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merchant at Aleppo used to dine at the house of a cook, whose name was Clock-maker; and the handsome Ichoglan in the Bashaw's seraglio was surnamed Crookback.
THE FRENCH MISER. AVARICE, of all other passions, is the least to be accounted for, as it precludes the miser from all pleasure except that of hoarding; the prodigal, the gamester, the ambitious, having something to plead by way of pallia. tives for their inordinate affections to their respective objects and pursuits; but the miser gratifies his passion at the expense of every conveniency, indulgence, or even necessary of life. He is aptly compared to the magpie, who hides gold which he can make no use of
M. Vandille was the most remarkable man in Paris, both on account of his immense riches, and his extreme avarice. He lodged as high up as the roof would admit him, to avoid noise or visits, maintained one poor old woman to attend him in his garret, allowed her only seven sous per week, or a penny per diem. His usual diet was bread and milk, and, for indulgence, some poor sour wine on Sunday, on which day he constantly gave one farthing to the poor, being one shilling and a penny per annum, which he cast up, and, after his death, his extensive charity amounted to forty-three shillings and fourpence. This prudent economist had been a magistrate, or officer, at Boulogne, from which obscurity he was promoted to Paris, for the reputation of his wealth, which he lent upon undeniable security to the public funds, not caring to trust individuals with his life and soul. While a magistrate at Boulogne, he maintained himself by taking upon him to be milktaster-general at the market, and from one to another filled his belly, and washed down his bread at no expense of his own, not, doubtless, from any other principle than that of serving the public in regulating the goodness of milk. When he had a call to Paris, knowing that stage-vehicles are expensive, he determined to go thither on foot; and, to avoid being robbed, he took care to export with himself neither more nor less than the considerable sum of threepence sterling, to carry him one hundred and thirty miles; and with the greater facility to execute his plan of operation, he went in the quality of a
illusion of the Devil certain pilgrims qui alloient a luy a nage, which I understand to mean only by water. Legende d'or, fol. viii. See also Blomefield's Hist. of Norfolk, II. P. 861.
CHARACTER OF THE SPANIARDS. A war with the Saracens, prolonged, with few intervals, for eight hundred years, nourished in the Spaniards & vigour of character, a love of their country, and a passion for glory. The necessity of continually engaging formed as many heroes as there were men in each city: military renown was the great object of their vows; and the tombs of the deceased were adorned with a number of obelisks equal to that of the enemy they had slain in battle*. While they lived exposed to continual dangers they acquired that gravity of deportment, that deliberate valour, that perseverance and vigilance, which still distinguish the Spanish nation. Before the ambitious and warlike reigns of Ferdinand, the Emperor, and Philip II. the sagacity and vigilance of the Spaniards appeared formidable to the other nations of Europe t. These reigns continued to call forth and exercise the spirit of the nation, and to support, if not to heighten, that national character which had been formed by the wars with the Moors. And this national character still shone forth with undiminished lustre after the imprudence of the court and exhausted resources had undermined the foundations of the grandeur of the empire. As prosperous war rouses the genius of a nation, the glory of letters would have corresponded to that of the Spanish arms, had not the progress of taste and knowledge been checked by the tyranny of the inqui. sition, and that despotism which was introduced into the government. But although these circumstances have prevented among the Spaniards the growth of sound philosophy, in their poetry, history, romances, and even
Johannes Genesius Sepulveda de Rebus Gestis, Caroli V. lib. 1. + Machiavel says, in his Account of the State of France, that the French were afraid of the Spaniards on account of their sagacity and vigilance. It is true that this account was written after Ferdi. pand had begun to reign : but it was before the exertions of that Prince could have stamped on the minds of his subjects a national character.
their commentaries on the sacred scriptures, as well as on Aristotle, whose metaphysical notions were deemed so orthodox by the Catholic church, we recognize that boldness and invention, that subtlety and refinement, which were conspicuous for ages in the military and political conduct of Spain.
Thus, that power of genius and valour among his subjects, which at once adorned and disgraced the feeble reign of Philip III. seems deducible from a train of moral causes, as obvious in their existence as powerful in their nature. But when the reader revolves what is left on record concerning ancient Spain, he will be inclined perhaps to subscribe to the opinion of an ingenious writer, that the chą. racters of nations as well as families are influenced by accidents antecedent to birth *, and particularly by clic mate, acting either immediately with powerful energy on the fabric of their being, or as a local circumstance leading to a variety of action in the economy of civil life. At all times, valour and genius have ennobled the character of the Spaniaads. Not the robust German, impelled by the fury of a savage religion, displayed such enthusiasm in árms and contempt of death as shone forth in the inyin, cible resolution of the inhabitants of Numantia, Astapa, and Saguntum. A greater hero than Viriatus is not to be found in the history of ancient Rome f. Between the times of the Scipios and those of Augustus, there intervened a period of two hundred years. During this long space, Spain maintained a contest with the policy and disciplined valour of Rome: and it seemed uncertain which masters the world was to obey, the Spaniards or the Romans. The destiny of Rome to give law to the nations finally subdued all resistance, and Spain had the glory of being the last that yielded to the Roman yoke. But it was the fortune of the vanquished to receive literature and refinement from the conquerors of the world : and, in return, Trajan added lustre to the Roman purple ; and the names of Quintilian, Martial, Mela, Seneca, Lucan, and Florus, appeared in the list of Latin au. thors.
* Essay on the History of Mankind, &c. by Dr. Dunbar. .
+ This man, who had resisted the Roman arms for twenty years, and who was deemed invincible, was at last insidiously cut off by the Romans, who bribed his body-guards.
THE LITERARY EDUCATION OF WOMEN. There are many prejudices entertained against the character of a learned lady; and perhaps if all ladies were profoundly learned, soine inconveniences might arise from it; but I must own it does not appear to me, that a wo-, man will be rendered less acceptable in the world, or worse qualified to perform any part of her duty in it, by having employed the time from six to sixteen in the cultivation of her mind. Time enough will remain, after a few hours every day spent in reading, for the improvement of the person, and the acquisition of the usual accomplishments. With respect to these accomplishments, I will not presume to direct the method of pursuing them. I will not so far intrude on a province which by no means belongs to me. The ladies themselves, and their instructors, want no directious in matters of external ornament, the end of which is to please on intuition. However arrogant the men have been in their claims of superiority, they have usually allowed the ladies the possession of a delicate taste in the improvement and perception of all kinds of beauty.
The literary education of women ought indisputably to be varied according to their fortunes and their expectations. Much refinement and a taste for books will injure her, whose time, from prudential motives, must be entirely engrossed by economy. Few women are indeed exempted from all attention to domestic care. But yet the unmarried, and those who enjoy opulence, find many intervals which they often devote to sone species of read. ing. And there is no doubt but that the reading would be selected with more judginent, and would afford more pleasure and advantage, if the taste were formed by early culture*. . I will then venture to recommend that ladies of this description should have a classical education. But let not the reader be alarmed. I mean not to advise that they should be initiated, without exception, in Greek and Latin : but that they should be well and early acquainted with the French and the English classics.
* " The girl is altogether kept from exercises of good learning and kr:owledge of good letters, or else she is so nouseled in amorous bookes, vaive stories, and funde trifling faucies, &c.” É. Hake's Touchstone for the Tirne présent.' See the passage quoted in the ingenious Mr. T. Warton's History of English Poetry.
: Ås soon as they can read with fluency, let them begin
to learn Lowth's Grammar, and to read at the same time some very easy and elegant author, with a view to exemplify the rules. They should learn a part in grammar every morning, and then proceed to read a lesson, just in the inanner observed in classical schools in learning Latin. After a year spent in this method, if the success is adequate to the time, they should advance to French, and study that language exactly in the same mode. In the French grammar, it will not be necessary to go through those particulars which are common to the grammars of all languages, and which have been learned in studying English.
Several years should be spent in this elementary process; and when the scholar is perfectly acquainted with orthogra. phy and grammar, she may then proceed to the cultivation of taste. Milton, Addison, and Pope, must be the standing models in English ; Boileau, Fontenelle *, and Vertot, in French; and I wish these to be attended to solely for a considerable time. Many inconveniences arise from engaging young minds in the perusal of too many books. After these authors have been read over with attention, and with a critical observation of their beauties, the scholar may be permitted to select any of the approved writers of France and England, for her own improvement. She will be able to select with some judgment, and will have laid a foundation which will bear a good superstructure. Her mind, if she has been successful in this course, will have imbibed an elegance which will naturally diffuse itself over her conversation, address, and behaviour. It is well known that internal beauty contributes much to perfect external grace. I believe it will also be favourable to virtue, and will operate greatly in restraining from any conduct grossly indelicate, and obviously improper. Much of the profligacy of female manners has proceeded from a levity occasioned by a want of a proper education. She who has no taste for well-written books will often be at a loss how to spend her timet; and the consequences of such a
* Though Fontenelle is accused by the critics of deviating a little from the classical standard, he is yet a very pleasing writer.
of How happy is it TO KNOW How to live with oneself, to find oneself again with pleasure, to leave oneself with regret! The world then is less necessary to one." -MARCHIONESS DE LAMBERT.