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could scarcely have failed. He has no fortune, at least, none sufficient to keep him clean, unless in retirement, which I know (though perhaps he does not) he never will chuse.
" My case and his were much the same. With snjall expectations of fortune, and lively parts, I was soon introduced into good company; they were pleased, and I was flattered. My boy,' said my father, who was an excellent mathematician, but knew very little of the world ; • My boy shall. qualify himself for polite circles, and some one or other of these great men will provide for him.
“ I directly studied French, Italian, dancing, fencing, riding, drawing, heraldry and music. In short, I was made a fine gentleman, instead of being educated to a profession; instead of acquiring knowledge, that was useful and necessary to mankind, I was furnished only with the superfluities of life. Without a fortune, I was taught to live as if I had one. Habits were formed, which if I did not succeed, would make me miserable for the rest of my days. : « Something more than Greek, Latin, French, Italian, &c. was necessary; and I was shut up for two years, in order to study the History of Europe, Domat on the Civil Law, Grotius, Puffendorff, and lastly, four folio volumes of Treaties. This labour gone through with tolerable success, I was next to find a patron. My great friends had not been used to hear me speak of wanting employment; they relished my conversation, and praised my Odes; however, they smiled on, till my father's pockets grew low, and dress and chair hire became too expensive.
“ Luckily a patron was at last found, who understood what wit and parts were, as he excelled in them himself; but he knew, that these alone, were not enough; I endeavoured to convince him, I had more material furnia ture in my head, and succeeded. We went abroad 10gether; the weight of his character, which was excel. lent, and his being a near relation of the minister, gave me reason to expect the most flattering consequences.What hindered? Why, the commonest thing upon earth, my patron turned out, and Mr. Secretary had to seek for another.
“ With better luck than ordinary, and two or three great men's recommendation, another was found, and my little boat was again afloat; the yale was prosperous and
the weather fine; but in a twelvemonth, the envoy died. These changes astonished me; I was a young man, and did not recollect that people were to die, or ministers to be turned out.
- What was to be done now ? No money, and my for: mer patron in disgrace. Friends timid and cold, unable or unwilling to serve me. In this condition, in want of every thing but a fine coat and a laced shirt, I languished on for three lony melancholy years; sometimes elevated for a moment, by a smile or a nod, but for the most part solitary, dejected, and reduced to the agony of talking of my misfortunes and wants, and that basest of all conditions, the intolerable slavery of borrowing to support an idle, useless being. What would I then have given for a profession. My Greek, my wit, my Italian, my dancing, and my treaties, were .entirely useless to me.
* In this wretched situation, retired eighteen miles from London to an obscure village, in debt to tailors, drapers, butchers, and chandlers shops, I received a letter from an intimate friend, acquainting me, that he was just appointed to a considerable employment; and desiring me to come directly to town, and determine which of the considerable places, he had to bestow, would be most a greeable to me.
" Guess at my joy and gratitude, I can express neither, any more than any grief, but by those tears which now flow from my eyes, because that my friend is no more.
“ He overlooked my uvfitness for any place under him, from the ignorance of the law; and obliged me to take the best he had to give, which was full a thousand pounds a year. His age and my own, promised riches for many years to come; but it was permitted that he should die too, with which I end the history of myself.
" My reason for reciting it, you and Dick know too well, is to make him sensible, that WITHOUT THE KNOWLEDGE OF SOMETHING, WHICH MANKIND CANNOT DO WITHOUT, NEITHER WIT, PARTS, FRIENDS, NOR PATRONS, CAN SECURE A MAN FROM WANT.
" Let us suppose for a moment as law is not his favou. rite study, that he should succeed in the diplomatic path, and be appointed Secretary to a Minister at a Foreign Court; let it be reneinbered, that he cannot obtain that without a kind of knowledge to the full as difficult and plisagreeable in acquiring as the law of England; as re
mote from wit and poetry, and those pursuits with which he has too long amused himself. But, supposing him to have so far succeeded, as to be King's Secretary to the first embassy in Europe, he will not be in half so comfortabļe a condition to a man of sense, as if he was in a three pair of strairs chamber at the Temple, in the way of getting only 2001. a year.
« In short, places are so precarious, the attendance in search of them, so mean and unmanly, refusals and de. lays so insupportable, and the loss of them, when obtained, so dreadful to one who has not a good private fortune, that it is a line no reasonable man would ever adopt by choice; À USEFUL PROFESSION IS BETTER THAN A THOUSAND PATRONS. . " I grieve when I recollect, that my friend Dick is now twenty-two, and has not yet read one book since he ļeft Eton, for which he or his family, will be at all the better as long as he lives.”
We are not able to say what effect so much good advice produced; but fear the result was not that which the giver of it wished, as Mr. West, with a good heart, and many companionable qualities, was infected with the cacöethes scribendi, which, generally speaking, disqualifies those who labor under that incurable disease, for performing either the common business, for the more important duties of life, with efficacy and spirit.
. MILITARY HINTS. The army is perpetually changing its fashions, and not always for the better. 'Formerly the officers in the ranks were continually dressing their divisions with their espontons, and were much distinguished by their clothes from the soldiers. Now they are expected to be as steady under arms as their men'; and their dress is nearly the same. This may have a better effect at a review, and in real service contribute something perhaps to the officer's safety, though not so much as has been insagined*. Yet
* Much was said of the American riflemen picking out our offi. cers, especially at the battle of Bunker's Hill. I he writer of this compared the list of the killed and wounded there, with thcse of the first unsuccessful attack on Quebec and the subsequent victory, too dearly bought by the fall of Wolfe, in the seven years war. In both these last, the proportion of officers killed and wounded to that
it cannot be the duty of an officer in battle merely to fill up an interval in a battallion, as he has no personal means of annoying the enemy, but to attend to his men, and see that they do their duty ; and to perforin this effectu'ally, he must be frequently pointing and speaking to different parts of his division, and should also be easily distinguished by his dress. .
The scantiness of a subaltern's pay, in proportion to his necessary expences, has been much complained of. But hesides the consideration, that while every vacant ensigncy is as much solicited for as a lucrative employment, government has no right to draw an additional expence on the public, another real advantage is derived from it. If the property of the officers is so essential to a constitutional militia, any circumstance that coinpels the adoption of the same qualification in the army, has a direct-tendency to render that establishment inore safe and constitutional. One alteration however is absolutely necessary. Every officer who has served a given number of years, should have such a competence secured to him, as should enable him to enjoy the remainder of his life in credit and comfort; and such of his sons as choose to go into the army should, while subalterns, be enabled by the assistance of government to meet the increased expences of the times.
It seems a great absurdity in the naval service, that the admiral should always engage in the largest ship, and take personally the greatest share in the action. How is it possible that, so situated, he can observe and direct the rest of the fieet? And surely the maneuvres of a sea tight require some directions from the commanding officer, though not so much as those of a land battle. What would be said of a general, if, instead of giving his orders, he were to put himself at the head of the strongest regiment, and charge the enemy in person ?
The disposition is something like that of the heroes of Homer. They were personally the strongest men in the army, and acted as commanders only in arranging their troops for the attack. After that commenced, they min
of the men was greater than at Bunker's Hill, though the comparative disproportion of their numbers was also greater ; as at Quehee the army was on the war establishment, four officers to a company of an hundred men; and at Bunker's Hill on the peace establishment, three officers to a company of forty-five.
gled with the combatants, and by their own individual exertions chiefly decided the fortune of the day. The knights of the times of chivalry acted in the saine manner. In land battles at present this is exactly reversed. The officers in general are the least robust men of the army, and, by laying aside the esponton and the fusil, may be said to be entirely unarmed, as the sword in the charge of a battallion of foot must be totally useless. I have heard some Wise gentlemen talk of a pistol in the belt; a weapon only formidable in the hand of a footpad (or a duellist who uses it for less * justifiable purposes,) when placed close to the head. The only officer of the third regiment of guards who was wounded at St. Amand, received a hurt from a pistol that went off in his own pocket.
There is a passage something to this purpose in Dr. Gillies's History of Greece. Alexander' (at the passage of the Granicus), • after performing the duties of a great general, displayed such acts of personal prowess, as will be more easily admired than believed by the modern reader. But in the close combats of antiquity, the forces when once thoroughly engaged might safely be abandoned to their resentment and courage, while the commanders displayed the peculiar accomplishments to which they had been trained from their youth, in the most conspicuous parts of the field.' But this observation, though very applicable to the age of Homer, is by no means se to that of Alexander, when the military art had been carried to its highest pitch. As the armies of antiquity, from the depth of their files, did not extend to the distance of those of the moderns, and were not enveloped in clouds of smoke, the skill of the.commander was of greater use" throughout the whole action than it can be at present. Indeed the only use of a general now, after the first fire, arises from the whole army never being engaged together. There are circumstances when it is necessary for a general to expose his own perison to reaniinate his troops: but in our battles this can only have a very partial effect; while the personal exertions of an ancient general might be conspicuous to his
· * I do not mean to say that every man who fights a duel is in the wrong. Perhaps in the present state of things duelling is a necessary evil; but the second who suffers such a mode of fighting to take place, as makes the pistol almost certainly a fatal weapon, deserves to suffer the punishment of a cowardly assassin.