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work, and confined him in a prison posed to the open air for four centufor the remainder of his life; the ries, are but little injured. Their story, indeed, assigns a baser motive subjects are sometimes taken from for his supposed detention, saying it Scripture, sometimes from the legen
“ because he might not build dary lives of saints, but occasionally such a curiosity in any other city.” they embody the wildest phantoms of The second opinion is, that the ob- Catholic theology, and demonology. liquity of the tower has been pro- Painters of old had a pretty wide duced by a lapse in the soil; and, range of subjects; earth, heaven, and indeed, Forsyth says, that the obser- hell; men, angels, and devils.* vatory, and a belfry in the neighbour- In these frescoes, all these subjects hood, have declined in the same man- frequently enter into one picture; we ner. We did not ascertain the fact. remember one particularly, where It must be granted, this opinion seems there was on earth a gaping multithe more probable; it is fair to sup- tude marveling at a saint ; men, pose that even though the architect women, and children, religious and might think proper to make an expe- secular, exulting in heaven among riment upon the ugly and irregular, bands of angels, and ditto ditto grohe would still have preferred comfort veling in hell, tormented by hunto uneasiness, and would surely have dreds of devils, tailed and horned in made his platforms parallel to the the regular manner.
There was a horizon, so that the visitor would not monk, in the same picture, in a very need to wish his legs would shift ticklish situation, being at the same alternately from short to long, as he time pulled different ways by an wound
up the ascent. It may deserve angel and a devil; the former trying to be remarked, with reference to the to carry him up to Heaven, the latter obliquity of other buildings, that the tugging him down to hell. The devil. baptistry, and the cathedral, the seemed to have the best of it. The first probably thrice, the second ten old Italian painters and writers were times the weight of the leaning tow- accustomed to treat the clergy with er, and both situated within a few very little ceremony ; indeed the ltapaces of it, do not appear to have lians, with all their reverence for reswerved the breadth of a line from ligion, neither have, nor have ever the perpendicular. Of these two had much reverence for its profesbuildings we shall say nothing, since sors: in this they are very different we can say nothing new; they both, from the Spaniards and Portuguese, however, merit the traveller's atten- who at any period would have been tion.
ready to burn any man who dared to The Campo Santo is a large clois- say such shocking things of the retered rectangle, faced with Gothic ligieux as Boccaccio and others have arcades, and inclosing a cemetery. said, or to place them in such disThe cloisters nearly all round are graceful or ludicrous situations painted in fresco, and these paint- those so often chosen for them by ings, though they have been ex- Italian painters. The chief treasures
The frescoes of the Campo Santo from their immense size will easily admit a large number of figures, and a variety of subjects, but we once had the pleasure of seeing all the subjects we have enumerated wedged, as it were, into a picture which did not measure more than twenty-two inches by sixteen. We met with this little jewel in an Auberge in Haute Bourgogne, where we stopped one morning to breakfast. This picture was divided into three compartments, --earth, heaven, and hell: on the earth, there was a battle between the French and English; or rather there had been a battle, for the English were seen in the distance scampering away as fast as their legs would carry them, and the French were masters of the field On the left hand side, the French soldiers, all young and gay and without a scratch, their swords drawn, their guns shouldered, and their flags, inscribed with mille Victoires, fiying in the air, were seen marching up a staircase to heaven ; where the Almighty, dressed in a flame-coloured robe de chambre turned up with blue, was waiting to receive them ; on the opposite side, the English soldiers, with out flag or gun or sword, old, ragged, and maimed, and half of them on crutches, were hobbling down a ladder to the devil. We observed a few anachronisms, and other ble.. mishes, in this excellent picture ; but, as we would not be invidious, we shall not mention. any more than that some of our generals, known by their names being written under them, were put in hell by anticipation ; and that the English soldiers spoke French.
of the Campo Santo are.contained in had some conversation with the masa chapel at one end: there are se ter, whose name is Ranieri ; he is veral pieces of the earliest painters, clever fellow, and an excellent workthe very first essays of the arts after man; nay more, he is an artist, for their introduction; it is the infancy some of his pieces would really do hoof painting, and it is an infancy of nour to a sculptor ; but, though very no promise. The figures are tame, ingenious and industrious he is poor, stiff, ungraceful, ill-coloured things; and we suppose will always remain without motion, without passion, so, unless he can find his way to a without meaning, looking as though richer city than Pisa. The poverty they were asleep with their eyes of the place compelled him to employ open; the faces are generally round himself generally upon trifling things and pretty, but they are never shaded of little price, and, as he could not or lighted up by thought. Gold is avoid feeling they were unworthy of lavished over them with a prodigal his talents, he had sunk into the true hand; sometimes on grounds, some- artist's melancholy; he told us the times in ornaments on robes and gir- hest alabaster is dug at Castellini dles, and always with a bad effect. Maritimi, but that he often used that These pictures are all done on boards, found at Valterra, though rather yelas indeed all the early pictures are, low, because it was cheaper. There whence probably is derived the Ita- are few things which an artist feels lian denomination for a picture, ta- more bitterly than being obliged to vola. The painters of these pictures use inferior materials. were the legitimate successors of the Pisa is one of the cheapest cities Greek daubers who came into Italy in Italy, and it is said to be very about the beginning of the 13th cen- healthy, but it is sad and silent: tury. In Italy painting was after there is no bustle, no throng of wards carried to the highest pitch of men, no thunder of trade, and alexcellence: in Greece it seems to most every face wears grare have remained almost stationary. and melancholy air: it would be a We saw not long ago, several pieces very agreeable residence for stil by a living Greek artist, a man of dents, and would be particularly adsome reputation in his own country, vantageous for those who purposed to and really they were counterparts to trarel into Greece, as there is a colthose in the Campo Santo; the same lege of Greeks here, a great many hard lines, the same want of design, students, and every facility for aca the legs tied together, the arms fast- quiring a knowledge of modern Greek. ened to the sides, the same gold The amiable old Bishop of Pisa is grounds, the same tone and colour. an admirable Greek scholar, and is We must not forget to observe that easy of access; he expressed the there are, in the little chapel of which rather singular opinion that modern we have been speaking, several pieces Greek would by cultivation become of considerable merit, and belonging superior to the ancient. We talked to the best age of painting. In the with one of the Greek students, of cloisters there are several old sarco- whom there are a great number in phagi and some modern monuments; Pisa, a young man full of animation in a corner is one of plain white and intelligence ; he was born on the marble, erected to the memory of promontory of Lencadia. There are Pignatti, a native of Pisa, the author
a great many Greeks studying in difof “ Favole," and of many elegant di- ferent parts of Europe ; it is said dactic miscellaneous poems, all of 100,000 ; meets them every which are written in a very amiable where : this system has probably spirit. After walking several times produced the revolution, and if it be round the cloisters, we at length left persevered in, the Turks, we apprethe sacred ground, regretting that we hend, must finally succumb. We slept could not devote more time to the at Pisa at an excellent inn, and the examination of this extraordinary next morning, when we rose, we found place. On returning towards our the day fine, but the wind still conlodging, we passed a shop, where a trary; after a little debate, we deter. great quantity of ornamental figures, mined that the vessel would not sail worked in alabaster, attracted our that day, and that therefore we might attention: we entered the shop, and as well go and see Lucca. The re
gular coach road to Lucca is about Leghorn with an escort; here, how. fourteen miles, but as we travelled eyer, his brother in arms, who was by the Cavalli di San Francisco, we either of a gentler or of a more com went by a short cut, not exceeding vetous disposition, prit le mat, ob eight miles, across the mountain of served we were Viaggiatori Inglesi, San Giuliano, which, by the bye, is galanteuomini, &c. &c. and that, the one to which Dante refers in the
perhaps, permission might be obtain following passage of his Conte Ugoed for our entrauce. We slipped a lino:
few paoli into his hands, and begged Questi parera a me maestro e donno, him to see what could be done : he Cacciando 'l lupo e i lupicini al monte, retired within the gate, and in a Perchè i Pisan veder Lucca non ponno. short time returned, accompanied by Inferno, Canto rxxiii.
a tall meagre personage, who after We found the ascent steep and some tedious questions settled the breathing, and the side of the moun- following, preliminaries : lst, That tain stony and naked. From the sum- we should leave our names, qualities, mit the view is extensive, and rather whence we came, whither we were fine; a wide plain, cut here and there going, &c. &c. in writing, with him : by narrow canals, or by the Arno, 20, That we should take an officer stretches backward to the sea, the with us to the inn at which we put City of Leghorn standing on its ex- up. All this was agreed to; and we tremest edge ; before and beneath us entered, with a corrected sense of its lay Lucca, walled and ramparted, importance, into the serene city of and the Lucchese territory all fertile, Lucca, Our first care was to satisfy and all well cultivated. We descend- our hunger; our walk over the ed by a path as rough as that by mountain had given us, as they say, a which we had got up, and soon charming appetite, indeed too charmreached the gates of Lucca; on en- ing, for it kept us at table a couple of tering, two half-soldier and half-citi- hours; and here, once for all, we zen looking fellows, with rusty guns may observe what a pity it is that on their shoulders, stopped us, and travellers are not exempted from the asked for our passports, We were common imperfections of humanity, rather disconcerted by this question, such as hunger, thirst, drowsiness, but, after a moment's consideration, and fatigue. How provoking and we answered we were Englishmen; how humiliating it is to detect ourthat our passports were in the police selves thinking about roast fowl, or at Leghorn; that we had been to see fish, or mutton cutlets, while in the Pisa, and had come on to have a peep very act of entering an old and magat his city, without supposing that nificent city ; but so it is, with shame a passport was at all necessary. and sorrow we confess it, we feel all “ How," said the fellow, “ don't you those vulgar wants just like any know that this is a different state? a common person; we have no pardifferent government?” We told him ticular dispensation, not we.
It was we had not once thought of that cir- so late before we could spare time to cumstance, but that if we had, we stalk up and down, and stare about still should not have thought a pass- us, that we can say but little of port necessary. The clown thought Lucca: it is more populated than this was a slight on his government, Pisa, and its palaces and buildings or else a disrespect of the laws of are still grander, still more signorili, states; he knitted his brows, pro- The walls, for which it is famous all nounced an emphatic word of two over Italy, run round the city, and syllables, which often salutes the ear being level and extremely broad, form of the traveller in Italy, and even a fine run for carriages, and an extalked about our being sent back to cellent promenade, and command.
* This one, methought, as master of the sport,
Rode forth to chase the gaunt wolf, and his whelps,
Cary's Translation. On this passage a solemn commentator on Dante observes, that such is really the fact that if Mon S. Giuliano were removed the inhabitants of either city might sce the towers of the other. Such silly observations are not uncommon among commentators.
very pleasant views of the neigh- for he had five vessels of his own on bourhood, the whole of which is most the sea ; three were employed in fishadmirably cultivated. The women ing at the mouth of the Tiber, and are pretty, and there is an air of dou- two were employed in commerce; ceur and politeness in every body the cargo of his vessel, consisting of one meets. While we were walking rice and cheese, belonged to himself, about, the beat of two or three crazy and he had several bags of dollars drums announced the Uscita of the on board, which he had not had occ reigning Princess from her palace: casion to employ; but notwithstandshe passed us in a shabby old car- ing his hoard of dirty gain, he was riage, the blinds of which were haunted by a strong and fixed undrawn, so that we had not the plea- willingness to take up the smallest sure of seeing her. She was going to part of it for his pleasures : he would visit some favourite church. Every never buy a cigar, though he was person to whom we spoke about her fond of smoking; to be sure, he never complained that she was for ever in scrupled to beg or to steal one, and church, or else closeted up with a
were with him he was parcel of priests; that she was a de- never absolutely driven to extremity: votee, and a devotee of a gloomy his business often took him to the creed; but this is the family com- Café, where he sometimes had ocplaint.
casion to remain two or three hours, At four o'clock in the afternoon we but he never had the spirit to order set off for Pisa, returning the same a whole glass of punch at once, way by which we came; and as we though, perhaps, in that time he met with no adventure worth relating drank eight or ten half glasses. We on our return, you may as well were, of course, very impatient to be imagine us once in the very gone, and our impatience increased point whence we set out, to wit, every hour, for we had no amusestrolling up and down in the square ment to divert our thoughts from the before the Governor's house, at Leg- consideration that we most horn.
miserably wasting our time. LegWe soon became very anxious for horu seems the very home of vulgathe sailing of the vessel, but we found rity and dulness; it contains nothing the captain was just as unwilling, fine in art or nature, no antiquity, as we were willing, to go: in fact, he no curiosity; the only thing which was loitering about here in order to deserves any attention is the Engpick up some freight. As this fel- lish burial ground, where marble low's character opened upon us, we tombs, in the green shade of solemn found it composed of very pretty ele- cypresses, serve as memorials of the ments; cowardice, falsehood, and pride which clings to man's heart in dishonesty ; avarice, meanness, and his darkest hour, which follows him insolence; nature had made him ob- to the “ narrow house," and makes stinate in his designs, and habit had him seek distinction even in the dust. made him patient of reproach, indif- There is a plain and modest monuferent to the scorn and ill-will with ment here to which every Englishwhich he was looked upon by all who man repairs : a thousand names are knew him; he “ kept the even tenour scratched upon it, sure, though unof his way," praying, lying, swear- sightly testimonials, that no coming, and cheating, in infinite good mon dust lies there. Poor Smolhumour with himself, and armed in lett! the ocean rolls between his apathy that the sting of ridicule country and his grave; but, perhaps, could but rarely pierce. He told he is fortunate, for here he will be us one day, when we were quarrel- remembered, and there he will not be ing with him, that if he chose he forgotten. On the opposite side lies could set up his rest at the Torre del his wife, we would rather have seen Greco, his native place, and walk them together, but it matters not about with a gold-headed cane in his much. We never remember Smolhand for the remainder of his life ; lett without calling to mind the fine and, said he,“ though you think verse in which he personifies Indenothing of me, in my own town I pendence, and which seems to us am looked upon as a little king.” We to be worth pages of most modern have no doubt that this was true, poetry:
Thy spirit, Independence, let me share : he looks round in solemn scorn upon Lord of the lion-heart and eagle-eye ; the effeminate people of these parts, Thy steps I follow with my bosom bare, who cough, and spit, and pant, durNor heed the storm that howls along the ing the prodigious performance. In sky.
making our escape from this, , we Few persons could say this with overhear at the door a whispering more truth than Smollett; but we bargain about some contrabbando, forget ourselves; we have no time or, perhaps, a modest difference of to talk about poetry. There is an opinion, touching the value of a comepitaph here, which is, perhaps, the modity, agitated between the buyer most ridiculous one that was ever and seller, the offer and the demand inscribed on marble; it is one writ- bearing the proportion of 10 to 20, ten by a lady for herself, and placed or 5 to 15. On coming out, we prothere in compliance with her express bably met with our captain, and and positive directions: we shall not amused ourselves in quarreling with copy it, for we have no wish to him for an hour, and soon after noon, scandalize or give pain to any lady; by some chance or other, we conbut we must say, we should be glad stantly found ourselves seated in a if some
“Old Mortality” would snug box in the Trattoria del l’Orso: kindly go and erase this record of our cares vanished amid the odours folly, so that if people more thoughts of flesh, and fish, and fowl, or were less, or more merry than we, should lost among the rush-bound flasks of ramble thither, they may not be Tuscan wine. tempted to affront the jealous ghost But let us make an end of this by involuntary écluts de rire. The history of unwilling jollity and sloth: burial-ground is really very touch- our captain at length informed us ing, and very pretty; and one would he was ready to go, and that the vesbe quite contented with it if one sel was clearing out of the harbour. had not seen the Pere de la Chaise, We went on board, and in the evenwhich, in its own kind, we must fairly ing the captain came, bringing with confess we do not hope to see equal him two passengers, one a native of led. It is the most remarkable ob- the Torre del Greco, captain of a vesject in all France, and it is the most sel employed in the coral fishery off the singular outbreak from national cha- coast of Barbary; the other an Englishracter that we ever witnessed. man, perhaps the strangest that ever
It would, perhaps, be impossible wandered so far from the white cliffs to spend time in a more unprofitable of his native shore. This odd creature manner than that in which we spent did not understand a word of any ours at Leghorn: the place was so language but his own, and of that stupid, the weather so dreadfully little more than the jargon of his own bad, and our companion so unin- county; he thought Italy far below tellectual; he had gone to Pisa and Yorkshire in natural beauty, and Lucca to oblige us, and he thought, Florence inferior to Scarborough. after such an effort as that, it was What had possessed him with the our duty in turn to oblige him, which itch of travel we know not, but the we did, by what? by doing man had travelled, and not a little ; nothing. We could not walk about, he had been in France, Germany, and we could not write, we could not Denmark, aud he was going to Rusread; we blush to remember how our sia, but being advised by the mate of time was wasted. In the morning a vessel trading in the Baltic to go we rose at nine, and went to the to Constantinople, he had turned his Café Minerva, an excellent café it face southward, and had arrived hiis, by the bye, there we sipped our ther on his way. Of all that he had chocolate, read the papers, or listened seen he remembered nothing but the to the Babylonish conversation, now petty and the useless: he had no Turkish, now Greekish, Italian, Eng- memory for mountains or seas, for lish, or French : anon, our eyes characters or manners, but he could rest upon a whiskered infidel, who, recollect in a moment how much he in the pride of his heart, takes cigar lost on a given evening at put, or loo, after cigar, smoking each out in four or twenty-one, at Scarborough, or and a half, or five whiffs, and while Elsinore, or Florence. The perverclouds roll from his mouth, like the sity of this man's understanding was thick and smoky breath of a volcano, 80 extraordinary, that while all that