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ther tax; the remission proposed on appear almost incredible. It is an this subject, is of the duties imposed account of the stamps yearly furduring the American and late wars. nished from the stamp office, to the The present amount of this tax is London and provincial press. By 600,000/. and of this one half is now this it appears, that the London to be taken away, leaving, of course, newspapers printed in the year 1821 one half still available to the govern- amounted in number to 16,254,534, ment.
and the provincial newspapers in the The tonnage duty, bringing in a same year, to 8,525,252, being a revenue of about 150,000/. is to be total of 24,779,786; the duty on entirely removed, which will certain- which amounted to 412,9961. 8s. 8d. ! ly afford a considerable relief to the In the year 1801, the London and shipping interest, a circumstance of provincial papers taken together amuch congratulation; her maritime mounted only to 16,084,905. interests are, in every point of view, By another paper, it appears that of paramount importance to Great during the two years which have Britain.
elapsed since the re-enactment of the The next and last tax to be re- Alien Act, in July, 1820, only four moved is the Irish window and persons have been sent out of England hearth tax. Our readers may recol- under its provisions--a small number, lect that on Lord Londonderry's ar- certainly, considering that by a parrival with his Majesty at the pier of liamentary retum, no less than 25,000 Howth, he pledged his honour to a foreigners are now residing in this public spirited individual who de- country. We believe the persons so manded the boon, that he would do deported were connected with the his best to have this tax removed, establishment in St. Helena. and the noble Marquis has certainly A motion was made in the House redeemed his pledge creditably. We of Commons, by Lord John Russell, are glad of it on every account. No on the subject of a Reform in the man in existence owes more to Ire- representation of the people in parland than the Marquis of London- liament, which, after a short debate, derry. These taxes amounted only was negatived by a majority of 105. to 250,0001. and were, both in their The ininority, however, was very reoperation and in their collection, most spectable. The numbers were, for oppressive. The window tax was the motion, 164-against it, 269. most unwise and most unproductive This, we believe, is the greatest dicompared with its evil effects; it vision which has yet taken place on caused the closing up of the windows the reform question. in many houses, by which ventilation A very useful and necessary bill was impeded and disease produced. has been introduced into the House It was called in Ireland, by way of of Commons, by Mr. Bennet, namedistinction, the Typhus tax, as to its ly, a bill for throwing open the preoperation the inhabitants chiefly im- sent monopoly of public houses. The puted the pestilential malady which provisions of the bill are, we think, lately raged there. While on this unneces
cessarily long, but its main obsubject, we have no hesitation in ject is that which we have stated. saying, that with proper economy We need only adduce one fact to in the collection, a saving might be prove how systematic the present made to the Irish public of at least monopoly is : by a return to the one-third of the existing taxes. Will House of Commons, it appears that it be credited that, in some of the out of many thousand houses antaxes in Ireland, where 2001. are col- nually licensed, not more than three lected, 1001. goes into the pockets of new houses have been added in each the officers and collectors !! Yet such year to the original number; the is the fact. We may hereafter return same houses only being licensed from to this subject.
year to year. Surely this is monA document has been laid on the strous. table of the House of Commons, on By an official return made to par. the motion of Mr. Hume, which pre- liament, it appears that the total ex. sents a statement of our newspaper ports of Great Britain for last year circulation that would otherwise exceeded the amount in the preceding year, to the amount of three Mr. Lennard and Mr. Warre re, millions and a half; there was, how.' spectively brought forward motions, ever, in the imports, a comparative in the House of Commons, on the decrease of half a million.
subject of our diplomatic expenMr. Canning brought forward a diture. The first embraced the gemeasure in the House of Commons neral question, and the second rewhich has been successful in that ferred to the particular appointment; house, and may be said, though by a of Mr. Wynne to the Swiss Cantons. side wind, to have established, there These motions were supported on, at least, the justice of the claims to the grounds that retrenchment under further concessions on the part of the present circumstances of the the Roman Catholics. He obtained country had become absolutely neleave to bring in a bill to provide cessary in every department, that the that peers of the United Kingdom, expenditure of our ambassadors much being otherwise duly qualified, might exceeded the exigencies of their staexercise the right of sitting in par- tion, and that by an analogy to fo- liament, without taking the oath, or reign countries, particularly to Ame making the declaration recited in rica, it would be found that govern that bill. This oath and declaration ment was guilty in this respect of are the tests which have hitherto great comparative extravagance. operated as disqualifications upon During the debate, Mr. Tierney stated the admission of Roman Catholics his conviction, that a saving to the into parliament. Leave was given amount of 150,0001. might be effected to bring in the bill; and after many in the branch of our foreign diplom animated discussions, it was carried macy. To these arguments it was through its different stages, by small replied, that the appointments had but increasing majorities, and finally not latterly departed from their transmitted to the House of Lords. former scale; that at the five courts The Duke of Portland takes the cus- of France, Austria, Russia, Prussia, tody of it in the upper house. Its and the Netherlands, which now success there, however, is more than formed the quintuple alliance upon problematical ; the bishops, with one which the peace of Europe rested, exception (Norwich), are hostile to expensive duties devolved upon our the enactment; and even independent- ambassadors, who were bound to sus ly of them a considerable majority of tain by their establishments a rank the lay peers are understood to be and splendour suitable to the chaopposed to it. This bill was cere racter of the great nation they retainly the least objectionable manner presented; and that there was no in which the principle of Roman analogy whatever between the magCatholic emancipation could have nificence necessarily attached to the been presented for the acceptance of representatives of a monarchy, and parliament,the number of candi- the simplicity which characterised a dates for eligibility are few-the republican form of government. It prejudices annexed to ancient fa- was also contended, that this subject mily and high rank, and the asso- was exclusively vested in the discre. ciations inseparable from renowned tion of the executive, with whose achievements, are favourable, and the right of general --controul the promeasure has the recommendation of posed interference would be unbebeing exclusively beneficial to the coming and unconstitutional. The English peerage, as the Irish who debate was pursued with consider could derive under it are elective only able vehemence, and ended in Lord -but still as an acknowledgment of Londonderry's unequivocal declarathe grand principle, it is almost cer- tion, that if left in a minority, he tain that the attempt will now prove would retire from office ! This was a abortive. It will, in all probability, threat which it was understood the be the last parliamentary experiment noble Marquis had on previous occaof Mr. Canning in the House of sions frequently made in private; but Commons, as we perceive by a speech this, we believe, was its first public of that gentleman at the anniversary promulgation. On a division, in very dinner of the Literary Fund, that his full houses, ministers had a majority departure for India is certain, on Mr. Lennard's motion of 127, and Vol. V,
on Mr. Warre's of 106; so that the suspension of the standing orders in country will still have the benefit of the House of Lords for the purpose, the noble Marquis's continued official it passed into an act with unusual services. We should perhaps state expedition. Although there was no here that by a paper lately laid before opposition to the bill, its introduction the House of Commons, it appears caused some passing remarks upon that this country paid last year for the causes which rendered such exdiplomacy the sum of 265,962. in- pedients necessary, one of which, and cluding 52,6421. for pensions ! In a prominent one, was stated by Mr. 1792, the total charge was only Plunket to be the rapacity of the 113,989l
. including 11,4861. for pen Irish landholders ; several individuals sions. Fortunately, his Lordship ab- in both houses generously undertook stained from a similar menace in the the Herculean task of defending these debate on the subject of the post- gentlemen, on grounds, which, if masters general, which was again they could be established, would perseveringly urged by Lord Nor- cause, we have no doubt, very unimanby, who succeeded in convincing versal satisfaction amongst the tethe house that the well-paid duties of nantry of Ireland. Lord King seemthis office might be adequately dis- ed to think that Mr. Plunket's procharged by one individual -- a truth in- position was not quite general enough deed almost axiomatic, as one of the -his Lordship said he thought the postmasters, Lord Clancarty, has been observation ought to have run thusfor the last two years necessarily ab- “the rapacity of the Irish landhold sent on his diplomatic mission to the ers is great-that of the Irish church Netherlands; the consequence was, is greater,--and both are exceeded ministers were left in a minority ; and by the rapacity of the government.” Lord Salisbury, who, in the phrase of A motion was made in the House Mr. Tierney, « had served the coun- of Commons by Mr. Hume, on the try for many years, and was willing subject of the Ionian Isles ; in subto serve it on the same terms to the mitting which, the honourable memvery end of his life," was obliged to ber made heavy complaints of the retire. This is to be followed up by expenditure of the government, and the dismissal also of one of the post- the abuses practised there under the masters general in Ireland; but with present system. He moved a string respect to a proposed similar ar- of resolutions, reciting the circumrangement for Scotland, Lord Lon- stances under which these Islands donderry declared, that as the post- were consigned to the protection of master there had other duties to per- Great Britain, and pointing out some form, besides those of the post office, of the particular abuses which it was any similar reduction in that country his object to correct. To these was was impracticable.
added an address to the Crown, A bill has been brought in by Mr. praying for an inquiry into the goGoulburn, the Irish secretary, for the vernment of these islands. Ministers temporary relief of the Irish by the denied the accuracy of Mr. Hume's employment of their poor. The spe- statement; and on a division, the mocific measure empowers the Lord tion was lost by a majority of 152 to Lieutenant to advance on present- 67. It appears since, by a statement ments the sum of 50,000l. for the of Sir Thomas Maitland, the gomakir.y and repair of roads and other vernor of these islands, that they are public works in Ireland. The bill at present under martial law. was carried unanimously through the Commons, and, in consequence of the
JUNE 1, 1822.
Tue discussions upon the agricultural warehouses, which will come into the mardistress have been continued almost day by ket under no duty at all, except the holders day in the House of Commons throughout choose to accept the option of taking it out the present month, and with but small ap- at a duty of 158. per quarter, when the proximation to any beneficial results. The average price is 658. will suffice for a more loans to parishes, and the expenditure of a than an average deficiency of supply. million in the purchase of British corn to Nevertheless there are good grounds to be warehoused, are schemes as completely suppose, that importation is nearer than is exploded as we foresaw they would be. generally apprehended. The following are Indeed they fell by their own weakness, the reasons to be adduced. Up to the year and were trampled to death without re- 1816 inclosure was very general. It then morse, by those who affected to uphold ceased. From 1792 to 1818 inclusive, it them so long as they appeared to have is found, that on average annual importaany show of strength. Thus the member tion of grain of all sorts, to the amount of for Norfolk turned round upon the Marquis upwards of 1,400,000 qrs. took place, beof Londonderry, and the Noble Lord turned sides the introduction of four and meal, to round upon Mr. Irving, as the real author of the amount of 338,000 cwts. The importhe proposal for warehousing, which the Mar. tation in 1817–1818, amounted to an quis had undertaken to submit to the House, annual average of 3,322,266 qrs. grain; but from which he withdrew his support, 960,123 cwts. flour and meal. The price after having for a time made it his own fluctuated from 109s. Id. to 84s. 4d. in these by moving its adoption. This tends to two years. It is, therefore, assumed that a prove the hesitation and uncertainty under quantity of the English growth, equal, or which ministers have laboured, and still nearly, to the quantity imported, more than labour, and the total want of a principled the average, was displaced by the English foundation in their minds, upon which to farmer holding back, while the importing build any practical scheme of relief. The merchant was selling ; for in the month of latest view Lord Londonderry has taken of March, 1819, no more than 957 of foreign the subject, is to be found in his endeavoạr wheat remained under the King's lock. to establish, as a general principle, that it The stock thus held back has therefore is expedient to curb importation, should been added to the surplus of crops above importation ever be found necessary, by the usual average, and thus the glut has such a fixed duty as shall preclude the in- extended to the present hour; but the troduction of foreign corn at low prices. supply by sea to the London market, His Lordship appears to wish, that such a has not for many weeks past equalled more duty should be imposed as will forbid all than one half (hardly indeed so much) of possibility of foreign wheat, for example, the usual average. It is therefore to be inbeing sold in England under from 658. to ferred, that the stock is exhausted, while 70s. per quarter, and to this, as a general an increasing population, and a decreasing but temporary proposition, the House as- state of cultivation, a consumption proba. sented. The Marquis, therefore, has pre. bly augmented by cheapness, together with pared his bill upon these grounds, and the the demand which the destruction of the exact rate of duties is to be fixed hereafter. potatoe crop in Ireland must originate, This scheme, however, will neither satisfy will soon put to proof the disputable questhe grower nor the consumer.
It is too
tion of the relation of supply to demand. low for the one, and too high for the other. From the facts we have recited, it should At present, and for some time to come, almost seem probable that the ports must such an act is likely to be wholly inopera- open before the period assigned by the tive; because, should the ports be opened, Marquis of Londonderry, (two or three the quantity of foreign wheat, already in years) though their immediate opening will Vol. V.-Mon Reg.
be prevented by the coming harvest, and Crisp Brown, a great maltster of Norwich, the prices perhaps be still further depressed to work his houses, for any farmers disby the operation of the circumstances above posed to sell malt to their labourers, at the mentioned. Before the publication of our reduced price of 58. per bushel, the trade next Report, the terms of the act will be ready money price being 6s. Mr. Brown settled, and its provisions will then be is able to produce 6000 bushels per week, clearly understood. At present, the ge- which he calculates will supply as many laneral impression is, that no benefit will be bourers for a month, and thus he proposes derived, either to the landed interest, or to to increase the consumption of barley, and the country
augment the comfort of the cottager. The A decision relative to tithes in Norfolk example is worth following. has created a great sensation, and if sup- The crops are looking generally well, ported by future decisions, will produce a but begin to want rain, particularly in the most important change. Hitherto, it has light land districts. The wheats are, perbeen customary to assess tithes at the rate haps, the least promising. Preparations of almost one-fourth of the assessment on are now every where making for turnip arable land. Dr. Bulwer, the applicant sowing. The crops of grass are abundant. to the court, endeavoured to establish this Stock is selling ruinously low, and in as a maxim ; the court, however, decided Smithfield, on Monday last, fell to a dethat there was no rule of law for assessing gree not experienced for a very long course tithes, at a proportion of the assessment of of yeilrs. land, but that all property was assessable at its productive value.
May 25, 1822. A proposition has been made by Mr.
HORTICULTURAL REPORT FOR APRIL AND MAY, 1822.
DURING April and May, only a few
Where beauty plays successional crops require the attention of Her idle freaks, the horticulturist, his main ones being in
and while they break serted in the previous months: weeding, On the charm's eye, the exulting florist thinning, and keeping his tribes “ in order
marks, strict and due propriety," claim his chief With secret pride, the wonders of his hand. exertions; and these cares are in no small degree increased by the mild temperature April has fled before the wings of Time; and genial showers of the present season ; and although during its stay we felt some so rapidly indeed do the weeds advance, of the piercing gales of Winter, yet they that the extirpating hoe needs to be the were his last struggling sighs—violent, but gardener's constant vade mecum.
transitory; its last days, “ like those of April 20.-The vine (vitis vinifera) is the lovely, were peace : so fervently did expanding its empurpled leaves. 22. How the sun beam upon its departure, and on nesty, or moonwort (lunaria), is in flower ; the arrival of its successor, that the fires this common yet not inelegant plant, will on our hearths were gladly extinguished ; flourish in any soil or situation however im. so joyous came “ fair May, the grace." poverished and bleak. 24. The black May 3. The flowers of the hawthorn currant is presenting its blossom to the (cratægus oxyacantha), of the horse-chesbee: 26. Às are also the jeanotin and nut (æsculus hippocastanum), and on the
codlin apples; of all the varieties of this 6th, those of the honeysuckle “ betrayed fruit there is a promised abundance—" yet their loves before the God of Day." As uncertain as a lover's vow." 29. The this is the season when flowers are plucked fragrant flowers of the red, and a few of from their parent stems, to wither by dethe white lilac, are gradually expanding. grees as bouquets on side-boards and The new sprung leaves of the sweet ches- mantle-pieces, it may not be unacceptable nut (fagus castanea), in their turn, are information, that they will much longer playing wanton in the breeze. The double retain their vigour and fragrance, if a white, the yellow, and some others of the small portion of common salt
(six grains to earlier tulips, are fully opened; but the a pint) be added to the water, and a small more illustrious varieties will not blow for portion of the stalk be cut off at intervals some weeks. This tribe is the gayest off- of three or four days. 9. All the varieties spring of floriculture, it is here of the strawberry,“ plant of my native