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the city is near the river and about ten feet above tide-level ; a second part rises on each side of the river seventy-five feet above tide-level, while a small section is at an elevation of from 90 to 100 feet. Engaged largely in commerce and manufacturing. Settled in 1636; incorporated a city in 1832.
History.-Built in 1870–6 by city. Engineer, J. Herbert Shedd, Providence. The city also supplies parts of Cranston, and the parts of Johnston and North Providence within one mile of the city limits, and the village of Pawtuxet. Terms same as for Providence.
The first public water supply was introduced in 1772 by a company who distributed spring water through three-fourth mile of wooden logs. In the same year the “Rawson's Fountain Society” collected spring water in a reservoir 13} by 30 feet and 10 feet deep, from which water was conveyed through six thousand feet of four inch wooden logs. The Providence Water Co. also built two fountains or reservoirs. From these water was supplied to families for ten dollars each.
Water Supply.--Pawtuxet river by direct pumping and pumping to reservoir. The river has a drainage area of 192 square miles and empties into the Providence river, five miles below the city. The Pettaconsett Pumping Station is four miles from the river's mouth, and at this point water is taken from a basin excavated in the porous and saturated sand near the river bank, there being provision for drainage directly from the river.
Pumping Machinery.—Combined daily capacity thirty-three million (33,000,000) gallons; 5,000,000 gallons Worthington ; 9,000,000 and 5,000,000 gallons Corliss ; 9,000,000 gallons Cornish, and 5,000,000 gallons Nagle pumping engines.
Reservoirs.—Two; combined capacity one hundred and twenty-five million (125,000,000) gallons. The Sockanosset reservoir is 180 feet above the pumping station ; has a water surface of 11 acres and a capacity of 50,000,000 gallons. It is an excavation and embankment, the slopes being lined with six inches of broken stone, upon which is laid a 15 inch dry stone wall. The Hope high service reservoir is 1624 feet above high tide, irregular, about 840 by 950 feet and 241 feet deep, and has a capacity of 75,000,000 gallons. A new high service reservoir has been built in North Providence. Contractor, J. J. Newman, Providence.
Distribution.— Mains, cast iron, 202 miles. Services, lead. Taps, 13,128. Meters, 7,623. Hydrants, Providence, 1,278.
Consumption.—4,934,915 gallons. Pressure, ordinary, 39 to 73.
Financial.—Cost, $6,234,672. Debt, $5,500,000. Interest 5 and 6 per cent. Annual operating expenses, $69,828. Annual revenue : consumers, $313,561 ; city, $37,020.
Management. — Board of Public Works.
River Point.-River Point Fire District contracted with the Pawtuxet Valley Water Co. for water supply for general use, and will have six miles of pipe when completed. See data under Phenix.
Water Works built in 1885–7 by Pawtuxet Valley Water Company. Engineer, H. B. Barton, Centreville. Contractors, Leach & Baldwin, Philadelphia, Pa. The system is being extended to supply River Point.
Water Supply.-Spring Lake Brook by gravity. There is a reservoir of 17 acres.
Distribution.—Mains, cast iron, 6 miles. Services, lead. Pipes and specials furnished by Warren Foundry and Machine Company, Phillipsburg, N. J. Taps, 90. Meters, Crown, number not given. Hydrants, Ludlow, 41. Valves, Ludlow. Pressure, ordinary, 80 pounds.
Financial.—Capital stock, $100,000. Bonded debt, $50,000. Interest, 5 per cent. Annual revenue, $1,230. Hydrant rental, $30.
Management. — Secretary, Vernum A. Bailey; Superintendent, Albert F. Hill.
It was designed when it was completed that there would be 11 miles of pipe and 104 hydrants, but in the summer of 1889 the dam at Spring Lake reservoir gave way from an overflow of water, leaving the works worthless.
SOUTH KINGSTOWN. PEACEDALE. – Water supplied from the Wakefield Water Co.'s Works. See below.
WAKEFIELD.—The Wakefield Water Co. began construction of works July, 1888, to supply Wakefield, Narragansett Pier and Peacedale. Engineer, J. Herbert Shedd, Providence. Contractor for pipe laying, F. B. Durfee, Norwich, Conn.
Water Supply.—Water bearing gravel, near Saugatuck river, Peacedale, by pumping to stand-pipe 190 feet above tide-level. The area to be supplied is generally from 10 to 60, and at extreme points 130 feet above tide-level.
Financial.- Estimated cost, $133,000.
Management.-President, Richard Pancoast, No. 68 Wall street, New York city.
Note.—The above data was said in a letter from the president of the company to be somewhat inaccurate in minor details, but no corrections have yet been given.
NARRAGANSETT PIER.— Water supplied for general use by the Wakefield Water Works Co. About one-third of the population is supplied.
Works built in 1886 by the Westerly Water Works Co. Designing Engineer, J. Herbert Shedd, Providence. Constructing Engineer, William Brown, Jr. Contractors, Adam Miller & Co., Saratoga, N. Y., and F. A. Snow, Providence ; for masonry, Henry Champlain, and for buildings, Randolph, Bently & Co., both of Westerly.
Water Supply.—Shunoc Brook, pumping to stand-pipe.
Pumping Machinery.—Two Babcock & Wilcox boilers; two Worthington compound condensing pumps, daily capacity, 750,000 gallons each. Stand-pipe made by Robinson Boiler Works, Boston, 30 feet in diameter and 70 feet high.
Distribution. - Mains, cast iron, 14 miles. Services, lead. Pipe furnished by McNeal Pipe and Foundry Co., Burlington, N. J., M. J. Drummond, New York city, and Glocester Iron Works offices, Philadelphia, Penn. Taps, 180. Meters, 85. Hydrants, Chapman, Ludlow. Chapman and Ludlow valves.
Consumption.—125,000 gallons. Pressure, ordinary, 85 pounds; fire, 90 pounds.
Financial.—Cost, $125,000. Bonded debt, $100,000. Interest, 5 per cent. No further financial data given.
Management.-President, 1888, James M. Pendleton. Treasurer, Charles Perry, Jr. Superintendent, Everett Barnes.
History.-Built in 1884—now owned by city. Engineer, J. W. Ellis. Contractor, John W. Rutherford, New York city; for buildings, William Hubbard, Woonsocket.
Water Supply.— Crook Falls Brook, pumping to tank.
Pumping Machinery.- Worthington compound duplex directing acting pump, daily capacity, 1,500,000 gallons. Tank made by Cunningham Iron Works, Boston ; 50 feet in diameter and 30 feet high.
Distribution.— Mains, cast iron, 21.85 miles. Services, lead. Pipe and specials furnished by R. D. Wood & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., Pancoast & Rogers, New York city, and McNeal Pipe and Foundry Co., Burlington, N. J. Taps, 761. Meters, 674. Hydrants, Chapman, 334. Valves, Chapman.
Consumption. --269,648 gallons. Pressure, ordinary, 100 pounds; fire, 100 pounds.
Financial.—Cost, $319,871. Debt, $300,000. Interest, 4 per cent. Annual operating expenses, $7,346. Annual revenue : consumers, $10,940; city, $10,263.
Management.-Superintendent, Willard Kent.
Proposed System. — The Burrillville Water Co. propose to take water from Wallum pond, by gravity, and have made surveys for this and one other plan. The town has voted twice on the question, once rejecting the proposition, and later, postponing action. The National Water Works syndicate, No. 70 Kilby street, Boston, Mass., are interested.
SANITARY CONDITION OF WATCH HILL, R. I.
WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENTS.
W. P. Anderson, Esq., President Watch Hill, (R. I.) Improvement
Association : DEAR SIR :-Having, at your request, and upon suggestion of Dr. Charles H. Fisher, Secretary of the State Board of Health of Rhode Island, on September 13th, visited Watch Hill and made a general sanitary inspection of the locality and of the principal hotels, I beg to submit the following report :
Situated at the extreme southwestern point of the State of Rhode Island, on a narrow peninsula, surrounded almost entirely by water, Watch Hill would seem to offer, by its select position, peculiar advantages as a watering place and seaside health resort. Bounded on the east by the open Atlantic Ocean, and by the waters of the quiet Little Narragansett Bay on the opposite side, exposed to invigorating sea breezes, from whatever direction the wind may blow, this beautiful spot appears to be particularly favored by nature to be a fit resting place for tired brain workers, and for all persons in search of health and healthful surroundings.