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our heads are 'prone or erect; whether we are naked or covered with hair; whether we have tails or no tails, horns or no horns, long ears or round ears; or whether we bray like an ass, speak like a man, whistle like a bird, or are mute as a fish ; nature never intended these disa tinctions as foundations for right of tyranny and oppression. But perhaps it will be said, it is absurd to make such an inference from a mere supposition that a man might have been a brute, and a brute might have been a inan; for, the supposition itself is chimerical, and has no foundation in nature; and all arguments should be drawn from fact, and not from fancy of what might be or might not be. To this I reply, in few words, and in general; that all cases and arguments, deduced from the important and benevolent precept of doing unto as we would be done unto, necessarily require such kind of suppositions; that is, they suppose the case to be otherwise than it really is. For instance, a rich man is not a poor man; yet, the duty plainly arising from the precept is this—the man who is now rich ought to behave to the man who is now poor in such a manner as the rich man, if he were poor, would be willing that the poor man, if he were rich, should behave towards him. Here is a case which in fact does not exist between these two men, for the rich man is not a poor man, nor is the poor inan a rich män; yet the supposition is necessary to enforce and illustrate the precept, and the reasonableness of it is allowed. And if the supposition is reasonable in one case, it is reasonable, at least not contrary to reason, in all cases to which this general precept can extend, and in which the duty enjoined by it can and ought to be performed. Therefore, though it be true that a man is not a horse; yet, as a horse is a subject within the extent of the precept, that is, he is capable of receiving benefit by it, the duty enjoined in it extends to the man, and amounts to this,-- Do you, that are a man, so treat your horse, as you would be willing to be treated by your master, in case that you were a horse. I see no absurdity nor false reasoning in this precept, nor any ill consequence that would arise from it, however it may be gainsaid by the barbarity of custom.
In the case of human cruelty *, the oppressed man has * This term the author uses to express the cruelty of men unto men ; and that of brutal cruelty, to express the cruelty of men anto beasts.
8 tongue that can plead his own cause, and a finger to point out the aggressor; all men that hear of it shudder with horror; and, by applying the case to themselves, pronounce it cruelty with the common voice of humanity, and'unanimously join in demanding the punishment of the offender, and brand him with infamy. But in the case of brutal cruelty, the dumb beast can neither utter his complaints to his own kind, nor describe the author of his wrong ; nor, if he could, have they it in their power to redress and avenge him.
In the case of human cruelty, there are Courts and Laws of Justice in every civilized society, to which the injured man may make his appeal ; the affair is canvassed, and punishment inflicted in proportion to the offence. But alas! with shame to man, and sorrow for brute, I ask tne question, What laws are now in force, or what Court of Judicature does now exist, in which the suffering brute may bring his action against the wauton cruelty of barbarous man ? The laws of Triptolemus are long since buried in oblivion, for Triptolemus was but a heathen. No friend, no advocate, not one is to be found amongst the f bulls nor calves of the people, to prefer an indictment on behalf of the brute. The Priest passeth by on one side, and the Levite on the other side the Samaritan stands still, sheds a tear, but can no more; for there is none to help: and the poor, wretched, and unbefriended creature, is left to mourn in unregarded sorrow, and to sink under the weight of his burden.
But suppose the Law promulgated, and the Court erected. The Judge is seated, the Jury sworn, the indictment read, the cause debated, and a verdict fouud for the plaintiff. Yet what cost or damage? What recompense for loss sustained ? In actions of humanity, with or without law, satisfaction may be made. In vam rious ways you can make amends to a man for the injuries you have done him. You know his wants, and you may relieve him. You may give him clothes, or food, or money. You may raise him to a higher station, and make him happier than before you afficted him." You may be feet to the lame, and eyes to the blind. You may entertain him, keep him company, or supply him with every comfort, convenience, and amusement of life, which he is capable of enjoying. And thus may you make some atonement for the injury which yod have done unto a man; and by thy assiduity and future tenderness, thou mayest perhaps obtain his pardon, and palliate thine own offence. But what is all this to the injured brute? If by thy passion or malice, or sportive cruelty, thou hast broken his limbs, or deprived him of hie eye-sight, how wilt thou make him amends? Thou canst do nothing to amuse him. He wants not thy money nor thy clothes. Thy conversation can do him no good. Thou hast obstructed his means of getting subsistence; and thou wilt hardly take upon thyself the pains and trouble of procuring it for him, (which yet by the rule of justice thou art bound to do.) Thou hast marred his little temporary happiness, which was his all to him. Thou hast maimed or blinded him for ever; and hast done hiin an irreparable injury.
t Psalm lxviii. 30,
LOUIS VIII. SURNAMED CŒUR DE LION.
This Prince died of the palsy, which he contracted on visiting the tomb of Thomas-à-Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, when he was advanced in years, in hopes of procuring, by the intercession of that Saint, the life of his eldest who was dangerously, ill. Louis fondly hoped that the Saint would exert his utmost endeavours to return that kindness which he had shewn him whilst living, by giving him an asylum in his kingdom, when in that of his own Sovereign, Henry II. he had been proclaimed a rebel and a traitor.
Louis made an edict, that no courtesąn should be allowed to wear a golden girdle (one of the marks of female elegance in dress of his time), under a very severe penalty. This edict gave rise to an old proverb, “ Bonne renommé vault mieux que ceinture dorée-A good reputation is of more value than a golden girdle.'
In 1566, Charles IX. caused the tomb of this monarch, in the Abbey of Barbeau, to be opened in his presence. The body was found entire, bad rings on the fingers, and a chain of gold round the neck. Charles, not a Prince of great delicacy, had them taken off, and wore them many years.
THE TRAVELLER :
AN ORIENTAL APOLOGUE.
As soon as I perceived the first sparkling fires of day, I mounted my ass, and took the path which leads to the high road of Babylon; scarce was I there, when in raptures Í exclaimed,,
O how mine eyes do wander with joy o'er yon green hills ! with what delicious perfumes do these flow’ry meadows embalm the air ! I am in a beautiful avenue, my ass and I may
retire under the shade of its trees when it shall seem good unto us. How serene the Heavens! how fine a day ! how pure
the air I breathe! well mounted as I am, I shall arrive before dusk.
Whilst I uttered these words, besotted with joy, I looked kindly down upon my ass, and gently stroking him,
From afar I see a troop of men and women mounted upon beautiful camels, with a serious and disdainful air,
All clothed in long purple robes, with belts and golden fringes, interspersed with precious stones.
Their camels soon caine up with me; I was dazzled by their splendour, and humbled by their grandeur.
Alas! all my endeavours to stretch myself served only to make me appear more ridiculously vain.
Mine eyes did measure them incessantly ; scarce did my head reach their ancles; I was sorely vexed from the bottom of my soul, nevertheless did I not give over fol. lowing them
Then did I wish that my ass could raise himself as high as the highest of camels, and fain would I have seen his long ears peep over their lofty heads.
I continually incited him by my cries, I press'd him with my heels and my halter; and though lie quickened his pace, yet six of his steps scarce equalled one of the camels.
In short, we lost sight of them, and I all hopes of overtaking them. What difference, cried I, between their lot and mine! Why are they not in my place? or why am I not in theirs ?
Wretch that I am! I sadly journey on alone upon the vilest and the slowest of aniinals; they, on the contrary--
happy they !-would blush to have me in their train ; so despicable am I in their eyes !
Busied in these reflections, and lost in thought, my ass, finding I no longer pressed him, slackened his pace, and , presently stooped to feed upon the thistles.
The grass was goodly; it seemed to invite him to rest ; so he laid him down: I fell; and like unto him who from a profound sleep awaketh in surprise, so was I on a sudden awakened from
meditations. As soon as I got up, the voice of thousands came buzzing in my ears; I looked around, and beheld a troop still more numerous than the former.
These were mounted as poorly as myself; their linen tunics the same as mine; their manners seemed familiar; I addressed the nearest. Do
your utmost, says I, you will never be able, mounted as you are, to overtake those who are a-head of you.
Let us alone, says he, for that; the madmen! they risk their lives; and for what ? to arrive a few minutes
We are all going to Babylon; an hour sooner or later, in linen tunic or purple robes, on an ask or a camel, what matters it, when once one is arrived; nay, upon the road, so you know how to amuse yourself?
You, for example; what would have become of you had you been mounted on a camel ! your fall, says he, would have been fatal. I sighed, and had nothing to reply.
Then looking behind me, how great was my surprise to see men, women, and children, following us a-foot, some singing, others skipping on the tender grass; their poor backs bowed under their burdens.
Then cried I, transported beyond myself, They go to Babylon as well as I: and is it they who rejoice and is it I who am sad ? when on a sudden my oppressed heart became light; and I felt a gentle joy flow within my veins.
Ere we got in, we overtook the first party; their camels had thrown them; their long purple robes, their belts, and gold fringes. interspersed with diamonds, were ali covered with mud.
Then, ye powerful of the earth, even then it was I perceived the littleness of human grandeur; but the just estimation I made of it did not render me insensible to the misfortunes of others,