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XIX,-LIVERPOOL.-I.

Liverpool in Past Ages

290 Esplanade in Front of Prince's Dock, Liverpool 296

Liverpool Castle, attributed to King John

290 | George's Dock, the Central Spot of the Dock System of

Account given by Mr. Baines of the Rise of Commerce Liverpool

298

in England

290 System of the Commercial Telegraph between Liverpool

Allusions to Liverpool found in Early Annalists and and Holyhead

298

Topographers

290 The Goree Piazza, Liverpool

298

Small Importance of Liverpool in the Thirteenth Century 290 The Ferry Steam-boats of Liverpool

298

Feud between the Stanleys and Molyneuxes at Liver-

The Canning Dock, Liverpool

298

pool, in 1424

291

The Public Baths, Liverpool

298

Mention of Liverpool made by Leland

291 The Salthouse and Duke's Docks at Liverpool 298

Shipping Arrangements of Liverpool in 1565

291 Consumption of Tobacco in England

299

Advancement of Liverpool after the year 1561

291 The Queen's Dock, Liverpool

229

Liverpool Besieged by Prince Rupert .

291 Basins connecting the Docks of Liverpool

299

Liverpool during the Commonwealth

291 The Brunswick Dock, appropriated to the Timber Trade 299

Description of Liverpool given by Blome in 1673 . 291 Progress of the Herculaneum Docks at Liverpool . 299

Growing Importance of Liverpool in the 17th Century 292 Unbroken Series of Docks along the Mersey

300

Liverpool in the Year 1700 .

292 Vessels in the Liverpool Docks in June, 1844

300

Employment of Liverpool Ships for Transport of Slaves 292 The Warehouses of Liverpool

300

The Liverpool Merchants at the Beginning of the

The Exchange Buildings, Liverpool

300

Eighteenth Century

292 Offices comprised in the Revenue Buildings of Liverpool 300

Unchecked Progress of Liverpool during the latter half Mr. Kohl's Opinion of the Liverpool Custom House 301

of the Eighteenth Century

292 Purposes to which the Liverpool Custom House is ap-

Account of Liverpool given by Mr. Derrick in 1760 292 propriated

301

Increase in the Shipping of Liverpool

292 Vastness of the Commerce of which the Liverpool

Spread of the Commerce of Liverpool in the Reign of Custom House is the Representative

301

George III.

293 Imports into Liverpool from the United States

301

Position of Liverpool

293 Commerce of Liverpool with the South American States 302

Liverpool from the Mersey

293 Commerce of Liverpool with the East

302

View of Liverpool Docks from the River

294 Activity of Liverpool in the Slave Trade

302

Mr. Kohl's Remarks on the Docks of Liverpool

294

The Irish Trade of Liverpool

302

Plan for the Formation of New Docks at Liverpool 294 Amount of the Customs' Receipts at Liverpool

302

The Clarence Dock, Liverpool

294 Number of Vessels belonging to the Port of Liverpool 302

Description given by Sir George Head of the Landing

Liverpool one of the chief En ration Ports

302

of Pigs at the Clarence Dock

295 Formation of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway . 303

The Trafalgar, Victoria, and Waterloo Docks . 295 The Railway Tunnels of Liverpool

303

Prince's Dock, Liverpool, opened in 1821

: 295

The Passenger Station at Liverpool

303

American Sailing-ships in Prince's Dock .

295 Projects of the Manchester and Leeds and East Lanca-

Account given by Mr. Kohl of the minor Arrangements shire Railway Companies

303

of the Liverpool Docks

295 The Goods Station and Tunnel at Liverpool

304

Prince's Dock, the Recipient of the American Steamers 296

Traffic on the Liverpool and Leeds Canal

304

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The Sessions' House and Borough Gaol of Liverpool . 309 Mr. M'Culloch's Remarks on the People of Liverpool : 315
The Markets of Liverpool

309

Result of the Health of Towns' Commission in Liverpool
Ecclesiastical and Collegiate Buildings of Liverpool 309 in 1844

315
Antiquity of St. Nicholas's Church, Liverpool

309 Dr. Duncan's Sketch of the Poorer Parts of Liverpool . 315

Architecture of St. Paul's Church, Liverpool

310 Schemes of Social Improvement at Liverpool

316

St. Luke's, one of the best of the Modern Churches of The Schools of Liverpool .

316

Liverpool

310 The Charitable Institutions of Liverpool

. 316

Architecture of the Ecclesiastical Buildings of Liverpool 310 The Blind Asylum at Liverpool

316

Foundation of the Collegiate Institution, Liverpool 311 The Curative Institutions of Liverpool

316

Mr. Gladstone's Speech at the Opening of the Collegiate Design for the Sailors' Home at Liverpool

317
Institution, Liverpool .

311 St. Mary's and Necropolis Cemeteries at Liverpool · 317
Arrangements and Form of the Collegiate Institution. 311 Formation of St. James's Cemetery in 1827

318

Exhibition there in 1843 .

312 Botanical Gardens in the Vicinity of Liverpool

318

Opening of the Liverpool Royal Institution in 1817 312 The Zoological Gardens of Liverpool
The Mechanics’ Institute in Liverpool
312 The Toxteth Park District of Liverpool

318
The Instructional Classes of the Liverpool Mechanics' Concluding Glance at Liverpool

319

Institution

314 The Brunswick Buildings, Liverpool

Occasional Exhibitions at the Institution
314 The Hotels of Liverpool

319
Educational and Scientific Societies in Liverpool

314

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XXI.—THE GOVERNMENT OFFICES.

The Treasury before the recent Alterations

322 Associations connected with the Admiralty

330

Cock-pit constructed by Henry VIII. at Whitehali 322 The Naval Affairs of England before the Close of the

Treasury of Kings of England in Reign of Edward I. . 322 Fifteenth Century

330

Earliest Place of Deposit for the Royal Treasures.

322 Henry VIII.'s Attention to the Navy

330

Robbery of the Treasury in 1304

323 Encouragement given by Queen Elizabeth to the Navy 330

Derivations assigned to the Name Exchequer

323 The Navy under Charles I.

331

Changes in the Locality of the Exchequer

323 Navigation Laws originated by Cromwell

331

Routine of the Finance Department essentially the same

Condition of the Fleet at the l'ime of the Revolution

331

as in Older Times

323 | The Office of Lord High Admiral vested in a Commis-

Old Forms of transacting Business in the Exchequer 324 sion in 1632

331

New Officers of the xchequer appointed in 1834 324 Residence of the Naval Commissioners in the House of

The Board of Trade

324 Judge Jefferies

331

General Business of the Board of Trade

324 The present Admiralty erected in the Reign of George II. 332

The Horse Guards

324 Improvements made in the Naval Department of Go-

Growth of the Army in England

325 vernment since the Revolution.

332

Departments of Government connected with the Admi- Branches of the Management of the Navy in England 332

nistration of Military Affairs

325 The Corporation of the Trinity House

332

Functions of the Secretaries of State

325 Business of the Board of Elder Brethren of the Trinity

Financial Arrangements of the Army

325 House

332

Functions of the Secretary-at-War

325 Maritime Administration and Legislation of Great Bri-

Duties of the Commander-in-Chief and the Quarter-

tain

333

Master-General

326 The Privy Council

333

Functions of the Master-General of the Ordnance 326 Distinction of the Cabinet from the Privy Council 333

Duties of the Board of Ordnance

326 Holders of the Offices of State not necessarily Members

Business of the Commissariat

326 of the Cabinet

334

The Commissioners of Audit

327 The Cabinet Council in the Time of Charles II.

334

Increase of Moral Elevation in the Army and Navy 327 Act relating to the Privy Council passed in 1700

334

Testimony given by Mr. Marshall to the Duty of Edu- Cabinet Council held at the Death of Queen Anne 335

cating Soldiers

327 Scheme adopted by Charles II. at the Formation of a

The Admiralty.

328 new Privy Council

335

The Admiralty Semaphore

328 Office of the Prime Minister

335

Working of the Electric Telegraph

328 Sir Robert Walpole's Objection to the Title of Prime

Interior of the Admiralty

328 Minister

336

Functions of the First Lord of the Admiralty

330

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XXII.-THE GOVERNMENT OFFICES.-II.

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Somerset House of 1847, and Somerset House of 1547. 338 The Custom House .

344

Rise and Fall of Edward Seymour

338 The Quays between the Tower and London Bridge

344

Building of Somerset House commenced in 1546-7 338 Customs of England from 1671 to 1688

346

Somerset House the First Building of Italian Archi- Destruction of the Custom House by Fire in 1718

346

tecture in England .

338 The Long Room of the New Custom House .

· 346

Somerset House the Residence of the Queen of James I. 339 The Customs of London in the 18th Century

316

Somerset House in the Reigns of Charles I. and II. 339 Destruction of the Custom House by Fire in 1814 346

Somerset House appropriated to Public Uses in 1775 339 Building of a New Custom House commenced in 1813 346

Completion of the New Front of Somerset House in 1779 339 Examination of the Ground on which the New Custom

Exterior of Somerset House .

339 House was to be built

346

Apartments in Somerset House appropriated to Science, Exterior of the New Custom House.

317

Learning, and the Arts

339 Failure of the Foundations of the Custom House in 1825 347

Government Offices in Somerset House

339 Rebuilding of the Long Room of the Custom House 347

The Poor-Law Commission

340 Functions of the Commissioners of Customs

347

Registrar-General's Office at Somerset House

340 | Official Rates of Valuation

347

Business of the Registrar-General

340 The Bill of Entry

347

The Mint

340 Arrangement of the Interior of the Custom House 348

Moneyers in London in the Reign of Athelstan 340 Progress of an Article of Foreign Merchandise through

Erection of the Mint in 1806

340 the Customs.

348

The Process of Coining

341 The Excise Office

349

Trial of the Pix

341 Establishment of the Duties of Excise

349

The East India House .

341

Appointment of the Commissioners of Excise in 1643 349

Burke's Familiarity with India

341 Division of the Excise Duties after the Restoration 349

Anglo-Indian Power

341 Duties imposed in the Reign of William III.

349

Improvement in the Administration of India within the Sir Robert Walpole's Scheme for extending the Excise 350

last half century :

342 Proposal of Sir Robert Walpole to subject Tobacco to

Home Government of the East India Company

342 the Laws of the Excise:

350

Functions of the Court of Proprietors of the East India Measures for the Extension of the Excise Duties carried

Company

342 by Mr. Pitt.

350

Functions of the East India Company's Court of Directors 343 Amount of the Excise Revenue

350
The Board of Commissioners for the Affairs of India . 343 Commissioners and other Officers of the Excise

351

Routine of Business transacted between the Court of The General Surveyors and Collectors of the Excise

Directors and the Board of Control

343 Duties

351

First House of the East India Company

343

Excise Ofice on the Site of Gresham College

351

Exterior of the Existing East India House

343 Mr. Edward Taylor's Remarks on the Dismantling of

Court Room of the East India House

343 Gresham College

352

Library and Museum of the East India Company. 344 Architecture of the Excise Office

352

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ILLUSTRATIONS.

ILLUSTRATIONS.

101. General View of Portland Island

102. Bow-and-Arrow Castle

103. Weymouth

104. Tram-road from and to the Quarries in Periland

Designers.

J. E. NICHOLLS.
J. E. Nicholls,
H. HASELER.
J. E. NICHOLLS.

Engraver.

NICHOLLS

NICHOLLS

Nicholls

NICHOLLS

353

360

361

368

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1.-THE ROAD AND THE RAILWAY.

Who made our roads ? Engineers before McAdam. to York and Chester-le-Street; accomplishing the con“Some imagine,” says Camden, “ that these ways were nexion between the capital more directly than the made by one Mulmutius, God knows who, many ages existing railways, but going straight to its point like before the birth of Christ; but this is so far from a projected great line. For purposes of internal comfinding credit with me, that I positively affirm they munication “from sea to sea,” the direction of the were made from time to time by the Romans. When Roman roads was, there can be little dispute, sufficiAgricola was lieutenant here, Tacitus tells us, the ently complete. The manufacturing element has people were commanded to carry their corn about, and demanded new combinations. into the most distant countries, not to the nearest Here, then, in “ the Land we live in," sixteen hundred camps but to those that were far off, and out of the years ago, were direct roads, with bold cuttings, and way. And the Britons, as the same author has it, solid terraces worked in stone and cement, founded complained that the Romans put their hands and on piles where the soil was marshy, raised upon piers bodies to the drudgery of clearing woods and paving where it was necessary to gain elevation ; and over fens." The Britons, no doubt had roads; but we these, for five centuries of Roman dominion, moved think it is as little doubtful that the Romans made the the legions of the mighty empire, solid roads of which we constantly discover such won

“In coats of mail, and military pride." derful remains. They were indeed great road-makers, Then succeeded the fierce strifes of the Heptarchythese kings of the world ; and they went about their

the devastations of the Dane-the plunder of the Norwork in a scientific style, like the iron road-makers

man—the struggle between the Crown and the Barons of our own age, with

--the wars of England and Scotland—the battles of labouring pioneers,

the Roses ;-during each of which epochs the country A multitude with spades and axes armed,

made slight advances, if any, in the real business of To lay hills plain, fell woods, or valleys fill, Or where plain was raise hill, or overlay

civilization, as compared with the Roman period. With bridges rivers proud, as with a yoke.

With the Tudor dynasty came comparative quiet, and, PARADISE REGAINED.

with quiet, increased commercial intercourse. There Their work has lasted. Their "highways from sea to had always been a coasting trade. In 1489, the Bishop sea" cannot be traced through their whole lines with of Durham writes from his manor of Auckland, to Sir perfect distinctness ; but enough can be traced to shew John Paston, at Caister, near Yarmouth, that he sends the genius of the great civilizers. All old writers agree his Gentleman Usher to negotiate a matter of business, that there were four chief ways in England ; modern “forasmuch as I have coals and other things in these researches have traced other trunk roads than these four parts, and also ye have in those parts corns, wine, and of the Watling Street, the Erming Street, the Ikenald wax ; and as I am informed ye be not evil willed to Street, and the Fosse. What the great lines of Railways deal with me, no more than I am to deal with you, in have accomplished, according to the wants of our age, uttering, and also in receiving of such things, the within the last twenty years, the old roads accomplished which might be to the profit of us both.” The bishop sixteen hundred years ago. They made this island, to a had a sensible notion of the real objects of trade. certain extent, one whole. We have a circuitous railway These exchanges were to be " to the profit of either of from Dover to London ; the Romans had their direct us, whereby our familiarity and friendship may be road, the Watling Street, through Rochester. The Great increased in time to come.” Such a desire for commuWestern Railway follows its sinuous course from nication, between the influential men of districts proLondon to Bath ; the Romans had a direct road through ducing different commodities, would necessarily make Staines, Silchester, and Marlborough to their great city and uphold roads, and improve harbours. Let us see of medicinal waters. If the descriptions of the Fosse what roads the people of England had in the time of Way may be relied upon, it followed very closely the Elizabeth. present track of the Great Western from Totness to William Harrison, in his “Description of England," Bristol ; and connected the Midland Counties, as far prefixed to Holinshed's Chronicle, has “a table of the as Lincoln, with the Western coasts, as completely as best thoroughfares and towns of greatest travel ;” and the net-work of railways does at this day. The Ikenald he says, “ those towns that we call thoroughfares have Way is held to have connected the Eastern coast with great and sumptuous inns builded in them for the rethe interior, as the Eastern Counties Railway now ceiving of such travellers and strangers as pass to and effects the same object. The Erming Street is affirmed fro.” We have traced upon a map the various lines of to have run from Saint David's to Southampton, a line this old Itinerary; and it is remarkable how little which railways have yet to thread. Lastly, the Wat- appears to have been added to the means of internal ling Street, after it had reached London from Dover, communication since the days of the Roman roads. is understood to have passed towards the North to Indeed, with a few exceptions, the Roman roads appear Saint Alban's, and thence, in a direct line very

little to have determined the great highways of the sixteenth verging from that which we call the Great North Road, century. We will briefly describe them. 1. From the

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