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his compatriots as a bad member of society. And why? because these systems are deemed useful and even neces. sary to keep the people in order *.

And if from bodies and establishments we descend to individuals or single instances, we shall find the worst and basest means employed to bring about (what have been deemed) just and lawful ends. When the Earl of Suffolk fled into Flanders, to promote an insurrection against Henry the VIlth, Henry doubtless thought himself warranted to countermine and subdue him. For this purpose, he caused Sir Robert Curson, captain of the castle at Hammes, to fly from his charge, and to feign himself the Earl's servant. Curson did so: and, having insinuated himself into the secrets of the Earl, and be come his contidant, communicated every thing to Henry. Meauwhile Henry, to confirm the credit of Curson, caused to be published at Paul's Cross the Pope's Bull of excommunication and curse against the Earl of Suffolk and Sir Robert Curson: “ wherein it must be confessed," says Lord Bacon very gently, “ that heaven was made too much to bow to earth, and religion to policy +."

In the time of Cromwell, a thousand tricks were played to find out and convict the disa ffected; and an accursed order of villains, who were called Duckoys and Trapans, were employed to worm out their secrets under hypocritical pretènces, and then betray thein. Thus overreached," Colonel Andrews lost his head : nor, says my author, 6 was the President Bradshaw ashamed openly 6 to declare in court, that by counterfeit letters he had “ correponded with him in the name of the Kingt."

alioqui impotens, sæva mutabilis : ubi vana religione capta est, meliùs vatibus quam ducibus suis paret. But the latter part of it, so much to the relish of Jeremy, may probably have made the whole unpalatables to the statesman : who, it is observable, hath never been forward to employ the priest in any of his manovres, when he could possibly do without him. Q. Curt. iv. 39.

* But do not men, who thus contend for the utility of all religions to the support of government, appear to put ull relgions upon a level, confounding the true with the false ? and, if government can as well be supported by fraud and imposture, as by a genuine and pure religion, must not the God of truth and the God of order seem two distinet beings?

† Hist. of Henry VII.--Zopyrus acted precisely the same part for Darius against the Assyriaus, whom he betrayed: only to gain their contidence more effectually, he caused his nose, ears and lips to be cut off, and then feigned to bave been thus treated by Darius, Just. Hist. i. 13.

| Bates's Elenchus Motuum, gc. Part II.

practice by the examples of Origen and Eusebius against Celsus and Porphyry*.

The real truth is, and it is vain to dissemble it, that christians in all ages have never scrupled at any means, to bring about what they deemed a good and pious endt: else whence those, not only frauds and tricks, but persecutions, inquisitions, and the various terrible modes of conversation, which have been practised in the church, from its earliest establishment down to the present hour? whence the infatuation to be persuaded, that men might actually do God service, while they made havock and destruction of his creatures ?

But there are no lengths to which men may not be carri-d, when influenced by zeal and bigotry, without any controul from reason and cominon sense. The very devout and over-righteous have ever been above ordinances, as the cant of fanaticism expresses it. The Antinomians of all ages have insisted, that the " obligations of morality and natural law are suspended; that the "elect guided by an eternal principal, more perfect and “ divine, are superior to the beggerly elements of justice "and humanity;" and, that, in short, every thing is lawful to the saints. To what purpose shall it be said to such, ye shall not do evil that good may come of it?

Meanwbile it is certain, that this principle of doing (or which is the same thing, of suffering) evil that good may come of it, has by no means been contined to the pale of the church ; it has indeed been countenanced by the universal practice of mankind, as well in civil as reJigious concerns. Ancient and modern writers have been quoted to justify the expedient of deceiving the people: and a man who should detect and expose aiiy received and established system in either govern inept or religion, however futile its foundation S, would be perscuted by

* Opera, tom. iv. p. 113. 236. edii Benedict.

+ From the allowance and practice of pious frauds it comes to pass, by an eay transition, tbal inany vastly good people, who would not srcear for the world, or commit any sin of eclat, yet will not scruple occasionally to lyethe meanest of all sins.

I Hæc Pontife:r Scærola nosse populos non vulterpedire igitur existimat falli in religione civitates, quod dicere etiam in libris rerum divinarum ipse -Parto non dubitat. Aug de Civ. iv. 27.

A very indifferent religion, well believed, will go a great way, says Jeremy Collier, the famous non-juror; an honest heathen is none of the - worst of men. View of the Immorality and Profaness of the English

Stage, p. 28-Jeremy Collier must have liked the following passage from Curtius nulla res efficacius multitudinem regit, quam superstitio;

his compatriots as a bad member of society. And why? because these systems are deemed useful and even neces-sary to keep the people in order*.

And if from bodies and establishments we descend to individuals or single instances, we shall find the worst and basest means employed to bring about (what have been deemed) just and lawful ends. When the Earl of Suffolk fled into Flanders, to promote an insurrection against Henry the VIIth, Henry doubtless thought himself warranted to countermine and subdue him. For this purpose, he caused Sir Robert Curson, captain of the castle at Hammes, to fly from his charge, and to feign himself the Earl's servant. Curson did so: and, having insinuated himself into the secrets of the Earl, and become his confidant, communicated every thing to Henry. Meauwhile Henry, to confirm the credit of Curson, caused to be published at Paul's Cross the Pope's Bull of excommunication and curse against the Earl of Suffolk ? and Sir Robert Curson: “ wherein it must be confessed," says Lord Bacon very gently, “ that heaven was made too inuch to bow to earth, and religion to policy t."

In the time of Cromwell, a thousand tricks were played to find out and convict the disaffected; and an accursed order of villains, who were called Duckoys and Trapans, were employed to worm out their secrets under hypocritical pretences, and then betray them. Thus overreached, Colonel Andrews lost his head : nor, says my author, “ was the President Bradshaw ashamed openly " to declare in court, that by counterfeit letters he had “ correponded with him in the name of the King."

alioqui impotens, særa mutabilis : ubi vana religione capta est, melius vatibus quam ducibus suis paret. But the latter part of it, so much to the relish of Jeremy, may probably have made the whole unpalatable to the statesman: who, it is observable, hath never been forward to employ the priest in any of his manævres, when he could possibly

do without him. Q. Curt. iv. 39. . *But do not men, who thus contend for the utility of all religions to the support of governinent, appear to put ull relgions upon a level, confounding the true with the false ? and, if government can ! as well be supported by fraud and imposture, as by a genuine and pure religion, must not the God of truth and the God of order seem two distinct beings?

+ Hist. of Henry VII.--Zopyrus acted precisely the same part for Darius against the Assyriaus, whom he betrayed: only to gain their confidence more effectually, he caused his nose, ears and lips to be cat off, and then feigned to have been thus treated by Darius. Just. Hist. i. 13.

Bates's Elenchus Motuum, &c. Part II.

Even in the case of petty traitors, these arts have not been judged too mean to be practised; and unless my memory deceives me, John the Painter's conviction could not be made full and complete, till some pretended friends had cajoled and drawn him to convict himself.

All such arts, however, are not only mean, but base and wicked. A man who would preserve his integrity untainted, should not put himself into the attitude of a villain, no, not for a moment. The inward feelings soon accommodate themselves to the outward situation and garb; the artificial character soon becomes natural; and therefore I should dislike, a player, to act a had man but I would not, as an advocate, defend a bad cause. :

S.

A HIGHLAND STORY. Origin of the name of BeniN GOROD, in Mull, a moun

tain with Basaltes Pillars, 200 feet in height; discovered by Mr. Raspe in the year 1789: and far superior to Staffa, the Giants' Causeway, or any other specimen of the kind hitherto known.

The name of this unequalled natural phenomenon arises from a story of a nature so peculiarly tragical, that it merits to be preserved. There are many traditions respecting it, but the following seems to be the most au. thentic.

A powerful chieftain, who was Lord of the island of Mull many years ago, was no less distinguished for the extent of his territories, where he lived in great feudal magnificence, than for a ferocity of temper which knew no bounds, and a spirit of avarice which he found no means of satisfying but by grievously oppressing his tenants and vassals, and seizing their property and estates.

He was particularly anxious to acquire the possessions of a neighbour, whose name was Gorod, on account of their extent and contiguity. But he had long abstained from any attempt of this kind, both as Gorod, though above fifty years of age, had remained unmarried, and, failing of him and his heirs, the estate reverted to the chieftain, and because his only son, who was reared, according to the custom of those times, in the family of a vassal, was then in his custody.

VOL. VI. '

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Gorod, however, contrary to the expectation of every one, married a young lady of great beauty and accomplishments, whom he had accidentally met with in one of the neighbouring islands ; and the chieftan had reason to apprehend that the expectations with which he nad flattered himself of getting his vassal's estate, by a failure of his posterity, would be frustrated..

Impelled by lust and disappointment, he resolved to destroy the hopes and happiness of Gorod by seducing his wife, which he with difficulty effected, and at last carried her in triumph to his castle. .

Gorod concealed his rage, whilst he inwardly vowed vengeance: and having contrived, in the course of a great hunting party, at which the chieftan and his son, Gorod and the lady, and all the principal people of the island assisted, to bring the whole company to the summit of a lofty mountain, he seized the youth, and, standing on the brink of a frightful precipice, he ex, claimed “ This instant I plunge myself and this boy down the cliff, unless that infamous woman is put to death by the hands of her seducer.”

The chieftan, trembling for the safety of the only support of his family, and encouraged by the persuasions of his unhappy mistress, who presented her breast to the stroke, reluctantly obeyed.

Gorod then cried out “ I am revenged; but that tyrant must be punished.”—Then, springing with the une happy youth in his arms, they were dashed in pieces in an instant.

The place has ever since been known by the name of Benin Gorod, or the Hill of Gorod : and the prospect from its summit, particularly when the spectator revolves in idea the scene that was there exhibited, excites a degree of horror which it is impossible to describe,

TIQUUS.

KIRK LEAS IN YORKSHIRE. KIRK-Lea is built upon a rising ground above the spot where the old abbey stood. This abbey was en. dowed by King John with five manors and various lands (the present estate). The grant itself to the ancestors of this family is curious; comprising the designation of the manors and estate upon a piece of parchment not larger than a quarter of a sheet of paper, to which the

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