time, whose mournful relics scarcely remain to tell a celestial spark struck off from the Divinity itself. the story of their departed greatness; in imaginaThis immaterial and eternal principle it is which tion we can visit ancient Rome in all her imperial gives to man all his dignity and importance in the greatness and splendor, we can look upon her scale of creation. This is the proposition we set mighty armies and illustrious generals --we enter out with and will endeavor to maintain. What is the Roman Senate and gaze with admiration upon the body? It may indeed be more comely, more the venerable and dignified faces of those noble erect, more graceful than any other portion of God's fathers of whom we delighted to read in our school, creation, but it is feeble, frail, exposed to disease boy time—we recognize the bold and ambitious and death; even the greater part of its dignity and features of a Cæsar, the stern and inflexible coonbeauty is borrowed from the intellect or soul which tenance of a Caton-we listen to the powerful and flashes from the eye, and the benignity and intelli- indignant eloquence of a Cicero driving Cataline gence which beam from the countenance. But the from the Senate Chamber; and then ascending to mind! who can fathom its immeasurable depths ? the lofty height of some towering citadel, we can who can measure the height and length and breadth behold, in one magnificent view, this immense city, of its mighty powers? Who can unfold the hidden with its millions of inhabitants-the mistress of the mysteries of this immortal principle ? There lies world. More rapid than the lightning's flash, the the unconscious infant-his form is perfect, the mind transports itself to the classic shores of ancient body and limb present evidences of future strength Greece. We visit the beautiful and refined city of and power, but what indications do we observe of Athens; we gaze with delight and admiration upon future mental development and intellectual great- the splendid temples, whose chaste and elegant ness? Is it not a well-known fact that even the architecture has served as a model for all future young of the brute creation manifest more evi- time-we look with rapture upon those beautiful dences of mind than the infant human being ? But specimens of statuary, which have distinguished the child grows up apace, the mental powers, by Greece above all other nations; we enter her halls degrees, are developed-images and ideas are of learning and science, and hold converse with formed from the impression of external and male- Socrates and Plato—we hang upon the lips of her rial objects upon the senses. These ideas are ex- illustrious orators, and listen with breathless altenpressed by words. The names of letters are soon tion to the bold and energetic eloquence of Demosacquired, -letters are combined into syllables and thenes thundering forth his Phillipics and urging words,--sentences are formed, and thus new and on his countrymen to the defence of their rights and successive floods of light and knowledge are poured liberties. Quicker than light the mind again travels into the mind, the history of past events and by- down the long track of intervening time, and we gone ages become familiar things;—an onward enter the portals of the great and interesting city progress is made from science to science, from dis- of Jerusalem, in all its former splendor and magnicovery 10 discovery, until that infant being, once ficence--we behold Deity himself preaching in even unconscious of existence, becomes a Bacon her temples and walking in her streets, healing the who can unfold and simplify the complicated prin- sick, giving sight to the blind, and hearing to the ciples of the most abstruse sciences, or a Newton deaf, making the dumb to speak and bringing the who can measure the height of the sun and the dead to life. But the mind, in its still more advenplanets, trace the comet in its wandering flight, turous course, leaves the earth and reaches to and explain the laws by which the whole planetary heaven ; it traces the motions of unknown worldssystem is regulated.

travels with the moon around the earth, the earth May it not, indeed, be said, with truth, that the around the sun, and reaches to those innumerable contemplation of the human intellect, with all its fixed stars whose immeasurable distance has bafvast, mysterious and complicated powers, presents fled all human computation ; and still renewing its a subject more replete with gradeur and sublimity, mysterious flight, it soars to the kingdom of the than can be afforded by all the material curiosities Great Omnipotent One, and beholds the Sovereign both of nature and of art, which the universe can of the Universe seated upon his pure white throne, afford. Think for a moment upon its wonderful surrounded by angelic spirits who live forever in and divine powers. By a single effort of the mind' his presence and give unceasing praise and adora

tion to his name. Who can contemplate such a we begin to compute the vast and incalculable inwonderful and mysterious principle in our nature fluence which has been exerted by one single without wonder, awe and admiration!

powerma discovery resulting from the capacious

and scientific intellect of a Fulton, whom every one “ Call now to mind what high, capacious powers Lie solded up in man, how far beyond

that loves his country is proud to claim as an AmeThe praise of mortals may the eternal growth

rican. Let us reflect for a moment upon the wonOf nature to perfection half divine

derful and stupendous effects that must forever Expand the blooming soul. What pity then accrue from that one act of thought which evolved Should sloth's unkindly fogs depress to earth

the important principle that steam could be conHer tender blossom? Choke the streams of life

verted into a power which would convey palaces And blast her springs : far otherwise designed Almighty wisdom."

down our noble streams-stem the impetuous cur

rents of the most rapid rivers,-propel the largest One of the most striking evidences of the power ships across the widest oceans, and almost annihiand influence of mind may be derived from the late space by conveying us from town to town, fact that, by the exertion of this principle alone, from city to city, from almost one extremity of our unaided by any foreign or extrinsic circumstances, country to the other. Is it not from this one cause individuals have, in all ages of the world, risen chiefly that the whole condition of the great valley from the deepest obscurity to the highest elevation of the Mississippi has been changed in the last of fame, rank and usefulness among men. No few years ? towns and cities have sprung up as if by difficulty, or embarrassment, no adversity or misfor- enchantment, so that this immense valley is rapidly tune can keep down the energies of the powerful becoming the most productive and populous portion and elastic intellect. Every impediment, like a of the globe. The following remarks of Mr. Alexbarrier thrown across the current of a strong and ander Everett will be read with interest by every rapid stream, serves only to obstruct its progress one. They are peculiarly appropriate in illusfor a moment,-it rushes forward in its subsequent trating this portion of our subject. Delivering his course, with accumulated momentum and impetu- leeture while in view of the great father of rivers osity. Let us direct our attention for a moment to he says—“The scene that so often presents itself the distinguished men of our own country. Is it when we turn the eye from the place where from a long-descended line of noble ancestry that we are now assembled to the celebrated stream they have derived their greatness ? Is it from the which flows by our side, affords a more striking possession of extraordinary wealth and dignified demonstration of the recent triomphs of physical titles that they have become so useful and distin- science than could be given by volumes of descripguished in their career ? Has not almost every dis- tion. Forty years ago there was nothing to be tinguished character in this and every other country seen in the way of navigation on the Mississippi been the builder up of his own name, the architect river but a few clumsy rafts, which, after bringing of his own greatness ? Had we ever heard of an down the produce of the interior, were broken up at illustrious Washington, a Jefferson, a Madison, a New Orleans, and never attempted to return, and Marshall, a Calhoun, a Wirt, a Clay, or a Webster, a few small vessels struggling painfully with sails, until these men distinguished themselves by their against the current, and employing three or four intellectual greatness and usefulness, and built up months to ascend to the head of navigation. Now for themselves a reputation and a name? It is all there is scarcely an hour in which majestic moving the result of mind-of intellectual power, indomi- palaces are not seen to pass on their upward and table mental energy. Does it not appear then downward progress, following or stemming the reasonable to conclude that our proposition is cor- current with nearly equal facility, and performing rect, that it is the mind, the spark of Divinity stir- their voyages to and from Louisville in from five to ring within us, which gives to men all his dignity seven days; at the same time others are performand importance in the scale of creation? Thus far, ing their outward and homeward voyages from we have alluded briefly to the powers and capaci- Boston to New York, across the Atlantic, in an ties of the human intellect, let us now turn our average time from twelve to fifteen days. But in attention to some of the great practical results the application of steam to locomotion on railarising from these immense powers and capacities. roads, the results have been, if possible, still more

The time would fail even to enumerate the various brilliant. Dr. Franklin, who was postmaster-geneand wonderful improvements and discoveries that ral of the colonies, before the Revolution, remarked have been made in the last few centuries by the that he did not himself despair of seeing the time, powers of the human mind. Instead of creeping when the mail should be conveyed in a fortnight cautiously and timidly along the shore, fearing 10 from Philadelphia to Boston. Now, the mail leaves leave the sight of land, the mariner can trace bis Boston at 4 o'clock in the afternoon and reaches path with certainty and precision in the wide and Washington, a hundred and fifty miles beyond unknown ocean by the lights derived from mathe- Philadelphia, on the evening of the following day. matical and astronomical science; and how shall From New Orleans the mail is regularly carried to

Boston in nine days. New Orleans is of course, the intellect. But for this, every thing would be for practical purposes, nearer to Boston than Phila- darkness and doubt and death-shade; all knowledge delphia was before the Revolution. Between New would be traditionary and all experience local; Orleans, the extreme point of civilized America, and civilized life would relapse into barbarian, and man St. Petersburg, the extreme point of civilized Eu- would have to run through his comparatively little rope, intelligence regularly passes in five weeks.") and insignificant round of existence--the perpetual What immense results from one master effort of sport of ignorance and error, uninstructed by science, the human mind. The effects of this one dis- unregulated by laws, unconsoled by revelation." covery alone--the discovery and application of But the mind, still pressing forward in the career steam power, is sufficient to evince the paramount of improvement and sublime results, strikes out, in importance and the great superiority of knowledge the 15th century, another discovery, or rather inover every other attainment, and that knowledge vention, still more important in its consequences and mental cultivation, when properly and usefully than the art of writing. I allude to the art of applied, confer upon man his greatest honor and printing. When the first book appeared from the glory, and exert the greatest practical influence press of the well-known Aldo Manustjus, in 1497, upon the condition of the world.

a new era dawned upon the world, an era which Let us turn our attention for a moment to another will be memorable as long as time and eren etergrand result of intellectual effort-a result which nity itself shall last. The most vivid and fertile has changed the whole condition of mankind, and imagination, the most prophetic and far-reaching which constitutes one of the chief distinctions intellect cannot begin to conceive of the immense between savage and civilized life. I allude to the influence which this one master effort of the hoinvention of that art by which thoughts and ideas man mind must exert upon all succeeding generaare recorded and handed down to all succeeding tions. The time was, when a few manuscripts generations. The splendid and glorious results of werc considered a large library, and without the this art are so beautifully and eloquently described invention of the art of printing, those nations which by the learned Dr. Good, and the language and are now highly distinguished for literature and sentiments are so much better than I can use my- science must have been still enveloped in ignorance self, that I hope to be excused for quoting his words. and barbarism. What more than the art of priotAfter giving a most interesting history of this sub- ing contributed to the revival of learning which lime art, the writer thus concludes his remarks: had been buried in midnight darkness for more “Such is the history of the noblest art that has than ten centuries ? By this art, books upon books ever been invented by the unassisted efforts of the on every useful subject have been multiplied withhuman understanding--an art that gives stability out number, and a respectable library can now be to thought, forms a cabinet for our ideas, and pre obtained for a few hundred dollars, an amount sents, in imperishable colors, a speaking portraiture which, previous to this time, might not have purof the soul. Without this, hard indeed would be chased more than one valuable manuscript. Rethe separation of friends, and the traveller would flect for a moment upon the influence of the press. become an exile from his native home, vainly lan-By this means news and information on all subguishing for the consolatory information that his jects are distributed in a short time to every porwife, his children, his kinsmen, his country were in tion of the civilized world, and an inconceivable a state of health and prosperity, and himself em- influence is exerted upon its social, religious and balmed in their affections. Without this, what to political condition. To the Christian and philanus would be the wisdom of past ages, or the history thropist, this subject presents a view which is parof former times? The chain of nature would be ticularly interesting and gratifying. He delights broken up in all its links, and every generation be- to look abroad over the world and observe the oncome an isolated and individual world, equally cut bounded influence, which this art has exerted in off, as by an irremediable abyss, from its ancestors diffusing the Gospel of sacred truth through almost and from posterity. While the language of the every country and nation of the earth, and shedding lips is as fleeting as the breath itself, and confined the divine light of sacred truth upon millions who to a single spot, as well as to a single moment, the otherwise must have remained forever in ignorance language of the pen enjoys, in many instances, an and gross superstition—an art which must ever be adamantine existence, and will only perish amid the regarded as one of the most efficient means or inruins of the globe. Before its mighty touch, time struments in bringing about that happy period, when and space become annihilated; it joins epoch to the glories of divine truth shall shine as the noonepoch and pole to pole, it gives unity to the works day in the darkest corners of the earth and illumiof creation and providence and enables us to trace nate the benighted mind of every idolatrous and from the beginning of things to the end. It is the superstitious nation on the globe. Is it necessary great sun of the moral world that warms and stimu- to adduce other instances of the wondrous results lates and irradiates and develops and matures the of the mind—the thinking principle of our natures ? best virtues of the heart, and the best faculties of' We might allude to the numerous improvements

in the arts and sciences-in chemistry, medicine, /ed one of the most able and interesting sermons I geology, botany, natural philosophy, astronomy have ever read, demonstrating the influence which in music and painting and a host of others, but the the culture of the moral feelings exeris in enlartime would fail us. But there is one sublime and ging and developing the intellectual faculties. On all-memorable result of the bold and majestic this subject, the celebrated Dr. Channing has the powers of the human mind with which I shall con- following eloquent and impressive sentiment which clude this portion of our subject. I allude to the ought to sink deeply into every mind. He says, unrivalled and collective wisdom of those distin- The exaltation of talent as it is called, is the guished patriots and philosophers who devised and curse of the age ;- Education is now chiefly a put in order the articles of that free and glorious stimulus to learning and thus acquires power withconstitution which they have bequeathed to us, and out the principles which alone make it good. Talunder which we enjoy a liberty and prosperity on- ent is worshipped, but if divorced from rectitude rivalled in the annals of history. And may I not will prove more a demon than a God.” From here digress a moment, and remark that every these remarks, it may be seen, that though in this citizen of our country should bear in mind that this essay so much importance is attached to the powfree constitution, the result of so much wisdom ers of the intellect, yet it is far from the object of and thought, can only be sustained in all its vigor the writer to divorce that connexion which should and purity, by a continuation of that wisdom and always subsist between the intellectual and moral enlightened intellect which first put it into opera- powers. On the other hand, we believe that they tion. And is it not the duty of each one of us, to should be united by an indissoluble tie, and that all exert all his influence, however limited or extensive our intellectual operations should be impelled and it may be, to diffuse just and enlightened principles stimulated by moral and religious feelings, so that throughout our country; as far as he is able, to en- high and holy results may ensue-results useful to courage education and the distribution of general man's condition in this world and conducive to his knowledge, so that this rich inheritance may be eternal interests in another and better state of exispreserved pure and unsullied, and be handed down tence. to posterity as a legacy more precious than gold Having endeavored to point out some of the or silver or lands ? Thus I have attempted, in a most prominent and important results which have brief and cursory manner, to describe some of the been produced in the world by the operations of wonderful powers of that mysterious and immortal mind, and traced out briefly the influences of these principle of our nature denominated mind, and have results upon the condition of the world, if our premlikewise endeavored to trace out some of the grand ises and reasonings are sound, we are compelled and sublime results accruing to society and to the to infer that it is the duty of every member of soworld from the operation of this divine principle. ciety to use all the influence, he can exert in every And if my arguments have been correct, we are possible way, in the promotion of education and necessarily led to the conclusion, or to the truth of the diffusion of useful knowledge. There is no the principle with which I set out, that the mind possible excuse which any individual can make for and the application of its powers to high and the neglect of this duty. Every man has his inuseful purposes, confer upon man his greatest fluence, and every man is bound to exert it for the dignity and honor. I hope I may not be under- welfare of his fellow-men. We might mention stood as arguing for the cultivation of the intel- various modes by which men should exert their inlectual faculties alone, to the exclusion of the cul- fluence in the promotion of education and useful ture of the moral powers. The moral faculties knowledge, but our limits will only permit us to as essentially constitute a part of the mind as allude to one, and this we believe to be one of the the intellectual, and the individual who cultivates most important in its character and most universal the latter to the neglect of the former is only in its operation. I mean the establishment of Lycultivating a part of bis mind, and the culture must ceums in every town and village of our countrytherefore be very imperfect. There is a close and institutions which might appropriately be called the intimate connexion between the moral and intel- people's university, where men of all ranks and lectual faculties, and it would require a distinct grades, from the highest to the lowest, may attend essay to trace out the relations which they bear to gratuitously and learn lessons of practical wisdom each other. There is one remark which we wish and truths of infinite value. We believe it is the to make in this connexion, and that is, that the dawning of a better and happier era in our counculture and development of the moral powers seem try, that these institutions are so rapidly increasing to throw a light and vigor into the intellectual fac- in number in every portion of our vnion, and that ulties which are sometimes astonishing and almost the lectures which are delivered by able individuals, supernatural. We have a passage in the Scrip- are attracting more attention in our cities than ture which says, " The entrance of God's words theatres and balls and other places of vain and giveth light, it giveth understanding to the simple;" trifling amusements. I cannot understand the conand from this text the Rev. H. Melville has preach-'sistency of that man who believes that the perma

VOL. X-84

nency of our republican institutions depends upons and learning confer upon man, and their great utility the enlightenment of the people, and yet refuses and importance to the world, I beg leave to conto give his aid and encouragement to those very clude in the beautiful and eloquent language of one means which are best calculated to instruct and of the ablest and most elegant writers of our counenlighten. Let us describe in a few words the man- try.* “ It has been my lot, gentlemen, to travel ner in which these institutions are calculated to be farther and to see mankind under a greater number 80 useful. A number of gentlemen meet together of phases than you have, and I can confidentiy say and form an association, and denominate it a Ly- that every where, talent and learning command the ceum, or give it any other name which they deem admiration and respect of the world ; every where appropriate. They meet weekly or semi-monthly do these accomplishments call forth the homage of as may be considered most convenient. At each mankind, either voluntary or involuntary. It is this meeting, one of the members, previously appointed, homage which makes the man of learning the citiis expected to deliver an address on some useful, zen of the world, and gives him the hospitality and interesting subject. Out of a large number of patronage of nations. The man of learning is members, there would be no difficulty in selecting justly regarded as the benefactor of the human race, an individual who might have sufficient leisure to and the wars and strifes of nations are suspended prepare an address. Very little expense attends as to him. Even States that have fallen into inithe formation of an association of this kind. It is quity, and have shed the blood of the innocent, a sonrce of improvement to members by affording have been known to pause in their career, whilst an opportunity of devoting leisure time to some they paid a tribute of respect to the man of science. useful and interesting theme which is to be the sub- At that period when the dreadful guillotine was ject of discourse at some future period. The au- shedding torrents of blood in Revolutionary France, dience is interested and benefitted by obtaining, in when the moral elements of our nature seemed, in a short period, all the ideas and information which that devoted country, to have risen in rebellion the lecturer may have been collecting for weeks. against their God, and the conscience of man apThe ladies delight to honor such meetings with the peared forever silenced; when every demon of light of their countenances. With minds inquisi- discord and violence seemed for the time to be let tive for knowledge, and pleased to encourage every loose to plague the nations of the world, even in institution which has for its object the promotion such a period did the national assembly stop in its of useful knowledge and sound morality, they mad career, to pay a tribute of homage and respect gladly give the influence of their presence in its to science by decreeing three days mourning for encouragement. If the number of members will the death of Benjamin Franklin. What a trophy justify it, with a small expense to each one, a good, was this to be won by science amid the raging eleuseful library can be obtained, the ablest and most ments of discord and faction." W. J. T. interesting literary journals and papers are added, Memphis, Tenn. and thus every means afforded for the attainment

* Professor Dew. of sound, useful practical knowledge, which are found in the best colleges and universities of our country. Thousands of such institutions have already sprung up, but we believe that they ought to

From the New Mirror. be much more numerous; there are many towns and villages which have no institutions of this kind, TO THE PRESIDENT'S BRIDE. where nothing prevails but a sordid lust for lucre, and where, by the exertion of a few enterprising young men, a flourishing Lyceum could soon be

The flowers and stars were equal in their birthestablished. And even in some of the largest and Beauty and purity to both were givenfinest cities in our country, there is not more than The flowers became the poetry of earth, one institution of this kind, where there ought to be And the bright stars the poetry of heaven. a dozen. But I fear I am becoming tedious, and

The star of evening, for the reigning star, must forbear further remarks upon this interesting From sea-foam bed the humbler planets chose ; topic. I have insisted the more upon this method And earth's sweet blossoms gathered from afar, of diffusing useful knowledge, because I believe And paid their grateful homage to the rose. there is no other plan half so effectual in enlight

In thee, the queenly rose and star of even ening the minds of the grown-up portion of every

Blend all their brightness, fragrancy and power. community, besides the great moral benefits deri

Thou, in thy varied gifts from earth and heaven, ved by drawing their attention to subjects of utility Hast all the beauty of the star and flower. and importance, instead of frequenting the haunts

And thus thou wert created, radiant one! of dissipation and vice.

Thy soul, God's masterpiece-the Powers above In concluding this humble attempt to illustrate

Made thee in form more glorious than the sun, the higli honor and dignity which mental cultivation And Nature gave the kindling spark of love.

BY OWEN G. WARREN.

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