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II.-THE SAIL AND THE STEAMER.

If there is one truth which, more than another, shallowness of their river, every day more and more would be admitted in these days of steam, it is, that increasing and filling up; so that no vessel of any modern arrangements for travelling economise time. burden can come up nearer the town than fourteen Whether we compare the old Gravesend tilt-boat with miles, where they must unlade and send up their timber the modern 'Star' or 'Diamond'--the Leith smack in rafts, and all other commodities by three or four tons with the Edinburgh steamer—the old Ostend or Calais of goods at a time, in small cobbles or boats, of three, boats with the present Ostend or Boulogne railway- four, or five, and none above six tons a boat.”—Here packets—the Clyde or Forth boats of past days with we have a key to much of the energy of the “Glasgow the Clyde or Forth steamers of the present—the Ame- folk:” their river was very shallow, and they could not rican, or Mediterranean, or East India ships with the embark in an extensive foreign trade without adopting fine steamers which now leave our shores for those some remedial measures. As we are not here writing parts—in whichever way we look, the same accelera- a history or a description of Glasgow, it will suffice to tion is exhibited. It seems tolerably clear that saving say, that by constructing a harbour at Port Glasgow, of time is the most powerful of the circumstances which lower down the Clyde ; by dredging the river from end have led to the preference of new modes of voyaging to end; by straightening the banks, and making quays over the old. The object of the present paper is to and jetties; by deepening the bed so considerably as take a rapid glance at some of the most prominent to enable vessels drawing fourteen feet of water to exemplifications of this contrast. Let us begin with come up to the city itself; and by laying out basins our enterprising Glasgow neighbours.

and piers—the Glasgow merchants have wrought a

wondrous change : only vessels of thirty or forty tons THE CLYDE.

could approach Glasgow at the beginning of the present If we look at the Clyde in regard to its actual size, century; whereas now the busy Broomielaw exhibits its we must deem it one of the most extraordinary rivers in ships of 700 or 800 tons burden. existence. On walking along the banks, from Glasgow Meanwhile the genius of James Watt has been doing towards Bowling, it is scarcely possible to believe its work. In the present century, when steam navithat such a river should be an artery for so much ship- gation opened a new era in the modes of travelling, ping. It is so narrow, for a great part of the distance Glasgow and the neighbourhood possess all the elefrom Glasgow to Greenock, that nothing but the most ments necessary for the establishment of such a system: energetic measures could have fitted it for the reception she had steam-engines and steam-engine factoriesof large and abundant shipping. Steamers and Clyde 'black band' to yield iron, and iron works to cast or improvements have gone on simultaneously; the steps roll it-manufactures to export, and a market for the of advance being highly interesting in a commercial return cargo-pleasant lochs and isles to visit by point of view. It has been well observed, that the steam trips, and a population able and willing to visit Clyde not only “bears along ships of heavy burden them. It was in 1812 that the little 'Comet,' made and deep draught of water, and is plentifully dotted with by Wood and Co., of Port Glasgow, and brought yawls and wherries, but is kept in constant foaming out by Henry Bell, first glided down the Clyde by agitation by large steam-ships bearing heavy cargoes steam power, after having been tried in the previous from the shores of England and Ireland, by numerous year on the Forth. She made five miles an hour coasting steam-vessels careering over its surface with against a head wind; and ought to have brought her live freights of human beings, and by steam tug-boats ingenious projector both fortune and fame-fame, to dragging behind them trains of sailing craft too unwieldy hardly an adequate extent, has come since his death ; to pilot their own way within its narrow channel.” but fortune never reached him.

The traffic of Glasgow, near about two centuries For five' or six years the Clyde was the scene of ago, was thus described in a letter written by Commis- experimental steam-trips, before the Glasgow people sioner Tucket, a government agent, in 1651 :—"Nearly would venture out to sea by such guidance ; but in all the inhabitants are traders; some to Ireland with 1818 David Napier decided this matter in the most small smiddy coals, in open boats, from four to ten

“ It is to this gentleman,” says Mr. tons, from whence they bring hoops, rings, barrel- Scott Russell, “ that Great Britain owes the introducstaves, meal, oats, and butter; some to France, with tion of deep-sea communication by steam vessels, and plaiding, coals, and herrings; from which the return the establishment of Post-office steam-packets. In is salt

, pepper, raisins, and prunes ; some to Norway, 1818 Mr. Napier established between Greenock and for timber. There hath likewise been some that Belfast a regular steam communication by means of ventured as far as Barbadoes; but the loss which the ‘Rob Roy,' a vessel built by Mr. William Denny, they sustained, by being obliged to come home late of Dumbarton, of about 90 tons burden, and 30-horse in the year, has made them discontinue going there power. For two winters she plied with perfect reguany more. The mercantile genius of the people is larity and success between these ports, and was afterstrong, if they were not checked and kept under by the wards transferred to the English Channel, to serve as

efficient way:

a packet-boat between Dover and Calais. Having a sort of half-way, an amalgamation, a compromise thus ventured into the open sea, Mr. Napier was not between town and country. Then, after passing the slow in extending his range. Soon after Messrs. Wood | little obelisk erected to the memory of Henry Bell, he built for him the ‘Talbot,' of 120 tons, with two of comes in sight of the rock of Dumbarton, (Cut, No. 1,) Mr. Napier's engines, each of 30-horse power. This where he is taken by a row-boat a little way up the vessel was in all respects the most perfect of her day, river Leven, if the steamer is bound to any place lower and was formed on a model which was long in being down the Clyde ; but some of the steamers go up the surpassed. She was the first vessel that plied between Leven to Dumbarton town. Here steaming is at an Holyhead and Dublin. About the same time he esta-end for the present; but after an inland ride of four blished the line of steam-ship between the stations of or five miles, the tourist reaches the southern end of Liverpool, Greenock, and Glasgow.”

Loch Lomond, where another steamer receives him, How vast has been the progress since then-scarcely and takes him to all the lions' on both shores of the thirty years ago! The Clyde, the Mersey, and the lake. This kind of lake-touring has become highly Thames, have worthily kept pace with each other. It relished in Scotland. Six or seven years ago a small is a fact always observable, that there are ship-build- steamer was established on Loch Katrine, near the ing establishments and engineering works at or near Trosachs : and many of the lochs, or rather inlets of the spots where steam navigation has made the most the sea—such as Loch Goyl, Loch Fyne, Loch Long, rapid strides; and it is not difficult to see that such Loch Gare, &c., westward of Glasgow, and near the are almost necessary concomitants. The engineering mouth of the Clyde, are visited by pleasure tourists establishments of Glasgow, especially connected with per steam-boat. Many of the Glasgow citizens have steam-ships, are among the most interesting of its country residences at Helensburgh, Rothsay, and other industrial features. Those of the Napiers, especially, pleasant spots on the islands and shores of the Firth are notable for the fine ships for which they have of Clyde; and boat-loads of such travellers are confurnished engines.

The ‘British Queen,' the ‘Bri- veyed down the river by steam every afternoon. tannia,' the 'Acadia,' the Caledonia,' the · Colum

They who had nought of verdant freshness seen bia,' and others, whose names have become almost

But suburb orchards choked with coleworts green, household words with those who read about Trans

Now, seated at their ease, may glide along,

Loch Lomond's fair and fairy isles among; Atlantic steaming-all had their engines from the

Where bushy promontories fondly peep celebrated Vulcan Foundry' at Glasgow. The

At their own beauty in the nether deep,

O'er drooping birch and rowan red, that lave making of iron steam-boats, too, has been taken up

Their fragrant branches in the glassy wave;

They who on higher objects scarce have counted with great energy; and the same firms now frequently

Than church-spire with its gilded vane surmounted, make the boat or ship itself, and the engines which are

May view within their near distinctive ken

The rocky summits of the lofty Ben; to be put into it.

Or see his purple shoulders darkly lower It would be no easy matter to name all the steam

Through the dim drapery of a summer shower. routes of which Glasgow is the starting-point. A writer in the Gazetteer of Scotland truly remarks, that There are daily (and in some cases almost hourly) " The steam-boat quay of Glasgow, especially during steam-boat conveyances to Greenock and Gourock, the summer months, presents one of the most animated to Kirn and Dunoon, to Rothsay and Largs and Millscenes which it is possible to conceive. River-boats, port, to Ardrishaig, to Dumbarton, to Gareloch and of beautiful construction, leave the Broomielaw every Helensburgh and Roseneath and Tarbert. Commuhour from morning till night; and some of them pos- nications somewhat less frequent are kept up with sess such power of steam, that they career along the Brodick, Inverary, Oban, Portree, Islay, Port Ellen, &c. Clyde at the rate of from twelve to fourteen miles an Others, again, northward to the rugged districts of hour. The larger boats, especially those plying between Stornaway; southward to Liverpool; and across the Liverpool and Glasgow, are in reality floating palaces, Channel to Londonderry, Belfast, and Dublin. The having cabins fitted up at vast expense, and with every Ayrshire Railway, too, has given rise, in conjunction regard to grace and architectural beauty."

with the Preston and Wyre Railway, to a new steamThe pleasure trips on the Clyde-one of the features boat route between Ardrossan and Fleetwood, which introduced by steam-boats—are remarkable for their is now much used by passengers from London to cheapness, and for the varied scenery to which they Glasgow, instead of the Liverpool route.

The gigantic introduce the tourist. He sooner reaches fine scenery schemes of the Caledonian Railway Company, in and than the Thames tourist to Gravesend or Margate. near Glasgow, might seem to threaten these steam-boat Six o'clock in the morning is not an uncommon time enterprises ; were it not that experience has shown, for Glasgow tourists to start for a day down the Clyde both in the Thames and elsewhere, that horse-conveyand up to Loch Lomond. A fare of sixpence for a ances on land, and steam-conveyances on water, are deck passenger (and who cares to be below deck in a actually increased, directly or indirectly, by the spread fine river trip?) will take him down the Clyde. First of railways. A steamer has no “maintenance of way" he passes the busy and smoking engineering works. to pay for: it carries its capital on its back, so to Next he arrives so far in the suburbs, that the villas of speak, and is able to pay its expenses at comparatively the citizens begin to peep out on either bank-forming low charges,

JOANNA BAILLIE.

On our way

If anything were wanting to show the activity of fortieth part of the whole was set apart for the proScotland in availing herself of the steam-boat power, prietors of the passage ; and the remainder was divided which Glasgow and the Clyde were the first to deve- into shares, called deals, according to the number of lope, it would be shown in the fact, recorded by Mr. persons entitled to a share of it. One full deal was Porter in his 'Progress of the Nation,' that, in 1844, allotted to every man of mature age who had laboured Scotland owned more steamers than the whole of during that week as a boatman, whether he acted as France, although containing only about one-fifteenth master or mariner, or in a great boat, or in a yawl. part as many inhabitants !

Next the aged boatman, who had become unfit for Let us next cross the island, and look at steam-boat labour, received half a deal, or half the sum allotted operations at the ports of the east coast.

to an acting boatman. Boys employed in the boats we meet with a canal—the Firth and Clyde canal- received shares proportioned to their age. A small sum which has itself exhibited the march of improvement was also set aside for a schoolmaster, and for the widows in respect to boat-traction. Were it not that the ex- of decayed boatmen. Nobody became a boatman in traordinary rise of railway-travelling has thrown canal- this ferry unless by succession, and that right was transit of all kinds into the shade, we should probably always understood to be limited to the first generation. ere this have seen established some very interesting The children of those who had emigrated, or were born results in reference to the attainment of high speed in elsewhere, had no connexion with this ferry; but, on water-conveyance; but canal enterprise is much dis- the other hand, if the son of a boatman found himself couraged just now; and many of the best canals are unfortunate in the world, he was always entitled to either being bought up by railway companies, or con- return, to enter into one of the boats, and to take a verted into railways.

share of the provision which formed the estate of the

community in which he was born. That community THE PORTS OF THE EAST COAST.

always consisted of nearly the same number of persons. If we look at the Firth of Forth—that river-mouth | About forty men acted in the boats, and received the which separates Edinburgh from Fifeshire—we see full deal, as sailors of mature age.

The whole comthat it presents a serious obstacle to the maintenance munity, including these and the old men and boys, of coach communication between Edinburgh on the and the women of every age, amounted to about two one hand, and Perth, Dundee, and Aberdeen on the hundred individuals.” other. Not till we arrive at Stirling do we find the This ferry has not been an inactive witness of the Forth sufficiently narrow to be crossed by a bridge; giant strides of steam navigation. Although the Forth and this circumstance may have led the Edinburgh is here only two miles in width, there are abundant and Leith people to steam-boat enterprises which they tales and narratives in Scotch books, illustrative of the might not otherwise have thought of. At Grangemouth, delays often attending the passage. In rough weather where the Forth and Clyde canal communicates with the ferry has occasionally been impassable for days it, the Firth is more than two miles wide at high water. together; and even in days when the passage could be At Queensferry, where it is crossed by ferry boats, it made, passengers have been beaten about in an open is much narrower ; but at Burntisland, where a new boat for four hours in the act of crossing. Another ferry has been established from Granton Pier, the width passage, lower down the Forth, from Leith to Pettycur, is five or six miles.

is a distance of about seven miles; and for this distance The passage over the Forth at Queensferry, from four or five hours were not considered an unreasonable being the shortest that can be made anywhere near time in past days. One tourist relates that, about Edinburgh, has for many centuries been regarded as forty years ago, he embarked in a small sailing-boat one of importance. So early as the twelfth century at Pettycur, to cross over to Leith; and that after the rights of this ferry were given to the monks of being on board fourteen hours, he was landed at FisherDunfermline ; and the possession of the right often row harbour at one in the morning, six miles from gave rise to warm contests in after ages. The ferry Leith, the boatmen not being enabled to approach is in the hands of trustees, who regulate fares, times, Leith Harbour. and other details. (Cut, No. 2.)

The first meeting of Jonathan Oldbuck and Lovel, The boatmen of North Queensferry, on the Fifeshire in Sir Walter Scott's · Antiquary,' takes place in the side of the Forth, appear to have been a peculiar class course of the short coach journey from Edinburgh to of men.

Mercer, in his History of Dunfermline,' Queensferry, on the way to the ferry; but as the while speaking of these boatmen in past times, says :- laughable incidents relate rather to the coach than to “The inhabitants of North Queensferry consisted the ferry, we may pass it over. In an autobiography from time immemorial of operative boatmen, without of Alexander Wilson, a sort of half-poet, half-pedlar, any admixture of strangers. They held their feu under who lived in Scotland about fifty years ago, is the the Marquis of Tweeddale, as successor of the abbots following notice of the ferry passage from Kinghorn to of Dunfermline; and they have always held, from Leith across the Forth, just opposite the last-named generation to generation, the ferry as a sort of property town :-"In a large boat, the passenger pays sixpence ; or inheritance. On the evening of every Saturday the in a pinnace, which is most convenient in a smooth sea, ear of the week were collected into a heap; one- tenpence. The inhabitants are almost all boatmen,

ocean.

and their whole commerce being with strangers, whom | Forth, there are now numerous steam-boats which trip perhaps they may never see again, makes them ava- up the river to Stirling and back at very low fares. ricious, and always on the catch. If a stranger come The steam conveyances, northward from the Forth to town at night, intending to go over next morning, to the Tay and the Dee, and southward to the Tweed, he is taken into a lodging. One boatman comes in, the Tyne, the Humber, and the Thames, have effected sits down, promises to call you in the morning, assists vast improvements, both in the pleasure of tourists, you to circulate the liquor, and, after a great deal of and in the commercial economy of time. Before the loquacity, departs. In a little while another enters, establishment of the Edinburgh and London steamers, and informs you that the fellow who has just now left the Leith smacks were often two, three, or as many as you goes not over at all; but that he goes, and that five weeks reaching London : so completely were they for a glass of gin he will awake you and take you under the control of the rough winds of the German along with him. Willing to be up in time, you gene

But now, a time varying from forty to fortyrously treat him. According to promise, you are eight hours suffices to waft one of the fine steamers awakened in the morning, and assured that you have from station to station. Four or five years ago it was time enough to take breakfast; in the middle of which estimated, that as many as 25,000 persons voyaged hoarse roarings alarm you that the boat is just going annually between the two capitals in these steamers. off. You start off, call for your bil]—the landlord Besides those running direct from the Forth to the appears, charges you like a gentleman—there is no Thames, there are others from Aberdeen to the Shettime for scrupling—you are hurried away by the boat- lands, to Inverness, to Edinburgh, to Hull, and to man on the one hand, and genteelly plundered by London ; others from Edinburgh to Dundee and to the landlord on the other, who pockets his money, Inverness; and indeed wherever there is a considerand bids you haste lest you lose your passage. Per- able town along or near the coast, there a steamer is haps, after all, when you get aboard, you are detained pretty sure to be found at some day or other in the an hour or more by the sailors waiting for more pas- week. The Dundee folk have made a bold and happy sengers."

imovement towards opening the doors of the continent The next time the reader has to travel six or seven to tourists from Scotland. Two years ago (we do not miles, let him picture to himself “a boatman coming know whether they were repeated in 1846) two holiday in, sitting down, and promising to call you in the trips were got up by steam-boat proprietors. One was morning,” and all the other features of Alexander from Dundee to Hamburgh and back, with an interval Wilson's narration, and then thank his stars that we of twelve days for visiting a large number of the towns live in steaming days. Instead of the uncertain of Germany. The other was rather more ambitious, Queensferry boat passage, there are now snug steamers being from Aberdeen to Norway, with stoppages at the every half-hour, which perform the distance in about Orkney and Shetland Isles, and a period of three a quarter of an hour. Instead of the tedious passage weeks being allowed for the whole trip. Norway for from Pettycur, or from Kinghorn to Leith by boat, we pleasure ! Our grandfathers would surely think us have now rapid steamers from Burntisland to Granton, mad, if they could witness such doings ! performing the distance in little more than half-an-hour. In wending our way southward, we find the eastern This Granton Pier, itself, is a mark and symbol of the coast of England dotted with a considerable number age we live in. It belongs to the Duke of Buccleuch ; of rivers and ports, all of which have come more or while the opposite pier of Burntisland belongs to less under the control of the giant arm of steam. First another wealthy Scotch proprietor, Sir John Gladstone. we have the Tweed and Berwick ; then the Tyne, with The two together have made a commercial speculation its busy towns of Newcastle and Shields ; then the of the piers, the ferry, and the steamers, and seem Wear and Sunderland ; and further on the Tees and likely to benefit themselves as well as the travelling Stockton. Proceeding yet south we come to Whitby public. At a meeting recently held of the Edinburgh and Scarborough ; and then to the wide estuary of and Northern Railway Company (to establish railway the Humber, with Hull as its great port. From thence communication between Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee), to the Thames, we have in succession Grimsby (about it was announced, that the Company had agreed to to become to Hull what Birkenhead will be to Liverpurchase from the two proprietors just named, the pool-a neighbour not to be despised), Boston, Lynn, Granton and Burntisland ferry, and the piers and other Yarmouth, Lowestoft, Ipswich,' and Harwich. Nearly accessories belonging to it, for a sum very little short the whole of these towns have steam-boats in connexion of one hundred thousand pounds. Here again is an with them. Berwick sends its steamers to London instance in which railways, instead of ruining steamers, and to Edinburgh at stated periods, and so does Neware friendly to them; for it is the object of the Com-castle, as well as to Berwick, Whitby, Scarborough, pany to establish the best possible steam-boat convey- and Hull. With regard to the Tyne, it exhibits some ance from pier to pier in connexion with railways at such a feature as the Clyde, though on a smaller both ends, as the only means of competing successfully scale. Newcastle is the Glasgow of the Tyne; and with the Scottish Central Railway, which will cross the inhabitants are not sorry to breathe a little pure the forth by a bridge at Stirling, without the necessity air out by Tynemouth, or other places near the sea. of any ferry at all. Besides the mere crossing of the Hence has arisen a trade for a large number of steam

seasons.

ance.

in a

boats, which are plying up and down the Tyne all day | fect safety. Very capacious docks have been conlong; and as many of them convey passengers eight structed, and the merchants of the place are doing or nine miles for threepence, it is pretty plain that their best to obtain a considerable share of the they must carry large numbers to make it a "paying Humber trade. For this purpose an Act has been concern.” Even five or six years ago there were con- obtained for a railway from Goole to Wakefield, there siderably above a hundred small steamers working up to be connected with the network of railways in the and down the Tyne, either to convey passengers, or to West Riding. This line is leased to the Manchester tow vessels.

and Leeds Company; and the result, commercially The old water transit from the Tyne to the Thames considered, is this, that it is the interest of the was an affair of the utmost uncertainty in doubtful York and North Midland Company to make Hull the weather-of almost unbearable tediousness in the best best possible port on or near the Humber; while the

The reviver of wood-engraving, Bewick, Manchester and Leeds Company will have an interest when he first voyaged from his native Tyne to London, in advancing Goole as rapidly as possible into importsome forty years ago, was a month on his

passage.

The establishment of swift and well appointed Imagine the great artist, for great he was, shut

up steamers to ply down the Humber from Goole, will stinking cabin for four weeks, with a jolly set of stout be a necessary feature in the last mentioned plan ; Northumbrians from the pits and the quays,—with and we may look forward with tolerable certainty to here and there a deluded Scot on his pilgrimage south- the improvement of river steaming arising out of this ward, whose finances were running aground, because railway conflict. There are symptoms of railways he had met with no friendly adviser to say it was from Goole to Selby, to Sheffield, and to Gainsborough, cheaper to walk those hundred miles, than to eat salt in addition to the one to Wakefield. beef for a month of idleness.

The other point relates to the ferry across the HumKingston-upon-Hull is one of the great centres of ber from Hull to Barton in Lincolnshire. So wide is steam-boat traffic on the eastern side of the island. It the Humber at this part, that all communication from is one of the busiest of our ports, both for foreign and for | Hull southward is seriously impeded by the necessity coasting trade; and that such a place should avail itself of ferrying across the river, for no bridge can be thrown promptly of the advantages of steam navigation is what across it much lower than Selby. The chief of these might reasonably have been expected. A local topo- ferries is at Barton, whence the distance is about six grapher, writing about ten years ago, states, that the miles to Hull; and this has for generations been the amount of steam navigation to and from Hull had mail route to Hull. Within the last two or three years, quadrupled in about four years. “ This increase," he the Sheffield and Manchester Railway Company, or remarks, "is considered to be almost unparalleled, other Companies connected with them, have obtained especially with reference to the number of steamers acts of Parliament for a network of railways in North employed in the coasting trade from Hull to London, Lincolnshire, connecting Gainsborough, Barton, Yarmouth, Lynn, Scarborough, Whitby, Newcastle, Grimsby, and Lincoln with each other, and with Leith, Dundee, &c. The number of passengers to and Doncaster and Sheffield. This Company has bought from London alone averaged nearly 3000 weekly during up the chief of these Humber ferries-not to extinthe summer of 1836 ; and the number of packets was guish them, but to place them on a more efficient expected to be increased so as to allow of one leaving footing, by establishing steamers in connection with Hull and also London daily. The steamers may be various branch railways; and so lay the foundation for classed as sea-packets and river-packets."

a large steam-and-rail traffic between Hull and the The ten years that have elapsed since the period to south. Here, then, we see that one Company has an which the preceding paragraph applies, have given interest in keeping Hull, where it ever has been, at birth to many curious changes in the steam traffic of the head of the Humber towns; another has an interest Hull, either present or prospective. In some respects in advancing Goole; and a third has good motives railways have checked the steamers; but in others they for making the Barton Ferry as efficient as possible : are about to hold out to them the hand of hearty good and it is not difficult to see how steam-boats are likely fellowship. All the large sea-going steamers maintain, to be brought in as hand-maids to these various and probably will maintain, a very extensive traffic, projects. lessened a little, perhaps, as to some of the coasting The Railway Company last spoken of, the Mantrips, but undoubtedly increased as to foreign ports. chester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire, are also owners of The river steamers are seriously affected by a competi- the docks and harbour at Grimsby, a rising port, tion with the certain speed of the railway, which they situated on the Lincolnshire side of the Humber, near cannot hope to rival,

its mouth. When the railway is constructed from ShefOn the other hand, railways seem likely to improve field to this port, and also that from Lincoln, there will the Humber steamers at two points, -Goole and Barton. be abundant motives for the owners to make the Goole is quite a modern town, situated near the Grimsby port as busy a one as possible ; and we may, junction of the Ouse with the Humber ; and though perhaps, yet see Grimsby steamers careering over to so far inland, vessels drawing from fifteen to seventeen Hamburgh, or Rotterdam, or Antwerp. feet of water can discharge their cargoes there in per- Step by step does the locomotive touch upon the

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