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pencil of Prout; his old buildings and full of bustle and spirit. We and architectural subjects, taken regret that the Society should have during his Continental tour, attached any mark of its approbation treated with great spirit. The Views to a picture in all respects so worthof Strasburg, Mayence, and Liege, less as Mr. Smith's view of Naples. are highly but not coarsely coloured, We missed Dewint sadly.

MR. MARTIN'S PICTURES. We visited, last week, with con- hand. We shall not repeat what siderable though not unmixed gra- has been so often said respecting his tification, Mr. Martin's pictures now figures, but we would urgently reexhibiting in Piccadilly. Mr. Martin commend to Mr. Martin the close certainly displays great facility, both and unwearied study of the living in conception and realization, but he and antique modeis. The Bard will excuse us the friendly intimation is altogether a failure, and we comthat he appears to be in some danger pletely coincide with the just criof confounding glare with effect, and ticism of our very respectable corresviolence with genuine power. His pondent, Mrs. Winifred Lloyd. Mr. Herculaneum is a fine picture, but M.'s earlier pictures strike us there is in it too palpable an ob- his best; the Storming of Babylon, trusion of colour and attitude, as the though not historically accurate, and vehicles of grandeur and pathos. He the harrowing situation of Sadak in delights too much in the untempered his efforts to reach the Fountain of effect of dazzling tint, and his reds Oblivion, are undeniable proofs of his and blues and yellows are dashed great talents. in with a fierce and undiscriminating

as

EXHIBITION OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY.

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We have heard the approaching tions,- it is cold and uninteresting. exhibition of the Royal Academy so There is considerable talent in the highly spoken of by those who have group which obtained the gold meaccess to the best means of informa- dal for Mr. Frederick Smith, a pupil tion, that we look forward to a much of Chantrey, but we can only acmore substantial feast for the eye and cept it as a promise of far better intellect, than has of late years been things. He has evidently high power, afforded us. A liberal discrimina- but he must resolutely settle his tion has been exercised, and few ap- mind to the achievement of excelplicants have had to sustain the lence, by patient meditation and inmortification of exclusion. The Pre- defatigable labour. There is a bust, sident has sent in his fine portraits by the same hand, of John Keats of the King and the Duke of York. the poet, which strongly recals the Our unrivalled Chantrey has finished gifted author of Endymion to our a bust of the sovereign with all that remembrance. We have heard fastriking combination of simplicity vourable report of a portrait of the and spirit, which forms the charac- Duke of York, by Jackson. Northteristic excellence of his style. Last cote has sent in several pictures; we year Mr. Baily exhibited a beautiful hope that we shall find among them model of Eve; he has since trans- a fair proportion of his spirited referred his design to marble, and in presentations of animals. Howard the truth and graceful loveliness again moves on classic ground; and which he has communicated to his Thomson has sought inspiration from work, has surpassed any of the fe- Shakspeare. Wilkie's Chelsea Penmale figures which Thorvaldsen has sioners hearing the Intelligence of the sent to this country. Flaxman's Battle of Waterloo, exhibits a great profound knowledge of classic prin- variety of excellently disposed groups, ciple has not, we understand, de- in which the military costumes of the serted him in his group of St. old and new schools are contrasted Michael subduing the Great Dragon. with the happiest effect. The huPsyche, a standing figure, executed mours of Pay-day among the batby Westmacott, for the Duke of tered veterans are expressively blenda Bedford, is said to possess consider- ed with the strong excitement proable grace; a statue of Charity has duced by the reading of the Gathe faults of all allegorical produc- zette. We are sorry to learn, that

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Turner has contributed but one the Recruiting. Party, and the Busmall picture. Hilton's Meleager is rial by Torch-light of Cannynge, the a most animated and richly painted founder of Redcliffe Church. Collins display of the vigorous action and exhibits four pictures executed in varied attitudes of the hazardous his usual interesting manner. We boar-hunt. The catastrophe of the have heard only of one by Callcott; Broken Fiddle, by Allan, is well but from the same authority we enconceived and expressed, though the tertain the strongest expectation of picture is not, perhaps, fully equal pleasure in its actual inspection. to some of his former efforts. The if we add to this rich, but, of old but inexhaustible subject of course, imperfect anticipation, the Hector reproving Paris, has been names of Fuseli, Westall, and Leslie, treated with great boldness and ori- we shall have held forth a promise of ginality, by Mr. Wainewright. Mr. gratification, which, however large, Rippingille has sent in two paintings, gives little risk of disappointment.

ON WITCHCRAFT.

No. III.

On the Origin, Progress, and Decay of Witchcraft.
Somnia, terrores magicos, miracula, sagas,
Nocturnos lemures, portentaque Thessala rides ? Horace.
These dreams and terrors magicall,

These miracles and witches,
Night-walking sprites, or Thessal bugs-
Esteeme them not two rushes.-

Abraham Fleming's Translation. The existence of the parent stock order, who are endowed with a far whence witchcraft was derived may more extensive intelligence, may and be traced to a very remote period. must be able to discern much to The proneness

of the human mind to which our faculties cannot penetrate. pry into futurity, and the disposition To attain a similar extent of knowwhich mankind, in the earlier ages of ledge was the prime object of the the world, have evinced to invest magician and the astrologer ; but themselves and others with superna- there is a certain limit assigned to tural powers, commenced with the human wisdom, beyond which, even primary origin of society. An in- their consummate ingenuity could quisitiveness as to future events, is, never pass without some powerful in some measure, a necessary conse- and extraordinary aid. They conquence of the importance we at- sequently endeavoured to accomplish tach to them; and where these events their designs by an unhallowed interdepend on circumstances which we course with higher powers, and, cannot regulate,- a power which we giving full scope to their imaginations, cannot evade, and a will which we they soon created an easy theory, the can neither scrutinize nor controul, reality of which was readily confirm--our anxiety will increase according ed by the casual oceurrence of certain to the magnitude of our hopes and contingent circumstances. Did a vicfears. Hence, in all ages, some tory ensue after an eagle had hovered means have been resorted to for the over an army, or perched upon a discovery of that which was to come; standard,—the majestic bird became and as, with our limited knowledge the omen of conquest. Did a gloomy and observation, we are able, in dream disturb the rest of an anxious some degree, to foresee what will mind, and evil, previously apprefollow from particular circumstances, hended, follow,- the dream was unor modes of action, in which persons doubtedly predictive. Had any one, of certain dispositions are engaged, whose birth was welcomed by the —and also to determine the regular rising sun, or marked by the glorious effects of physical causes, so do we brilliancy of a planet, risen to prereadily infer that beings of a higher eminence, and run a course of glory,

-the heavenly bodies indicated the however congenial they might have fate of the hero's life, by their timely been to their habits and feelings, beappearance at his birth. Such was came futile and invalid, unless rethe origin of Divination and Astro- commended by some striking proof logy; the root, as it were, of the of their utility and goodness. Hence, magic art, and the stem from which the sages and instructors of old had a flourishing tree sprang up, afford- recourse to other and more effectual ing numerous offsets and branches, measures than those of mild admoas the “growth of ages " added to nition, and established their dominion its magnitude.

over the minds of the people by a There can be no doubt, that Witch- skilful series of impostures, rather craft was nearly allied in the begin- than by the force of reason, or the ning to all the magical artifices of our power of persuasion, ancestors. It was one of the species A remarkable proof of the supposed of an extensive genus, which com- influence of magic in those early ages prised divination, astrology, omens, is to be found in St. Chrysostom's portents, chiromancy, sortilegy, ca- work, De Sacerdotio, which exhibits toptromancy, sorcery, and conjura- a scene of enchantment not exceeded tion,-and it had flourished with by any romance of the middle ages. much vigour in the several countries We suppose a spectator overlooking of Europe before it become firmly es- a field of battle, attended by one that tablished in England. The first dealer points out all the various objects of in diabolical magic, is supposed to horror, the engines of destruction, have been Zoroaster,* the king of and the arts of slaughter. AelkvÚTO the Bactrians, who lived Anno Mundi δε' έτι παρά τοις εναντίοίς, και πετομέ2000. He was gifted with the know- νους ίππους, διά τινος μαγγανείας, ledge of astronomy, and of the seven και οπλίτας δι' αέρος φερομενους, και liberal arts, and was well versed in πάσην γοητείας δύναμιν, και ιδέαν. the nature and value of precious “ Let him then show him in the opstones. « At his birth,” observes posite armies horses flying by magic, an old writer, “ he laughed : and his armed men transported through the head did so beat, that it struck back air, and every power and form of the midwife's hand,-a good sign of enchantinent. Whether St. Chryabundance of spirits, which are the sostom himself believed that such perbest instruments of a happy wit.” formances were really to be seen in Zoroaster was not long without imi- a dav of battle, or whether he meretators. Divination and astrology, ly endeavoured to enliven his descripwith several other species of the tion by such narrations, we have no Mayos texyn, were adopted by the opportunity of judging ; but it is priests and philosophers of those quite certain, that in his time such times, and attained an admirable per- notions were eagerly received, and fection under the fostering auspices implicitly credited. of subsequent practitioners.

The But they carried their faith in the Chaldæ in Assyria, the Brachmans in utility of magic to a much greater India, the Druids in Britain, the extent in Spain; for there they had Magi in Persia, and the priesthood of public schools at Toledo, Seville, and Greece and Rome, all sought assist- Salamanca, where the principles of ance from one species or other of oc- this mysterious science were regularly cult science, and with numerous well- taught. In the latter city, they were devised stratagems, impressed upon held in a deep cavern, the mouth of the minds of their disciples an awful which was walled up by Queen Isaidea of their might and their holiness. bella, wife of King Ferdinand. The We can easily imagine how necessary celebrated magician Maugis, cousin it must have been, in those early ages, to Rinaldo of Montalban, called by to adopt some singular and extraor- Ariosto Malagigi, studied the black dinary means of riveting the atten- art at Toledo; he even held a profes tion of a community of rude barba- sor's chair in the necromantic unirians. Precepts and exhortations, versity ; for so, observes Sir Walter

* Dr. Howel (Instit. of Gen. Hist. Part I.) is of opinion that Zoroaster, the Magje cian, lived many years after this king of the Bactrians; and Fabricius, (Biblioth. Good tom. I. cap. 36.) thinks it a difficult matter to adjust the time in which he lived, there being several of that name.

Scott, I interpret the passage “ qu'en event. “ Tum Seleuciam digreditur, optous les sept ars d'enchantement, de periens ægritudinem, quæ rursum Germa. charmes et conjurations-il n'y avoit nico acciderat: sævam vim morbi augebat meilleur maistre que lui; et en tel persuasio veneni a Pisone accepti: et rerenom qu'on le lassoit en chaise, et periebantur solo ac parietibus erutæ hul'appelloit on maistre Maugis."

manorum corporum reliquiæ, camina, et But although magic had become tabulis irisculptum, semiusti cineres, ac tabe

devotiones, et nomen Germanici plumbeis thus introduced into the world, seve

obliti, aliaque maleficia, quis creditur ani. ral centuries elapsed before witch- mas numinibus infernis sacrari : Simul craft was practised with all its pecu- missi a Pisone incusabantur, ut valetudinis liar and abominable ceremonies. The adversa rimantes.” Annal, lib. 2, cap. lxir, first approach towards system in this Pontius Pilate destroyed many of the respect, is to be found in the diaboli- most vir' uous Jews, besides our blessed cal" ingenuity of Theoris of Athens. Saviour. I find, says Dr. Hutchinson, seThis enchantress was put to death by veral quote the Talmud to prove that he the Athenians on the accusation of executed many witches.

Simon was a noted magician, and most her servant and accomplice, who displayed to them the charms and of the first heretics took their rise from

him. Elymas, the sorcerer, opposed St. Paul. medicaments by which her patroness A. D. 41. Claudius condemned a poor wrought her miracles.tTheoris ap- knight to die, because the egg of a serpent pears to have been the fist witch

was found in his possession : he confessed who had recourse to charms, and we that he carried it about with him for the find that, shortly afterwards, these purpose of securing a favourable terminanew instruments of preternatural tion to a law-suit then pending against him.

A. D. 54. Nero submitted to all the power were greatly multiplied.

The appearance of our Saviour rites and preparations of magic, and per. upon earth, and the inculcation of formed the ceremonies of initiation with Christianity with all its mild and the most celebrated magicians of the day. beautiful attributes, did not dispel for his pains, but discovered that all their

He did not, however, receive any benefit the gathering evil by destroying the mummeries of the delusion. Magic, wrought no miracles save some unexpected

art was pretension and deceit, and that they in many of its branches, flourished in

cures which they performed with certain full vigour; and even during the ar- herbs and drugs, the virtues of which were duous ministry of Christ,- while he not generally known. Menander, Basi. was yet wandering about the coun- lides, and many of the first heretics, are said try preaching peace and salvation to

to have used magic. I man,—the abominable practices of The faith which the generality of pretended magicians were steadily mankind thus reposed in the capabipersisted in, and their execrable im- lity and influence of magicians, placed postures freely exercised. The fole the truly learned and virtuous in a lowing examples will show the pre- situation of no small peril. Such invalence of the delusion about the pe- dividuals as were gifted with superiod in question :

rior abilities, and with more extenAnno Domini, 14. Tiberius put many sive means of information than the honourable citizens to death, pretending that people among whom they dwelt, subthey had consulted with Chaldæans. jected themselves to a suspicion at

Á. D. 19. Germanicus, the adopted son once dishonourable and dangerous ; of Tiberius, died; and several unhallowed and the philosopher, who devoted all relics were found in his house.

“ Charms his time to the acquirement of an and curses, leaden tablets with his name in abstruse science, and longed, like the scribed thereon, pieces of human flesh, half. burnt ashes, and other things used in pupil of Faustus, witchcraft." He was poisoned by order

Ardently to know, of his patron, and Tacitus thus relates the Whatever man may learn below,

* Vide, the notes to the Lay of the Last Minstrel.

+ Demosthenes having occasion to mention Thecris, calls her, that Lemnian woman that papuoxlda; and, in speaking of her, he uses the terms both of witchery and imposture,--(Báoxavos, jayjaréw, Devaxico) concluding with a jest upon her and her confederate, for pretending to cure others of their maladies, when they themselves were sick of all kinds of vices. V'ide, Demosthen. Orat. 1. advers. Aristogen.

# Hutchinson's Historical Essay, p. 15, 16

All that we contemplate on earth, and empowering them to destroy, all And all that in the heaven hath birth, such as were guilty of witchcraft. Toroam through learning's wond'rous ways, Of this unlimited authority, the inAnd comprehend all Nature's ways,

quisitors took more than a due adbecame, if successful in his pursuits, vantage. They hunted out and an object of reverence indeed to the dragged to the torture with true invulgar,--but of envy and detestation quisitorial sagacity, all suspected to his equals in society. “ Wonder- persons within their reach; and ful operations,” observes an amusing found, to their infinite delight, that author, “ astonish the mind, especially no sooner had they destroyed one rewhen the head is not overburthened puted witch, than, like the heads of with brains; and custom has made the hydra, ten sprang up in her place. it so natural to give the devil either Now it was, that all the thunders of the honour or scandal of every thing the Catholic church were directed that we cannot otherwise account for, to the destruction of witches and thatit is not possible to put the people wizards; and the crafty priesthood, out of the road of such an idea." * with the most remorseless and bloodHence it was, that our predecessors thirsty eagerness, glutted themselves imputed to the devotee of science with streams of blood and slaughmore than an earthly share of power, ter. I Dreadful, indeed, was the havoc and invested the philosopher with which ensued, and the following exattributes above the reach of com- tract from Dr. Hutchinson's Chronomon capability; and hence, also, it logical Table will show the extent was, that,- to borrow the words of and enormity of these vigorous proMr. Coleridge, — the real teachers ceedings. and discoverers of truth were ex

A. D. 1485, Cumanus (an inquisitor) posed to the hazard of fire and fag- burnt forty-one poor women for witches, in got,--adungeon being the best shrine the country of Burlia, in one year. He that was vouchsafed to a Roger Ba- caused them to be shaven first, that they con or a Galileo !+

might be searched for marks.g

He con Under such circumstances as these tinued the prosecutions in the year followwe must not be surprised at the ra- ing, and many fled out of the country, pid extension of this credulity; but Ien. Inst. p. 105, 161. many years elapsed before it degene- About this time, Alciat, a famous law. rated into witchcraft, “ properly so

yer, in his Parerga, says, “ One inquicalled.” The propagation of this vul- sitor burnt a hundred in Piedmont, and gar delusion must have been greatly people rose against the inquisitor, and

proceeded daily to burn more, till the accelerated by the proceedings of chased him out of the country.” Wierus Pope Innocent VIII. who issued a

de Præstigiis Dæmon. c. 22. bull in 1481, to the inquisitors of A. D. 1488. A violent tempest of Almain, exhorting them to discover, thunder and lightning in Constance, de

masters.”

Defoe's list. of the Devil, p. 380, where the following curious occurrence is quoted from the Count dc Rochfort's Memoirs, p. 179. “ The magistrates of Berne, in Switzerland, finding that a gang of French actors of puppet-show opened their stage in the town, upon hearing the surprising accounts which the people gave of their wonderful puppets, how they made them speak, answer questions, and discourse, appear and disappear in a moment, pop up here, as if they rose out of the earth, and down there, as if they vanish. ed,-and abundance more feats of art, censured them as demons; and, if they had not packed up their trinkets, and disappeared almost as dexterously as their puppets, they had certainly condemned the poor puppets, and censured, if not otherwise punished their

+ Friend, Vol. ii. p. 89.-Ed. 1818.

# Those who had 'seceded from the Catholic religion appear to have been the chief objects of cruelty.' Dr. Hutchinson says, that, “ from the time of this superstitious bull, the number of executions greatly increased ; but chicfly in the places where the Waldenses and Protestants were most numerous." Historical Essay, p. 22.

Ş“ One other caution is, that the witch must be shaven, so as there remained not one haire about her; for sometimes they keep secrets for taciturnity, and other purposes also, in their haire, and between their skin and their flesh. For which cause, I marvel they fea them not, for one of their witches would not burne, being in the middest of the flame, as Malleus Maleficar: reporteth, untill a charme written on a little scroll was es. pied to be hidden between her skin and her flesh, and taken away.” Scot's Discovery. b. 3, c. 8.

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