« السابقةمتابعة »
The Sessions' House and Borough Gaol of Liverpool . 309 Mr. M'Culloch's Remarks on the People of Liverpool : 315
Result of the Health of Towns' Commission in Liverpool
309 Dr. Duncan's Sketch of the Poorer Parts of Liverpool . 315
Mr. Gladstone's Speech at the Opening of the Collegiate Design for the Sailors' Home at Liverpool
311 St. Mary's and Necropolis Cemeteries at Liverpool · 317
Opening of the Liverpool Royal Institution in 1817 312 The Zoological Gardens of Liverpool
Occasional Exhibitions at the Institution
Routine of the Finance Department essentially the same
Condition of the Fleet at the l'ime of the Revolution
Somerset House of 1847, and Somerset House of 1547. 338 The Custom House .
Government Offices in Somerset House
339 Rebuilding of the Long Room of the Custom House 347
Functions of the East India Company's Court of Directors 343 Amount of the Excise Revenue
Library and Museum of the East India Company. 344 Architecture of the Excise Office
101. General View of Portland Island
102. Bow-and-Arrow Castle
104. Tram-road from and to the Quarries in Periland
J. E. NICHOLLS.
1.-THE ROAD AND THE RAILWAY.
Who made our roads ? Engineers before McAdam. to York and Chester-le-Street; accomplishing the con“Some imagine,” says Camden, “ that these ways were nexion between the capital more directly than the made by one Mulmutius, God knows who, many ages existing railways, but going straight to its point like before the birth of Christ; but this is so far from a projected great line. For purposes of internal comfinding credit with me, that I positively affirm they munication “from sea to sea,” the direction of the were made from time to time by the Romans. When Roman roads was, there can be little dispute, sufficiAgricola was lieutenant here, Tacitus tells us, the ently complete. The manufacturing element has people were commanded to carry their corn about, and demanded new combinations. into the most distant countries, not to the nearest Here, then, in “ the Land we live in," sixteen hundred camps but to those that were far off, and out of the years ago, were direct roads, with bold cuttings, and way. And the Britons, as the same author has it, solid terraces worked in stone and cement, founded complained that the Romans put their hands and on piles where the soil was marshy, raised upon piers bodies to the drudgery of clearing woods and paving where it was necessary to gain elevation ; and over fens." The Britons, no doubt had roads; but we these, for five centuries of Roman dominion, moved think it is as little doubtful that the Romans made the the legions of the mighty empire, solid roads of which we constantly discover such won
“In coats of mail, and military pride." derful remains. They were indeed great road-makers, Then succeeded the fierce strifes of the Heptarchythese kings of the world ; and they went about their
the devastations of the Dane-the plunder of the Norwork in a scientific style, like the iron road-makers
man—the struggle between the Crown and the Barons of our own age, with
--the wars of England and Scotland—the battles of labouring pioneers,
the Roses ;-during each of which epochs the country A multitude with spades and axes armed,
made slight advances, if any, in the real business of To lay hills plain, fell woods, or valleys fill, Or where plain was raise hill, or overlay
civilization, as compared with the Roman period. With bridges rivers proud, as with a yoke.
With the Tudor dynasty came comparative quiet, and, PARADISE REGAINED.
with quiet, increased commercial intercourse. There Their work has lasted. Their "highways from sea to had always been a coasting trade. In 1489, the Bishop sea" cannot be traced through their whole lines with of Durham writes from his manor of Auckland, to Sir perfect distinctness ; but enough can be traced to shew John Paston, at Caister, near Yarmouth, that he sends the genius of the great civilizers. All old writers agree his Gentleman Usher to negotiate a matter of business, that there were four chief ways in England ; modern “forasmuch as I have coals and other things in these researches have traced other trunk roads than these four parts, and also ye have in those parts corns, wine, and of the Watling Street, the Erming Street, the Ikenald wax ; and as I am informed ye be not evil willed to Street, and the Fosse. What the great lines of Railways deal with me, no more than I am to deal with you, in have accomplished, according to the wants of our age, uttering, and also in receiving of such things, the within the last twenty years, the old roads accomplished which might be to the profit of us both.” The bishop sixteen hundred years ago. They made this island, to a had a sensible notion of the real objects of trade. certain extent, one whole. We have a circuitous railway These exchanges were to be " to the profit of either of from Dover to London ; the Romans had their direct us, whereby our familiarity and friendship may be road, the Watling Street, through Rochester. The Great increased in time to come.” Such a desire for commuWestern Railway follows its sinuous course from nication, between the influential men of districts proLondon to Bath ; the Romans had a direct road through ducing different commodities, would necessarily make Staines, Silchester, and Marlborough to their great city and uphold roads, and improve harbours. Let us see of medicinal waters. If the descriptions of the Fosse what roads the people of England had in the time of Way may be relied upon, it followed very closely the Elizabeth. present track of the Great Western from Totness to William Harrison, in his “Description of England," Bristol ; and connected the Midland Counties, as far prefixed to Holinshed's Chronicle, has “a table of the as Lincoln, with the Western coasts, as completely as best thoroughfares and towns of greatest travel ;” and the net-work of railways does at this day. The Ikenald he says, “ those towns that we call thoroughfares have Way is held to have connected the Eastern coast with great and sumptuous inns builded in them for the rethe interior, as the Eastern Counties Railway now ceiving of such travellers and strangers as pass to and effects the same object. The Erming Street is affirmed fro.” We have traced upon a map the various lines of to have run from Saint David's to Southampton, a line this old Itinerary; and it is remarkable how little which railways have yet to thread. Lastly, the Wat- appears to have been added to the means of internal ling Street, after it had reached London from Dover, communication since the days of the Roman roads. is understood to have passed towards the North to Indeed, with a few exceptions, the Roman roads appear Saint Alban's, and thence, in a direct line very
little to have determined the great highways of the sixteenth verging from that which we call the Great North Road, century. We will briefly describe them. 1. From the