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Farther out to sea,

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Of all our wants and sins!
What to thee's the felon's curse ?

What to thee who wins?

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The hundred for the one !

canted, and ladies wooed; here is a song, But tears, and tearful words, and sighs as deep refuted by a fact that is matter of every-day
however, on none of these themes, and yet a

As sorrow is-these were his epitaphs !
Thus, -- (fitly graced,) he lieth now, inurned

experience. They say, that“ the appearance
capital song still :

In hearts that loved him, on whose tender sides of these works, from remote antiquity, in a
The Convict's Farewell.

Are graved his many virtues. When they perish,- single volume, and under a common name,

He's lost!-and so't should be. The poet's name
Row us on, a felon band,

And hero's-on the brazen book of Tinie,

proves a concurrent belief in the individuality

Are writ in sunbeams, by Fame's loving hand; of the writer.” It proves no such thing;
Till we lose all sight of land,

But none record the household virtues there.

and even if it did, “concurrent belief" would
And then-we shall be free!

These better sleep (when all dear friends are fled)
Row us on, and loose our fetters;

In endless and serene oblivion !

not be sufficient to prove the singleness of
Yeo! the boat makes way:
Let's say “Good bye' unto our betters,

What we like least is the hint that this authorship. The Bible is the production of
And, bey for a brighter day!

volume is a farewell offering: had the work several inspired writers, living at varieties
Farewell, juries,--jailors,---friends,
shown any symptoms of decay in beauty or

of periods that spread over no less than fifteen
(Traitors to the close)
Here the felon's danger ends.

in strength, we might have been silent and centuries; yet it is collected into a single
Farewell, bloody foes!

contented; but when an author, after sing-authoritative volume ; and though no one
Farewell, England! We are quitting

ing the happiest of all his strains, turns directly attributes to it“ individuality of au-
Now thy dungeon doors :
Take our blessing, as we're flitting,
round in the inidst of our approbation, and thorship,” yet all

, or at least the immense
“A curse upon thy shores !"

vows that he will sing no more, we are not majority of Christians, treat it as the work
Farewell, England,-honest purse
sure but we ought to reckon him ungrateful,

of a single mind. The Roman Catholic
and take our leave of him and his silence in

writers say, that the omission of certain parts a surly mood.

of the Apocrypha is a mutilation of the Bible.
Murder thriveth in thy cities,

Martin Luther, for his objections to the epistle
Famine through thine isle:

of St. James, was called an enemy of the
One may cause a dozen ditties,

Homer and his Writings. By the Marquis de Bible; and the English critics who have
But t'other scarce a smile.
Fortia d'Urban. Paris, 1832. Fournier.

ventured to write against the Song of Solo-
Farewell, England,-tender soil,
Where babes who leave the breast,

The object of this very able and learned mon, have been branded as enemies to the
From morning into midnight toil,

pamphlet is to establish the individuality and Scriptures; as if scepticism respecting any
That pride may be proudly drest !

real existence of Homer, against those who part implied a doubt of the whole. But even
Where be who's right, and he who swerveth
Meet at the goal the same;

maintain that the Iliad and Odyssey are the a closer and more convincing parallel is fur-
Where no one hath what he deserveth,

rhapsodies of several bards, ingeniously sys- nished by the sacred records : the book called Not even in empty fame!

tematized and arranged by some unknown the Psalms of David is far from being the
So, fare thee well, our country dear!

editor. The writings of Coleridge and Keight- / work of the minstrel monarch, as is suffi-
Our last wish, ere we
Is-May your heart be never clear

ley,—the most popular as well as the most ciently evident from the titles and the sub-
From tax, nor tithe, nor woe!

valuable of modern contributions to classical jects of many; yet his name is prefixed to May they who sow e'er reap for others,

literature in England, -have directed public the entire one hundred and fifty. Now, from May friends grow false, and twin-born brothers attention to this topic, which, though strenu- such instances, it clearly follows, that colEach hate his Mother's son !

ously debated by continental scholars, seemed lection into a volume, and ascription of in-
May pains and forms still fence the place

to be strangely neglected in this country. dividual title, prove just nothing:
Where justice must be bought !
So he who's poor must hide his face,

The Marquis de Fortia is a strenuous advo- The second point, urged by the Marquis
And he who thinks--his thought !

cate for the individuality of Homer, and, of and his friends with most pertinacity, is the
May Might o'er Right be crowned the winner,
The head still o'er the heart,

course, for the unity of authorship in the similarity of style and structure in the books
And the Saint be still so like the Sinner,

lliad and Odyssey : Mr. Keightley unhesi- of the Iliad and Odyssey: to this it has been You'll not know them apart!

tatingly, and Mr. Coleridge with obvious re- very fairly answered by Mr. Keightley, that
May your traders grumble when bread is high, luctance, take the opposite side, and thus the same is observable in the Spanish legend

And your farmers when bread is low,
And your pauper brats, scarce two feet high,

comes “the tug of war. Before giving any of the Cid, and the English ballads of Robin
Learn more than your nobles know!

account of the controversy, we must premise, Hood. To which we may add, that even
May your sick have foggy or frosty weather,

that, in our opinion, the mental qualifications our best Biblical critics have not been able
And your convicts all short throats,
And your bloou-covered bankers e'er hang together, of the combatants, and the peculiarities of to discover any striking dissimilarity between
And tempt ye with one pound notes !

their intellectual conformations, have had the style and structure of Moses and Ma-
And so,-with bunger in your jaws,

no small influence in determining the side lachi, after the lapse of a thousand years. And peril within your breast,

which they should advocate. Those possessed
And a bar of gold, to guard your laws,

The two arguments that we have been
For those who pay the best;

of a warm and vivid imagination, who have considering, were, however, brought forward
Farewell to England's woe and weal !

been accustomed from earliest youth to dwell by the propounders, more to catch the un-
...... For our betters, so bold and blythe,
May they never want, when they want a meal, with rapture on the creations of poesy, and thinking, than from any confidence they re-
A Parson to take their Tithe!

to form in their souls pictures of the events posed themselves in their validity. This pro-
There are one hundred and seventy songs portrayed in the writings of genius, have in- vocatio ad populum is generally the resort of
in this small book, and, from the specimens voluntarily acquired the habit of personifying a learned man, when he feels conscious that
which we have given, our readers may sup-

for themselves some author of these creations. his arguments are weak: we have therefore
pose that many others are to be found of An ideal Homer exists in their phantasy, met it with an example which, from the pos-
equal beauty, elegance, and spirit : but this and they eagerly seize on every circumstancesibility of being either misunderstood or
is not all; the volume is wound up with some that seems to prove that some archetype misrepresented, we should have been loth to
thirty pages odd of Dramatic fragments,' existed for the unreal phantom. On the other use, but for its perfect applicability to the
which recall certain dramatic scenes, by the hand, critics, whose enthusiasm is cooled by subject.
same author, to our recollection. They are their judgment, have been diverted from the But the followers of Wolf have made just
varied and forcible, and distinguished by effect produced by the whole poem, to ob- as great blunders in their general propo-
a happiness and ease of expression which re- serve the discrepancy of its parts, and have sitions as their opponents. If the asserters
mind us of the golden age of the drama. We detected what they consider sufficiently im- of Homer's personality have been too ready
cannot make room for more than one; nor portant criterions to characterize a diversity to generalize, Wolf and the advocates for the
will it be one that we think the most poetic: of authors. The first impulse of every youth-

joint-stock” composition of the Iliad have
we quote it for its good sense and good feel- ful student is in favour of the former-sober been too ready to make distinctions where
ing-qualities less common in verse than age yields many converts to the latter.

no difference existed. Of this we have a
they deserve to be.

The controversy itself affords few points splendid instance in their separating tbę
An Epitaph.

of interest to general readers ; but there are periods when the use of letters and the use

many incidental topics involved in the dis- l of writing materials were introduced into
Mark, when he died, his tomus, bis epitaphs!
Men did not pluck the ostrich for his sake;

cussion, and more especially certain laws of Greece. In the name of common sense,
Nor dve 't in sable. No black steeds were there, historical evidence, which are of far more how could letters be taught, and to what use
Caparisoned in woe; no hired crowds ;
No hearse, wherein the crumbling clay (imprisoned

extended importance than the personality of could they be applied, if there were not ma;
Like ammunition in a turbril) rolled
all the poets that ever existed.

terials on which they could be represented ?
Rattling along the street, and silenced grief;

The very first assumption made by those
No arch whereon the bloody laurel hung ;

In an old humorous dissertation on abstrac-
who advocate the personality of Homer, is
No stone; no gilded verse ;--poor common shows!

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defined to be," that which includes neither our English scholars meditate works on the hindrance, however, like the interpreter in the the notions of eaters nor eatables.” And subject. We have been induced, therefore, Pilgrim's Progress, stood between them and letters without writing materials is just as to make some observations on the flagrant success, and this was Mrs. Eliot, who would ridiculously unsubstantial. Mr. Keightley errors committed by the combatants on both look keenly and coolly on the petitioners, and " the Greeks may have had letters in sides: all, indeed, arising from the same

sift the tares from the wheat, and even then says, the tenth century before Christ, but they had source—an attempt to settle the question by deal out the dole

with a prudent hand, while she

suffered little ingress to her husband's study. no means of procuring the papyrus before external evidence, of which there is not a the seventh century, and parchment was not sufficiency for its determination. We think, surgery, and hundreds of sick, and weak, and

"This good lady had great skill in physic and invented until long afterwards." The re- however, that internal evidence, far the most

maimed, owed praises to her; while her husband ference to "rolls,” in the prophets Isaiah, accurate test, may be found, of sufficient would often stand by, and urge her to do the Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, makes the latter strength to set the controversy at rest; but most good to the worst enemies he had in the clause of this sentence more than doubtful, to which side the scale will preponderate, we, world. *** It was a joy to the poor,

when they especially as the Jews imported all their in- as is the duty of honest critics in a matter spied him coming across the fields, or through ventions in the arts; and, consequently, if not yet thoroughly investigated, refuse to the forests, to their lonely homes; for they knew parchment was used by them in the early deliver our judicial opinions.

that his charity had little prudence in it. Dr. part of the eighth century, when Isaiah flou

Dwight says, that one day, the parish treasurer rished, it must have been known to some

having paid him his salary, put it into a bandother Eastern nation, and most probably the

Select LIBRARY.--Vol. VI.

kerchief, and tied it into as many hard knots as Phenicians, at an earlier period. But, after Lives of Eminent Missionaries. By John

he could make, to prevent him from giving it all

, papyrus and parchment may have been Carne, Esq., author of Letters from the away before he reached his own house." Onlis unknown, and yet other materials for writing East.' London : Fisher & Co.

way, he called on a poor family, and told them

that he had brought them some reliet. He then have existed. The rivaš TTUKTÙS, which | The printing of this work is not yet com- began to untie the knots; but finding it a work Homer mentions in the legend of Belle-pleted; but, two hundred pages having been of great difficulty, gave the handkerchief to the rophon, could scarcely have been slabs of kindly sent to us, we are happy in being able mistress of the house, saying, 'Here, my friend, marble folding on hinges: and, whatever were

to report on them, as giving promise of an take it; I believe heaven designs it all for you.' its materials, its existence was conclusive as interesting volume. They contain the Life Such a man had need of an excellent manager to the knowledge of means of transmitting of John Eliot, the early Missionary among

at liome." written information at the time when the

the American Indians; an Account of the The account of Eliot's first preaching to Iliac poems were composed. It is not a little Mission to Tranquebar; and, the Life of the Indians is well told :strange, that those who quote this

passage Swartz. The zeal and labours of the latter “On the 28th of October, 1646, he set out prove the non-existence of letters at the time I have been so often referred to of late years,

from his home, in company with three friends, of the Trojan war, because the words cópata that we intend to confine our extracts to the to the nearest Indian settlement: he had preAvypà may, by possibility, signify hierogly- Life of Eliot, a man of extraordinary zeal, viously sent to give this tribe notice of his phic signs, should not have discovered that and more than ordinary good sense, who coming, and a very large number was collected aivaš

, a Turròs, however they chose to inter- early arrived at the sound conclusion, that from all quarters. If the savages expected the pret it, completely overthrew an important people must be first civilized, before they often heard, to be like that of a warrior or and almost essential division of their argu- can be christianized; -- whose preaching sachem, they were greatly deceived. They saw ment; if the phrase woeful symbols proves went hand-in-hand with social instruc- Elioton foot, drawing near, with his conipanions; the non-existence of letters, surely the phrase tion; and who not only expounded doc- his translation of the scriptures, like a calumet folded tablets proves the existence of some trines, but taught the wild hunters of the

of peace and love, in his band. He was met by epistolary substance, as convenient and por- forest to plant, to reap, and to build. Of the their chief, Waubon, who conducted him to a table as papyrus or parchment.

early life of Eliot little is known : he was large wigwam. After a short rest, Eliot went The uncertainty of the time and place of educated at Cambridge—was a non-conforme into the open air, and standing on a grassy Homer's birth is but of little service to the ist, and early in life, in 1631, embarked for mound, while the people formed around him in opponents of his individuality-Quintus Cur- | America, where he passed many years in the all the stillness of strong surprise and curiosity, tius, Petronius, and many others, whom no quiet exercise of the ministry; but during he prayed in the English tongue, as if he could one dreams of robbing of their personality, this time, he was preparing himself for his

not address heaven in a language both strange are precisely in the saine predicament. The mission, diligently studying the language of and new. And then die preached for an hour in

their own tongue, and gave a clear and simple phrase in the History of Herodotus, so fre- the Indians-no light labour, from the little quently adduced to prove that the life of affinity it bore to European tongues. The and life, of the blessed state of those who be

account of the religion of Christ, of his character Homer ascribed to the historian, is not au- enormous length of some of the words, says lieved in him. Of what avail would it have been thentic, proves nothing in a case where accu- Mather, was enough to make one stand to set before this listening people the terrors of rate chronology cannot be expected. From | aghast; for the simple words, our question,' the Almighty, and the doom of the guilty ? This the biography of Homer, he appears to have was expressed by an Indian word of forty- wise man knew, by long experience as a minister, flourished five centuries before the historian; three letters; and our loves,' by one of that the heart loves better to be persuaded than but Herodotus, in his history, says that thirty-two;" quaintly adding, “the words look- terrified—to be melted than alarmed. The Homer and Hesiod flourished about 400 | ed as if they had been growing ever since

whole career of the Indian's life tended to freeze years before him, which the critics deem a the confusion of Babel."

up the finer and softer feelings, and make the manifest contradiction. Now this is really

more dark and painful passions familiar to Eliot, however, did not permit this ulterior

him. attributing to the ancients more accuracy in object to interfere with his present duties ;

"A few of the chiefs' friends alone remained, chronology, on all occasions, than either they and Mr. Carne gives a very pleasant sketch

after the people were retired. One of the Chrisor even we possess. Homer and Hesiod were of the simple-hearted goodness of the man, tians perceived an Indian, who was hanging down not cotemporaries; and Herodotus, inciden- during this period :

his head, weeping; the former went to him, and tally introducing their names, speaks vaguely ' He rose with the break of day, and he had spoke encouraging words, after which he turned of the time that elapsed since their account need to do so: these were the only hours he his face to the wall, and wept yet more abunof the Grecian deities had been sanctioned could allow for his beloved study. After bis dantly: soon after, he rose and went out. When by general approbation; and, of course, dates simple meal of vegetables was over, the cares of they told me of his tears,' said Eliot, 'sve refrom the latter, whose genealogies of the his people came thickly upon him. He solved to go forth, and follow him into the gods were

more precise and particular. was their only teacher in the wilderness. wood, and speak to him. The proud Indian's Thus, in the present day, a person might There was another, and a silver cord, by which spirit was quite broken: at last we parted, greatly say, “I write two centuries after the age of he drew the affections of his people to him- rejoicing for such sorrowing. * * Shakspeare and Milton;" but who, from such charity; as pure and lasting as was ever exer- “ Two or three days after these impressions a loose phrase, would attempt to identify the grapher and friend, ' with what ardour, what

cised by any man. “How often,' says his bio- had been made, Eliot saw that they were likely time in which either flourished?

to be attended with permanent consequences. The controversy respecting the individu- arguments

, he became a beggar to others, for Wampus, an intelligent Indian, came with two

The poor of his of his companions to the English, and desired to ality of Homer has excited more attention on

people, and they were many, for disasters often be admitted into their families. He brought his the Continent than in this country; but we came on the colony, seldom failed to repair to son, and several other children with him, and have reason to believe that more than one of his home with the tales of their distress. A l begged that they might be educated in the

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Christian faith: the example quickly spread, had lived so long together, that the idea of se

The Compositor.
and all the Indians who were present at the paration seemed not to have entered their minds; “ Let not the compositor be confounded with
fourth meeting, on the 9th of December offered -the mother of his children, the companion of the printer or press-man. These two agents of
their children to be instructed."

threescore years, was laid in the grave by his a most marvellous art are separated by an im-
Eliot now lost no time in applying to the
hand. And when he stood beside her place of

mense interval in typographical importance.
General Court of the colony, and the In- rest, 'I heard and saw her aged husband, who

The one presides over the first transformation
dians received a grant, on which to build a
else very rarely wept,' writes Mather, 'yet now

which speech undergoes-the other only directs
with a flood of tears, before a large concourse of the machine, which repeats it in a thousand
town :-

people, say, over the coffin, "Here lies my dear, eclios. Mechanism already begins to deprive
“The progress of civilization which followed, prudent, faithful wife ; I shall go to her, but she
was remarkable for its extent and rapidity: the

the latter of his occupation ; without his as-
cannot return to me.' He spoke not of hope or sistance the ink is now spread over the types,
women were taught to spin, and they soon found comfort—what had he to do with them--for he without his aid the paper is placed upon the
something to send to the nearest markets all must soon be called also. And now he prepared form, slid under the press, and given forth, by
the year round: in winter they sold staves, to depart.

He was still able to ascend baskets, and poultry; in spring and summer,

the nute instrument, with the stamp of thought the hill on which stood the church, and not long and the voice of genius. Thus the press-man fish, grapes, strawberries, &c.

after he delivered his last discourse there; this
“In the meanwhile, he instructed the men

finds his department invaded by a workman
was four years before his death. Even now, at more laborious than himself, and not, like him,
in husbandry, and the more simple mechanical the age of eighty-two, he persisted in going subject to hunger, fatigue and sleep.
arts: in hay-time and harvest, he went forth

forth, as far as lie was able to visit his loved
into the fields with them. All this was not done settlements; for such was the excellence of his

"The compositor is beyond such competition; in a day, for they were neither so industrious constitution, that his frame was not yet bowed, place of his intellectual activity. There can

he may defy the power of matter to supply the nor so capable of hard labour as those who had and his eye was still bright: earth had nothing exist no subtle combination of springs and been accustomed to it from early life. *

so welcome to him as to mingle yet a while with wheels to enable the fingers of an automaton to “* I set them,' says Eliot,'therefore, to fell and his Indians, sit in their assemblies, and listen,

seize the characters which correspond with the square timber. When it was ready, I went, and when he could speak to them no longer; and written word, and arrange them in the composmany of them with me, and on their shoulders

the groves, the fields, the isles, that his foot had carried all the timber together. There is a great known so long, were they not dear to him as

ing-stick; for to do this, the automaton must

be able to read. See the compositor in action,
river which divideth between their planting ever, though his head was white with nearly a
ground and dwelling place; therefore, I thought hundred years, and his hand shook at last like paying attention to the motion of tuis fingers--

his eyes fixed upon the manuscript, and scarcely
it necessary that we should make a foot bridge an infant's? The Indians saw, as they expressed and you readily infer, from the intelligence of
over, against such time in the spring as we shall it, that their father was going home. *
have daily use of it. I told them my purpose

his look, and the expression of his countenance,

“ The infirmities of old age now came fast that in him the mind alone is at work, whilst his and reason of it. With their own hands did

upon him. When he could no longer leave his riglit hand, which goes from the case to the they build a bridge eighty feet long, and nine dwelling, the ruling passion was strong to the composing-stick and back again to the case, high in the midst, that it might stand above the

last: he caused a young Indian, in his primi-
floods : and inasmuch as it hatlı been hard and

seems but to follow the poise of his body. To
tive ignorance and darkness, to dwell with him,
tedious labour in the water, I said, if any of and, as life ebbed away, he occupied himself in positor's duties, and is the more difficult, because

read well is a very important part of the com-
them desired wages, I would give them. They teaching him passages from the seripture, with the literati and men of science who intrust their
answered me, they were thankful I had called

as much ardour and diligence as if a chief of the
them to such a work, and desired no wages.'

works to him, neglect, for the most part, to write
desert was before him."
This commencement soon after led to the rais-

legibly. I speak not here of those who leave to
ing a town, of the name of Naticke, in this very

We shall return to this volume, as soon as him the care of punctuation, sometimes even
spot. His earnest efforts for the thorough settle-
it is published.

that of correcting their violations of grammar
and orthography,

What services does he not
ment of the Indians were at last successful. He
caused them to plant apple and other trees, and

render to ungrateful authors, who repay them in
divers orchards. A chapel and a school-louse

The Complete Angler. With Notes by Sir calumny, and impose upon him ia their errata also were raised. Tlie town consisted of three

Harris Nicolas, and illustrations by Sto- the responsibility of their own blunders, which fair streets, two of which stretched along one

thard and Inskipp. Nos. 1, 2, and 3. they term typographical errors, or negligence of side of Charles river, and the other along the

Pickering.

the corrector? If his vanity had likewise the opposite shore. The houses, some of which There is so much nature, science, and learn

resource of errata, how many correct sentences were built in the English style

, evinced no small ing about Izaac Walton, 'as to have secured might he not claim, substituted in the proof for ingenuity in the construction. One of them, for him the love of all classes; and the pre

the original solecism?
larger than the others, was used as a deposit for

“ It may readily be imagined that the compo-
sent truly splendid edition of the Complete sitor must come to his first apprenticeship in
the skins, furs, and other articles for sale or
barter by the Indians. A fort was also at this Angler, will, we think, make him still more

typography, with a mind stored with all the ele-
time finished : it was of a circular form, and widely known. This work was heretofore mentary knowledge necessary for any literary
palisaded with trees, and covered about a quarter illustrated, as we had imagined, to perfec- profession. He must be gramınatically acquaint-
of an acre of ground. Perhaps he foresaw the tion—and we are still of opinion, that some ed with his own language, and, according to the
war, occasioned a few years afterwards by Philip, of old Wale's designs have never been kind of work he has to do, must be conversant
the celebrated Indian warrior." I
equalled in natural grace and simplicity. with at least the nomenclature of the science

treated of in the manuscript before him. More
For the remainder of a long life, Eliot Major's edition was most beautiful--but this
pursued his labours with equal diligence, but must, we suppose, be received as the crowning than one compositor, it is true, las learned whilst
varying fortune-failing sometimes from the jewel-it is said, that three thousand pounds composing, as more than one author has done

whilst writing. A printing-office is a school of
opposition, sometimes from the indifference of have been already expended on the work.
The domestic scenes have fallen to the pencil his first throb of poetic inspiration, and die

universal knowledge; it was there Beranger felt
others, and occasionally, it must be admitted,
from his own visionary folly, as when he deter-

of Stothard, and the fish to the pencil of learned orthography in the exercise of a calling
mined to instruct some of the young savages in Inskipp, and both have acquitted themselves

which was also the first occupation of Franklin. classical literature. In 1674, when the great worthily, some designs of the former are

But in return for a few illustrious reputations, war with the Indian Chief Philip broke out, exquisitely happy, and the chub of the latter how much merit has remained unnoticed! Who

are as natural as nature itself. no less than twelve prosperous towns had

knows how many men of talent and learning been established. In the hope of averting

attain to obscure old age under the workman's the coming misery, Eliot sought an inter- | Le Livre des Cent-et-Un. Vol. V. Paris,

jacket? Old age! I am mistaken. The life of view with Philip; but the native warrior had

a compositor is soon worn out by fatigue, night

Ladvocat. set his fortune on the die, and resolved to

labour, and impatience at his uncertain and in(Second Notice.)

definite condition. What, in fact, is his social abide the chance; desolation was let loose

We present our readers this week with a

rank? To what class does he belong? Is he an upon the country. Eliot, however, lived to

artisan or a clerk-one of the people, or a memsee his people again gathering together, positor,' by Bert, formerly editor of the place wherever le may be. The book of civi: translation of the paper entitled the “Com

ber of the upper classes ? He feels himself out of
though in small numbers

Journal du Commerce, and the bold champion lized society, so methodical in its scientific divi
“ But the time came that his wife died, and of liberty and constitutional rights. Bert was
the loss found him all unprepared for it; they one of those who signed the famous protest of He is a workman, for he lives upon wages, and

sions, has forgotten him in its table of contents.
| For a very interesting account of this celebrated

the journalists against the royal ordinances is hired by a master. One of the people by his
man, sec Athena um, No. 208.
of July 1830.

origin, his connexions and habits of life, he is

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brought very near the higher classes by his at- | posed, and his countenance indicative of thought. , certain individuals, wearing the same habilitainments and his co-operation in producing He is about to make an important speech, move ments, and speaking the same language. They works of intellect. Few roads to fortune are or criticize a measure ; and a small dose of ora- saw not those men with pale faces, blackened open to him, and if ever he raise himself to dis- torical vanity is mingled with his zeal for hands and fiery eyes who had come from the printtinction, it is by paths not yet trodden. You the general good. His speech, whether read, ing-office, and moulded to a sense of freedom, would sooner see him turn author, soldier, or recited from memory, or extemporized, is a population reputed ignorant, and a slave to its statesman, than become a master printer. He grave, elegant, and florid ; nothing in it savoirs physical wants. What do they require? Give can never be an Elzevir, a Stephens, or a Didot. even of the familiarity of common language, them bread and let them disperse.' But they To found a printing-office requires either capital much less of the slang of the printing-office. already knew, that to have the certainty of obor credit; and the compositor is without patri- | The meeting is not always unanimous; it con- taining bread, they must enjoy freedom. For mony, or the means of growing rich; nor is he tains divisions and parties, but without coteries the man of the printing-office, freedom was bread able to borrow. He is not one who can specu- or intrigue. Its finances form the principal itself; and the censorship, poverty and death. late upon the dower of his wife--if hic take one; subject of debate; but the accounts are not sub- If the effect of servitude acted less immediately and as for his bank, consisting of his weekly jected to very severe regulations; the whole upon others, it was not less certain. This is wages, he seldom sees it increase under the in- security consists in the integrity of the accoun- what the man of the press taught verbally; for Auence of thrift, or the power of compound in- tants and the confidence of their constituents. he had himself learned it from books, and by terest. The most able compositor does not gain. The society has never once had occasion to take communication with enlightened men. Thus is at Paris, more than six francs a day; and if measures against a breach of such confidence. knowledge propagated, and, by intelligent reyou want to calculate his yearly income, do not “ When the business is over, the meeting is flectors, penetrates into the darkest corners of by any means multiply 365 by 6—for every day dissolved; friends and intimates then approach human society. is not paid as a working-day. You must deduct, each other, and groups are formed; invitations “ The artisan of the printing office is the reif you please, the days of rest forced and volun- to breakfast are given, appointments made for the presentative of manual labour in its most noble tary. And then, we men of letters, and men of evening and the rest of the day devoted to form, and when it approaches nearest to the typography, know not how to hoard: we live on, pleasure.

functions of thought. It is his lot at all times to heedless of the future, and careless of money “ Such are the general outlines of a compo- stipulate for the interests and rights of the labomatters, following the variations of our tempe- sitor's life; but in this calling, as in every other, rious part of the population. When the day rament, whether they impel us to hard work or there are exceptions and individualities. I could arrives on which the operatives in common shall to the luxury of idleness; not that slothful įdle- name the man who reads his manuscript without claim a more equitable distribution of the fruits ness which kills time by consumption-but that

understanding it, without seizing the idea ex- of industry, the compositor will be spokesman ardent and energetic idleness which devours it; pressed by the characters which his fingers have on the occasion." not that silly, loitering idleness which plays at assembled, like the tapestry workmen at the dominoes, drinks beer, walks upon the quays and boulevards, increases the number in mobs, and is producing. I could indicate another whom i Iolande, a Tale of the Duchy of Luxembourg;

and other Poems. London: Cadell. runs away at the sight of the police-but that could vouch for as prudent, economical and idleness belonging to ardent imaginations, kind of regular habits-he is upwards of thirty, and We like the border sound of some of the hearts, and manly propensities, which delights has a wife and children; he is preparing to be

verses of this little book : the border is the in billiards, in the estaminet, in jovial meetings come a corrector and foreman.

northern Parnassus: there song has never and in midnight revels.

“Let us separately consider the compositor been silent--it descends, like an inheritance, “ If the compositor places little in the saving attached to a daily journal ; he must of necessity from father to son: no sooner has one bard bank, he never fails in his subscription to the be assiduous at his work; for him there is no laid aside the harp than another takes it up, fund for mutual assistance. Above all, he is a Sunday—no Monday nor Thursday- no relax- | and the voice of inspiration is continued. good companion, and a faithful observer of the ation, except perhaps the four or five days in | The author of 'Iolande' cannot take a high regulations of the masonic or other society of the year, which the editor devotes to his own place amongst the minstrels; yet he has which he may be a member; he contributes his profit at the expense of the subscribers. If the written some pleasing things--deficient, pershare of songs, for he is a song writer of the school of Beranger, whase works he knows by also greater indemnities: he shares certain pri- haps, in fire, and that hurried vehemence of heart and sings with feeling. He almost equals vileges with the editor, knows the news a day

diction, which has of late distinguished the his master in richness of rhyme, patriotism, before the public; the managers of theatres,

poetry of the border; but abounding, neverand philosophy, but is distinguished from him fêtes and concerts fatter and caress him, be- theless, in sweet, and graceful, and tender by a touch of carbonari-ism. Take notice, that, cause he has it in his power to shorten or passages. The following explains itself during the restoration, he conspired, as we lengthen the space kept at the end of the jour- tales of true love are understood by all :conspire in France, in a loud voice and in full nal for notices. Nothing new escapes him; Within the Vale of Vianden lay chorus,

politics, literature, and art, have no mysteries A fair green space, and wildly gay, “The spirit of association and confraternity for him.

Where Nature bad her charms combined,

Where grove, and stream, and valley join'd, supplies the place, with the compositor and the " Thus the compositor is a stranger to nothing Where glen, and rock, and mountain high press-man, of that vulgar and provident care in the intellectual world. It may be said, that

Were blent in strangest harmony. which is often nothing more than the virtue of every idea passes through his mind; he takes The meetest spot when flow'ry May

With blossom deck'd the hawthorn spray; egotism. The society for mutual assistance is his and elaborates it in his turn, clothes it in new

When Spring her brighter tint renew'a, security against want; it possesses a common words, and then circulates it among that portion And Earth her greener mantle strew'd; fund, formed and kept up by periodical sub- of the community who read badly, or do not read Where 'neath the moonbeam's silver light, scriptions. Any member deprived of his re- at all. Placed as a truckman and messenger

The elfin king and queen,

And many a laughing mountain sprite, sources by an unforeseen misfortune, or the want between the lettered and the ignorant, the com

Within the forest sheen of work, receives a daily sum sufficient to guard positor was, during fifteen years, the instructor Might oft their midnight revels hold, him against the attacks of indigence, though not of the people. If philosophers and orators pre

And trace the ring, as wont of old. to maintain him in idleness. In sickness he is

Here oft, when Evening spread her veil, pared the revolution, the agents of the press

Fair Iolande and Courad met; in want of nothing; he has the attendance of hastened its accomplishment. They sowed its

While nought was heard along the dale the physician to the society, receives medicines seeds and made them spring up among the un- Save the river's ceaseless fret, from the dispensary of the institution, and is cultivated masses; and when the crop was ripe, While winding amid rock and bush, cheered by the consolation of his brethren. His | they first gave the signal and began the harvest.

The current onward sped,

And, foaming, broke with noisy gush widow and children are not left without support, | The government fancied, in its blindness, that Along its channell'd bed.

nor his remains deposited in the tomb without the people did not understand the theories of the An oak the rugged cliff o'erhung, due honours. A committee directs the cere- publicists. "Charter, right of suffrage, liberty

And wild-flowers to each crevice clug, mony of his modest funeral-a deputation from

The prickly gorse, the yellow broom of the press! Words void of sense! What cared

Now freshly bursting into bloom, the society joins his attendant friends—a bro- the people about article fourteen? Was the Did o'er the streamlet wildly wave, ther, in a brief oration utters the last adieu, and workman an elector or an author? What were

And charms to savage grandeur gave. eulogizes the good qualities of the deceased. to him the quarrels which agitated the upper

Here oft in play would Conrad strain

For lolande each flower to gain, " Sunday is the day on which general meet- surface of society?' Thus spoke rash ministers; And sigh the tale that maiden's ear ings are held, to regulate the affairs of the so- and when they heard the cry of Vive la charte ! Delights from lover's lips to hear :ciety. The compositor on a Sunday seems vociferated by forty thousand workmen-when

Thus days flow'd on of love and joy,

As though young life had no alloy. quite a different man from the compositor during they beheld banners, inscribed with the motto

But where is he whose life is spun the week. He has quitted the workman's jacket, Liberty of the press ! born along by naked arms, In Time's uptroubled course to run for the elegant frock, which he wears with they scarcely believed the evidence of their Though woman's heart may thus be blest, graceful ease, and sports the gold chain en sautoir senses ;--but they did not distinguish in the

Man's warmer spirit brooks not rest;

Her office is with lightsome play over his velvet waistcoat. His step is com- ranks, at the head of these intrepid citizens, To chase each graver care away:

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But man must hold a wider course,

this book has produced a profit of forty-four per established in which booksellers have no inNor yield to woman's gentle force,

cent. This excessive rate of profit has drawn terest, they can never be safely trusted.”
And time and chance will often bring

into the book trade a larger share of capital than
Slight causes whence results may spring
Of deeper charge. 'Twas thus with him :
was really advantageous; and the competition have often exposed ; but, as a proof that old

The operation of the system in detail we
He fill'd Love's
goblet to the brim-

between the different portions of that capital has
The cup was broken ere he quaff'd
Its deep intoxicating draught.
naturally led to the system of underselling, to

experience can speak with the voice of pro-
which the committee above-mentioned are en-

phecy,we venture to prognosticate that twenty
There are many passages of equal, perhaps deavouring to put a stop.

out of the twenty-four reviewing columns in
superior merit.
We like the poem called the Castle of this combination,--the public and authors.
"There are two parties who chiefly suffer from Colburn and Longman's Literary Gazette

,

will to-morrow be filled with Colburn and
Landeck:' the language is free and uncon-
strained; and there are some fine pictures glad to sell for 5s. the volume which the reader

“ Many, an industrious bookseller would be Longman's books. Does the reader ask why

to-morrow? Because it is “serviceable Saturof a domestic kind. · Piers Cockburn' is the

holds in his hand, and for which he has paid 6s.; day”! The orders, they know, will be hurried
least to our taste of anything in the volume :

and, in doing so for ready money, the tradesman | back from the country to be in time for the
it has a little of the martial spirit of the old who paid 4s. 6d. for the book, would realize, monthly parcels, and before an independent
ballad about it, but is deficient in that rude without the least risk, a profit of eleven per cent. critic can offer an opinion.
energy which characterizes the olden min-

on the money he had advanced. It is one of the It was to put an end to this system, so ably
strels.

objects of the combination we are discussing, to and honestly exposed by Mr. Babbage, that
prevent the small capitalist from employing his the Athenæum was established.

capital at that rate of profit which he thinks undertaking was certain of finding a fierce
On the Economy of Machinery and Manufac- most advantageous to himself; and such a pro-
tures. By Charles Babbage, Esq., A.M. ceeding is decidedly injurious to the public."

and resolute opposition; it was opposed to
London: Knight.

all trading influences, and our success has

Surely, this strange proceeding cannot be been little short of a miracle. We persevered,
The receipt of this work, in its present justified; we doubt if it can be legally de- however, against all difficulties, and we think
readable size, has been to us an unmixed fended.' Twenty-five per cent., though but Mr. Babbage ought, upon this occasion, to
gratification. It is one we anxiously de-

a reasonable profit to a bookseller paying have borne testimony to our humble exer-
sire to see circulated, and we hope that heavy rent and oppressive taxes, and giving tions.
the price of six shillings will secure for it a

two or three years' credit, is excessive when
sale of ten or twenty thousand copies. We charged by a man living in some obscure EDINBURGH CABINET LIBRARY. No.VII.
have not now to review it; “the substance

court and receiving ready money; at any
of a considerable portion of it,” says Mr.

British India. Vol. II. Edinburgh: Oliver
rate, a bookseller, who is a mere agent be-
Babbage himself, appeared among the pre-tween the public and the publisher, is the

& Boyd.
liminary chapters of the mechanical part of best judge of his remunerating profit. The This is the second volume of the work which
the Encyclopædia Metropolitana.It is, in
effect of the combination is cruelly oppressive

we so lately recommended to our readers'
fact, the same work-under another form,

on the small capitalist and industrious trades particular attention. The History of India
and with additions which was noticed a
short time since at great length in this confidently hope that many respectable men,
man, and injurious to the public; and we

is concluded about the middle of this volume,

and the remaining chapters treat of the social
paper; and it only remains for us now to

who have become subscribing parties to the and political condition of India; the history
recommend it, once more, strongly to our
readers. One subject, however, is touch-agreement, will immediately reconsider the mythology, manners, and literature of the
subject.

Hindoos; the British Government of India;
ed by Mr. Babbage, on which we had an

Mr. Babbage sketches a plan of a cam

the British social system in India, a very in-
article actually prepared : but we had rather
put a man of his weight and influence paign against Paternoster Row: it is

, we fear, teresting chapter; and the industry and com-
not a little visionary ; but there is one im-

merce of that country. The whole is written
forward on this occasion, and shall, there-
fore, allow him to state the grievance—we

portant fact incidentally stated, which has and compiled with the care which has ever
allude to the combination existing among glad to have his authority to justify our as-
often been urged in this paper, and we are

marked the 'Edinburgh Cabinet Library,'

and we are glad to see that the liberality of
the Publishers. Not to involve the question
sertions.

the publishers, and zeal and diligence of the
with minute calculations, it may be stated

" It will be fit to inform the reader of the na

editor, are not without their reward, and that
generally, that the retail profit allowed by
ture of the enemy's forces, and of his means of

a second edition of every volume of this work
the publisher to the bookseller, is twenty-five attack and defence. Several of the great pub- is almost a certainty, We have them of

lishers find it convenient to be the proprietors • Egypt,' and ' Africa;' a third of the ‘Pa"Until very lately, apmultitude of booksellers of Reviews, Magazines, Journals, and even of lestine;' and, we hear, that the ' Polar Seas' in all parts of London, were willing to be satis

Newspapers. The Editors are paid, in some in- is fast advancing towards a fourth. fied with a much smaller profit, and to sell, for

stances very handsomely, for their superinten-
ready money, or at short credit to persons of dence; and it is scarcely to be expected that they
undoubted character, at a profit of only ten per should always mete out the severest justice on works

Sermons. By the Rev. Hobart Caunter, B.D.
cent., and in some instances even at a still
by the sale of which their employers are enriched.

8vo. London: Bull; Rivingtons.
smaller percentage, instead of that of twenty- The great and popular works of the day are, of A plain, sensible volume—the sermons good,
five per cent. on the published prices.

course, reviewed with some care, and with de- as addressed to a congregation, and excellent
“Now, a certain number of the London book-

ference to public opinion. Without this, the for home meditation-earnest in their sincerity, sellers, have combined together. One of their journals would not sell; and it is convenient to and full of doctrinal authorities. There are objects is to prevent any bookseller from selling be able to quote such articles as instances of twenty-four sermons—those entitled 'Death, the a book at less than ten per cent. under the pub- impartiality. Under shelter of this, a host of Wages of Sin'—Forgiving Enemies' – The lished price; and in order to enforce this prin- ephemeral productions are written into a transi- Rich Man and Lazarus -and On Evil Speakciple, they refuse to sell books, except at the

tory popularity; and by the aid of this process, ing,' are most to our liking. We shall glean publishing price, to any bookseller who declines

the shelves of the booksellers, as well as the pockets one ear from the harvest, in the hope that the signing their agreement. By degrees, many were

of the public, are disencumbered. To such an ex- good seed, though scattered in the highways,
prevailed upon to join this combination; and the

tent are these means employed that some of the may not perish :-
effect of the exclusion it inflicted, left the small periodical publications of the day ought to be re- “We are not to imagine, because a man may
capitalist no option between signing or having garded merely as advertising machines. That the be depraved, be it in whatever degree, that we
his business destroyed. Ultimately, nearly the reader may be in some measure on his guard are thereby justified in calumniating him. Our
whole trade, comprising about two thousand four against such modes of influencing his judgment, detestation of his vices arms us with no judicial
hundred persons, have signed the agreement.

he should examine whether the work reviewed is authority to condemn him. It is not for sinners

published by the bookseller who is the proprie- to judge sinners. Where can be the moral equity “In whatever manner the profits are divided tor of the review; a fact which can sometimes be in transgressors pronouncing sentence against between the publisher and the retail bookseller, ascertained from the title of the book as given at the transgressing? I do not, of course, apply the fact remains, that the reader has paid for the head of the article. But this is by no means this argument to a condemnation of crimes cogthe volume in his hands 6s., and that the author a certain criterion, because partnerships in va- nizable by human laws, since here is a delegated will receive only 3s. 10d.; out of which latter rious publications exist between houses in the authority to judge—an authority acknowledged sum, the expense of printing the volume must book trade, which are not generally known to by all civilized societies, and sanctioned by God be paid ; so that in passing through two hands | the public; so, that in fact, until Reviews are himself ;-) refer only o moral judgments.

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