« السابقةمتابعة »
tered brick-bats, tiles, and branches of trees royal democracy, had run its course, and passed “ Richard's precocious intellect, cultivated about us, startled even the oldest warriors. I the fatal gates which open upon the abyss of with the most assiduous care, was already defell in, at the gap of a hedge, with four soldiers, eternity, and which time itself passes not twice. veloped and matured, when a dreadful reverse none of whom seemed willing to pass first. “On the eastern bank of a muddy and rapid of fortune justified the forebodings of the faithTheir sneers at the young Yager' made me stream, at some distance from the sea, and near ful minister, by overturning the frail edifice of take the lead, and I stepped over the corpse of to a wealthy and populous city, stood a seigneu- | his fortune, and throwing him, proscribed and an enemy, whom our shots had just killed. I
rial, though modest mansion, of graceful and al- a captive, among the fragments of a soiled and cast a melancholy look at the pale face of the most modern architecture, sheltered from the west broken throne. Richard had penetrated into dead soldier, who was immediately rifled of his winds by the luxuriant foliage of thickly studded Vincennes, the Luxembourg, and Ham. He watch by the man who followed me.
avenues of ancient elm and poplar trees. Two had seen the sufferings of his grandsire, and felt “We got near a house which was attacked long iron rods, placed according to the princi- | the profound emotion which they inspired. He on all sides, and, expelled by fire and smoke, ples of Franklin's marvellous science, rose above had played upon the platform of the donjon, six grenadiers rushed out of it, offering a close the roof, and preserved it from lightning. At and had sat upon the knees of his captive anfront, and presenting their bayonets to us. the extremity of each rod glittered and creaked
The conversation, exhortations, and More than twenty shots were fired, and they at the same time a light weathercock of gilt cop- animated countenance of the latter, were deeply sank one after the other to rise no more. I was per. The pediment of the building was adorned impressed on his memory; seventy years, which taking aim, when a fellow-soldier, who was just with broad escutcheons filled with initials, instead had elapsed since that period, had not effaced loading his musket, called my attention to a of armorial bearings designating the family to
the most minute circumstance. Frenchiman who was quietly kneeling in an whom this ancient inheritance belonged.
" . He spoke little of himself,' would Count open shed strapping his knapsack, as if lie was
" It was a dwelling of a smiling, and at the Richard say to his assembled children, “but a preparing for a parade: "Take off that one!
same time stern aspect. Its proximity to the great deal of France. Ile never ceased exsaid the soldier. " I will not,' I replied; but river, of whose animated navigation it command- Korting us to resignation ; le entreated us not at the same moment some shots from another
ed an uninterrupted view, the variety of the to disgrace our misfortune with unworthy laquarter stretched the defenceless man on the scenery which surrounded it, the fertility of the
mentations. All his regrets were centered in ground. *** The battle continued. Without
soil on which it stood, and the luxuriance of his benefactors. When their names issued from hope of coming out of it alive, I continued firing the vegetation around it, rendered it a unique his lips, his voice would falter, his eyes fill with and sheltering myself behind trees for about spot. °It was a perfect solitude, but neither iso- tears, and his language become more penethree hours, which passed to me like so many lated nor dull in monotonous uniformity. trating and more elevated. It was then alone minutes, without my being aware that on both
" Numerous inhabitants occupied this man
that his heart was accessible to grief. “Shame! sides of me our troops had been twice driven
sion ; but none were strangers to each other. shame, my son! (he would exclaim,) upon those back by the furious onsets and the superior They consisted of the old Count Richard, (hie
who have forgotten all! Old rights, old titles, numbers of the enemy. It might be about seven had no other name in the country,) his chil
and old misfortunes! Deeds of renown, and in the evening, when a comrade called out to dren, and his children's children.
benefactions of past and present times; all, all me, “Yager, look to your left!' I quickly turned
“ The Count had already reached an advanced
have been forgotten! But when Providence in that direction, and perceived a party of
age; but his simple and mild manners, the ha- gives lessons to man, it always selects virtue to Frenchmen rushing down towards us; and at bitual calmness of his mind and temper, and
aillict with misfortune!” * the same time I saw our major giving the signal the strength of a naturally healthy constitution, “« Yes certainly,' my grandfather would say, of retreat, which was repeated by the bugle. upon which excess had never proved its baneful “the evil was deep, inveterate, perhaps incuraThe narrow bridge over which we had to pass influence, retarded in him that sad and inevit- ble. If ever extreme attempts were legitimate, was choked with people, and we stopped for
able debility which, in the midst of life, is the it was at that period. Only there was still room some time exchanging shots with the enemy. commencement of death,
for delay. Who knows that if the enemy had not At last we were compelled to think of our own
“Each evening, when the last gleam of day- been atacked, he would have risked anything, safety: one of our officers boldly leaped into the light had disappeared, the whole family assem- or, risking everything, whether his rashness ditcli, and was wounded; I followed him, and
bled round the Count, in the drawing-room of would not have facilitated his defeat and confugot safely up the opposite bank, and behind the mansion. This apartment was large, lined
sion ? But these are now useless mysteries, some trees, where I was shieltered. Perhaps I
with plain gray wainscot, and a bronze lamp which the period that could unravel them, is might have got off unhurt; but at this moment
was suspended from the ceiling. On one side no longer able to disclose. a wounded friend called for my assistance, and
of a chimney of white marble was an immense "Noble race of kings, give not way to de. while I was hastening towards him, three shots
arm-chair of green morocco leather ; it was old, spair! Future ages love to recall old things. were fired at me; the first missed, the second mutilated, and worm-eaten ; but the Count, who Let the wind of adversity pass by!' separated both my bandoleers across my chest, always punctually occupied it, held it in great “ It was of the Castle of Ham, that the Count and the third hit me under the knee and tore
veneration; for it was the chair of his grand- had the most numerous and vivid recollections, the muscle of the leg." father.
because he had seen it at a much later period. We cannot follow the writer through the
"Opposite to this precious family relic was He related old stories of this castle, which his melancholy details of his rescue and ultimate hung a large picture; the brilliant but incor- young grandchildren often made him repeat. cure, nor enumerate the many instances of
rect work of a painter who had enjoyed some “Sometimes he described the building. It humanity, as well as of cruelty, he subse- celebrity. The principal figure was habited in was a fortress,' he would say, “built by the Conquently met with. The spirit in which the a flowing purple robe with pendant sleeves. stable Saint-Pol, during the last half of the volume is written is excellent; but the work Near him, and on a stool of black velvet, was a fifteenth century, upon the site of the old castle. is not worth translating. To those, however, small chest of chased gold of exquisite work- It formed a parallelogram, flanked at the angles who are fond of light reading in German, we
manship. Nearer still, stood a rich and elegant with round towers, connected by very narrow can recommend it.
table, upon which a roll of parchment half un- ramparts. A square tower at the north-west,
with the date of 1825. Below was the sign the same form stood on the opposite or southLe Livre des Cent-et-Un. Vol. VII, Paris, manual of the then reigning monarch, Charles X., east side. Two half moons from west to east, Ladvocat. London, Dulau & Co.
and under it the signature of his keeper of the were the only external works. Parallel to the
seals. (Second Notice.)
south-east rampart, and at its foot, flowed the We give this week a translation of the paper
“ This picture was an object of great venera- canal of the Duke of Angoulème. The river by the captive ex-minister Peyronnet, en
tion to the inhabitants of the mansion. It per- Somme, upon whose banks the town is built, titled ' Ham. In this singular article, his petuated recollections dear to the family; and was not far off. In the court-yard were two thoughts dive into futurity, and he imagines Count Richard, anxious that the tradition of the shabby brick buildings, used as barracks. The
events which it recorded should not be lost, his grandson, in the year 1900, giving an
state prison was at the extremity of one of these often made it the subject of conversation with buildings. It was there, my dear children, account to his own children and grandchil- his grandchildren.
that, in a small and dismal room, I used to see dren of the castle of Ham, and the captivity “He was old enough to have witnessed the your great-grandfather, calm, patient, asking for of their ancestor.
reverses of fortune which his grandfather had nothing, complaining of no one, and forgetting Ham.
undergone. He was born during the first ad- none of the misfortunes of his country, save I, secunda
ministration, of which the latter was a member, those which appertained to himself only: he had Omine; et nostri memorem sepulchro when all seemed to prosper and succeed with graven above his mantel-piece, the simple and Scalpe querelam.-Ilor. iii. ode xi.
him. He afterwards saw him struggling against mysterious device of Philip the Bold Moult me "Three generations had passed away, since parties, then retreating before them, then return- tarde! the standard of France floated over the turrets ing to his high office ; always a devoted and self- “ Under the old monarchy, this castle was of the Kremlin, and over the Pyramids-that age immolated victim, whenever the extreme of peril long used as a state prison. Louis XVI., who of military royalty, parliamentary royalty, and I threatened the prince and the state.
abolished the state prisons, changed its dese
tination ; but under the republic it was resumed, enemies a man can have, are those whom he has of the English, acquired Provence, recovered and again altered by Louis XVIII. When deprived of life. *
Burgundy, obtained by inheritance Anjou and Charles X. descended from the throne, state “One day, a plan of escape was proposed to Maine, brought under his controul Guienne prisons came once more into use, and the castle him: 'I might accept your offer,' said he, 'if and Normandy, and prepared the union of of Ham was applied to its former purpose. my sentence were just and legal; but as it is, I Britanny with France, which was effected by his “ . At the extremity of the court grew, in am well pleased with it, and would deprive it of
In fine, he was great by the great beautiful luxuriance, an immense lime tree. none of its effects. Who cares about the ini- things he effected--but despicable from the This was the only tree that could be seen by the quity of a sentence, when its execution is culpable means he employed." prisoners, and that only at a distance.'— Look eluded? Were I to accede to your wishes, I “ To these my grandfather added other de. at that tree,' said my grandfather to me one should destroy its wickedness by my own fault; tails. • Vade,' said he was born at Ham. He day; it was planted by a celebrated man, called I should almost efface its injustice by putting an was a free and easy writer of songs, at a period Bourdon, one of the founders of the French end to its operation. I must remain here, to when songs were only gay and pretty. Beranger republic, and whom that same republic rewarded | bear daily testimony of its violence; it is right had not yet made them serious and beautiful by incarceration in this prison. Captive as that my sufferings should be prolonged, that « • But Ham has still a higher claim to celehe was, he still obstinately adhered to his they may imprint upon my existence a deep and brity, for it is the birth-place also of General political creed, and planted on that spot a young lasting memory. It is for them upon whom its Foy. I knew him well; I have often seen hin, tree, which, in conformity with the folly of the responsibility weighs to get rid of me if they can. and had long conversations with him, far froin times, he consecrated to liberty. Nature in its I shall certainly not save them the trouble.
the tumult of popular assemblies. I know not, turn, in cruel derision, chose that the tree of ""Besides, my children, reflect a moment. if he were now in being, whether he would do liberty, withered and dead everywhere else, Plans of this description are not executed with- me the same justice as he did then; but for should flourish in a prison. It still flourishes, out exposing to some risk those who favour
my part, I shall ever render him the tribute my son; but when will liberty flourish ?' them. "God forbid that I should ever expose due to his high character. He was a man of " "You will no doubt ask me, (he continued,) any one to the least danger! The few years I
talent and sincerity, who followed only from afar what the tree of liberty was. It was a symbol, liave to live are not worth such a price. those who influenced his opinions. He was my son-a powerless and inefficient symbol — “The greatest philosopher of antiquity re- perhaps the only one among the many orators which awoke no recollection, excited no emotion, fused to escape, even from death. So noble a of the same party, who was not below the repuand had in itself nothing to inspire enthusiasm. determination would, at present, perhaps, elicit tation he had acquired.'* But that tree could not kill the tree of the cross, surprise. True, it is scarcely comprehensible; "An Earl of Oxford, a brave and loyal serwhich alone is the true symbol of liberty upon and who would even imagine that it could be imi- vant of the house of Lancaster, was eleven years earth. tated in these days? But, without aspiring to such
a prisoner in the castle of Ham. He escaped “ At other times the old Count repeated to his an act of heroism, which I least of any have the
at last, accompanied by the governor, Sir Wal. grandchildren some of the maxims and sayings pretension of doing, I may
ter Blount, whom he had succeeded in seducof their ancestors. from this example, that which is suited to an
ing. This was the same Earl of Oxford who "If any one spoke to my grandfather (would humble life and an ordinary courage.'
fought so valiantly for Henry and Margaret at the Count say,) of those who had done him so « Sometimes Count Richard would relate the terrible battle of Barnet, and who would much injury, he would reply—“We must pity facts connected with the history of the castle, have won the day, had it not been lost by a and not hate them. When they were masters, such as his grandfather was wont to entertain fatal mistake of the Earl of Warwick. But the .
fortress in which he so cruelly expiated his Revolutions are ungrateful masters to those who him Ham, said he at another time, 'was one fidelity, was not, as is supposed, the Castle of serve them; they often expect more than can
of the places on the banks of the Somme, en- Ham situated on the banks of the Somme. be performed. Think ye that it was in hatred of me that these men assigned to me my present saged by the treaty of Arras, to Philip the
Good, The historian is wrong; it was another castle
Duke of Burgundy, and which that prince, of the same name.' lot? No such thing. They were more occupied equitable as he is represented, had no wish to
"There exists a tradition in the country, with their own safety than with my ruin. They restore, although he was repaid the four hun- that an unfortunate capuchin friar, whose crime sacrificed me to the errors of others, the effects
dred thousand crowns of gold which he had ad- has always remained unknown, lived many of which they thought to avert from themselves.
vanced. This became a great subject of dissen- years in a narrow dungeon in the tower, and "We must not confound politics with the sion and ill-will between him and the artful | died there with a great reputation for sanctity. base passions of ordinary life. He who in the
Louis XI. What a king was this Louis XI. The faithful long went to pray by the side of former, thinks he is doing you an injury may do What a strange and indescribable compound of the stone which served for his pillow; and you a service, whilst he who purposes to serve contradiction was this monarch! He was lauded, female votaries touched it with their garments. you, may do you an injury. Often when an in. censured, dreaded, and despised, all at the same This was a simple and affecting devotion, paid dividual is attacked, he is the last person aimed time. He threw off, after the manner of the to misfortune: and a marvellous virtue was atat. In his person, a number of ideal beings are
times, the yoke which the nobles tried to fix tributed to it, and not without reason.' pursued, themselves comprehending a host of upon his neck; he made use of the people with- " • Another tradition is prevalent, of more others. In opposing him you contend against out subjecting himself to them, and of religion, recent date and less uncertain in its details. A a principle, a theory, or a power, of which he is without its preventing the commission of a single young man of the name of Lautrec, handsome, the expression and image. You would love crime. He was a politician, though supersti- ardent, and formed for extremes--qualified for him perhaps, if he was but himself; but in tious; or rather he was superstitious because excess of virtue or excess of vice-had met crushing him, you crush that into which he is
he was a politician. It was said of him that he with a young girl graceful and handsome as transformed; his enemies are not his own, but wanted courage; but it was forgotten with what himself, but chaste, pious, full of candour and the enemies of those whose friend he is.
bravery he had fought before Liège, and at modesty. Lautrec loved her with the whole “ • Let your thoughts and feelings soar then Montlhéry. He bears the odium of the snares ardour of his soul-with furious and extravagant above personalities: I have no quarrel of my into which he drew Charles the Bold, without passion. The young girl was also surprised by own; do you have no resentments or regrets. placing in the opposite scale the criminal league love: but her love, though strong, was pure and Let all your animosities merge in the love of your against him, or the poisoner Hardy sent by his innocent. country. The future is deep and impenetrable, vassal of Burgundy to destroy him. On the “ Her condition was obscure, and she had it will perhaps be as favourable to you as the suspicious evidence of Brantôme, the death of no fortune to make up for it. He for a time present is fatal to me; and should you ever ob- | his brother is rashly imputed to him, although imagined that her love for him would overcome tain power, remember my sufferings, only to the latter died seven months after the supposed her virtue. He was mistaken. The poor girl, avoid making others endure them. To avenge period of his being poisoned ; and made a will surprised and humiliated at his offers, found an me would be a treachery to myself.' a few days before his death, appointing Louis ' inexhaustible resource in her purity
. She “ Revenge is often an injustice, but oftener | XI., then absent, his heir. Louis was parsi- would have ceased to love him, had her will still a fault; for one enemy of whom you rid monious, cruel, implacable; but he once repent- alone sufficed. yourself, how many new ones do you raise up ed not having pardoned. He was an unnatu- “Lautrec had no hope of overcoming the against you! If it be true that generosity does ral son, and a bad father. He took vengeance, pride of his father, and therefore did not attempt not disarm hatred, rigour irritates and revolts, by the death of Agnes, of the influence won by it
. The useless passion which consumed lim, and such irritation is contagious. her beauty, and punished by an atrocious death became a deep-seated and obstinate disease
. "• It is only because we are weak that we the doubtful crime of Nemours. He was a The hue of health fled from his cheeks, his revenge ourselves; it is only when our heart is king according to the spirit of his people and of features became thin and sharp, and his eyes arid and our intellect contracted, that we do not the age in which he lived; displaying still more lost their brilliancy. He lived apart
, gloomy, pardon. Nations have an admirable instinct in ability in adverse fortune than in prosperity. morose, and taciturn. He scarcely heard those detecting those weaknesses; the voice that first If he laid many snares for others, many were who addressed him, and replied only with moans, pronounced that dead men tell no tales, pro- also laid for him. He never made a mistake “ • Lautrec had an uncle, still young, who had pagated a cruel error. The most dangerous but at Peronne; he put an end to the invasions / arrived at the highest dignities in the church,
and had always evinced great affection for him. Soon,' continued Count Richard, this out some of the absurdities into which This uncle remarked the change in his person castle received inmates of another character and statesmen and politicians of every party have and character, and put many pressing questions another rank: certain emigrants driven back fallen, through ignorance or neglect of the to him. The young man eluded and dissembled ; to the coast of France by a storm-a Vibrage, rules that regulate reasoning by example. but the uncle, in nowise discouraged, continued a Choiseul, and a Montmorency, victims before
There is, perhaps, no phrase more common, his importunities. Lautrec, yielding at length, ourselves of civil discord-and who were about allowed his secret to escape. to suffer death for the crime of being shipwrecked,
and more misunderstood, than that which ""The morals of this period were not of the the commutation of which punishment only
we alternately hear pronounced with reverpurest kind ; and it was not usual to treat love changed the species of iniquity committed by
ence and with mockery—“the wisdom of so seriously.
The uncle undertook to plead the government, which had dared to order its our ancestors.” One party imagines that for his nephew. He saw the young girl, and infliction.
the use of the phrase includes the inference, exhausted every artifice, every means to shake “ Almost at the same period came that other
that our ancestors were wiser than we are ; her resolution. Sometimes he besought her, victim, the same Prince Polignac, whom fate and the other party, instead of showing that for Lautrec's sake, to renounce her love for has again brought hither; an unhappy prince, the five words include no such thing, gravely him, in order that the object of her affection whom an inexorable fatality seems to pursue. | denounces the sentence as a mischievous might be freed from an engagement which was He was then implicated in the catastrophe sophism, and honours it with a logical refufast destroying him. At others, he offered, if of Moreau, Pichegru, and George Cadoudal; | tation. The apparent ingenuity of the relove were not sufficient, to add immense wealth, he has since been implicated in still greater futation deserves to be noticed. as an indemnity for the sacrifice he solicited for misfortunes. He began life with a long capti- | wisdom of our ancestors,” saith a grave rehis nephew. Another time, seeing that her vity, and has again become a captive in his deaffection was so deeply rooted, that she had clining years.'
viewer, “is a mischievous sophism : when not the courage to sacrifice it, he offered her " The old Count's memory was inexhaustible. you have said that age confers the wisdom advice of another kind; giving her to under- The recollections of Ham pleased him. There
of experience you have explained it: we are stand, that any hope of a legal union being im- was one point, however, upon which no one
an older generation than those that have possible, she had no remedy but to yield, if she presumed 'to ask him any questions. He had preceded us; and to speak of the wisdom of could not conquer her passion.
often begun the recital of the actions of his un- past generations, is to attribute to youth the " But the virtue of the young girl was not
fortunate grandfather, and each time he had experience of age, and confer the honour of less strong than her affection. The inflexible undertaken jt, his emotion had prevented him grey hairs on the cradle.” Now, this is simplicity of her youthful mind defeated every from proceeding. An agitation- of this kind doubtless very clever reasoning, but, unforattempt to undermine her principles. The
was now considered too dangerous for his ad- tunately, it is completely misapplied: by the heart of the uncle was shaken in its turn, and a
vanced age. But one day, the youngest of his wisdom of our ancestors, is not meant, as the perverse, dreadful, and faial idea took posses- grandchildren having innocently exclaimed, 'But reviewer supposes, any attribution of authosion of his mind. He had attempted to seduce
, grandpapa, the history of our great-great-grandi rity to our ancestors, but a sanction to cerbut was himself seduced. So much beauty had
tain institutions derived from them. The overcome him-such extraordinary virtue had
what need is there of many words? This history phrase is, indeed, inaccurate, but still perexcited in him the most uncontrollable passion. is written, dear child. I composed and wrote The unhappy man felt the power of love, and it. It is engraved upon the stone which covers
fectly intelligible: wisdom is attributed to dared to disclose it. A cry of horror and aların the remains of that man so madly cursed and those who devised certain institutions, bewas the only answer he received from the young persecuted. You must visit his old and modest cause the experience of all succeeding genegirl ;-and he tied in confusion.
tombstone. It is a pious pilgrimage, which rations has shown those institutions to be "* At the same instant Lautrec arrived. The
children ought to undertake, and which brings beneficial; and thence an implied sanction object of his love shed abundant tears, and gave
them good fortune. Kneel and meditate when is derived for such laws or customs, not marks of the most violent despair. The young you are near it. Do as I have so often done:
because they were originally devised by a man, in affright and trepidation, asked the cause
pull the moss from the stone; and if impious past generation, but because they have conof such agitation. He would know it, and that hands have not perpetrated upon it such muti
tinued to exist through several generations. immediately, without reserve or concealment. lations as I have seen elsewhere, you will find
A second objection made to this unforAt the same time suppliant and imperious, be what you seek-you will read this short epi.
tunate phrase, leads us to the source of all besought and insisted --wept and commanded. taph, which contains the whole history of the What, under such circumstances, could the poor chief of your family:
the erroneous applications of historical au
thority, which we have witnessed in our brief girl do? Overcome by her own emotion and Lautrec's impetuosity- unable, in ber astonish
BECAUSE HE WAS FAITHFUL,
experience,-namely, the neglect of the moment and indignation, to calculate or foresce
difying circumstances which limited the the consequences, she suffered some imprudent
AS IF HE HAD NOT BEEN so."
utility of an institution to some particular words to escape her lips, and Lautrec either
time or place. “Laws against witchcraft, learned or guessed the treachery of his uncle.
writs de heretico comburendo, &c., formed * Thunderstruck, his mind became troubled
Pensamenti d'Illustri Autori, 8;c., esposti da part of the wisdom of our ancestors," say and his reason fled. He ran and seized his
Stefano Egidio Petroni. London: Treuttel
certain critics. Well, so they were ; and so arms, followed his uncle, found him at the altar,
they ought to have been. The opinions precovered with the emblems of his priestly dignity, Nothing is farther from our intention than | valent in society are an integral portion of struck him to the earth, and left him wallowing the writing a formal review of this excellent that society's constitution, and must as such in his blood.
little work; when we have said that the meet the attention of the legislator. the "A dungeon in the Castle of Ham was long selections are made with great taste and belief in witchcraft were as general now as the refuge allotted him for his crime and mad- judgment, and that the volume is precisely it was then, those laws ought to be revived, ness. He had been there forty years, when the l of that kind which we most gladly see and put into active operation. They were revolution of 1789 broke out; he was then set
wise laws so long as they remained at liberty: but forgotten, reputed dead, and placed in the hands of youth, we mean to disowned by his family, he no longer found food
dismiss it altogether, and turn our attention cordance with the habits, the feelings, and or shelter. The town of Ham took pity upon
to a subject which the historical portion of the belief of the age; but when these changed, him, and paid a poor woman to take care of
the work has suggested—we mean, the value the preservation of such laws would have him, and procure him foed. He survived liis of history as a guide to conduct.
been monstrous folly. freedom but three months. Perhaps he might
Treatises on the nature of history we have That an institution might be a blessing in have lived longer, if liberty, so long a stranger in abundance; general accounts of its great one generation, and a curse in the next, is a to him, had not 100 suddenly broken in upon use and importance are more plenty than matter that seems to escape the notice of the habits of life acquired in his dungeon. blackberries”; but if we except an introduc- many readers, and even many writers of his
“* But if the revolution deprived the Castle tory chapter in the · Encyclopædia Metro- tory. The papal usurpation of Hildebrand, of Ham of some of its inmates, it soon supplied politana,' we can scarcely find any attempt or Gregory VII. has been almost universally their places with other victims. The time came
to fix the canons of historical argument, and reprobated by historians; and yet it is perwhen the Convention, trying its harsh and mon.
determine under what limits recorded ex- fectly demonstrable, that his extravagant strous justice upon its own members, got rid in one day of Barrère, Billaud-Varennes, and amples are to be received as valid authorities. assumption of authority was, for a time, proCollet-d'Herbois, by transportation; and of We assuredly do not profess to supply this ductive of very great and important benefits. Bourdon, Hugues, Châles, Faussedoise, Duhem, deficiency, and make this article a new The sanctity of the gown was then the only and Chiodieu, by consigning them to the Castle chapter in logic: it will be sufficient for us protection from the tyranny of the sword. of Ham.'
to note a few prevailing errors, and point I Religion was the only antagonizing force to
feudal despotism; and it was necessary to rities, that we hold it our duty to call | Europeans would not only read it with pleasure, make the church a substantive independent public attention to the subject. History, but would derive much useful information from power, in order that it should compete with studied closely and diligently, with a careful its perusal. However, hitherto, owing to want the violence and cruelty of conquerors, who examination of all contingent circumstances, of leisure, this humble individualt has not been estimated victories proportionate to the num- is truly a valuable practical guide ; but read able to undertake anything of the kind. But
, bers slain, rather than advantages won; and lightly and carelessly, examined only to fur- in the present instance, at the earnest request measured the value of conquests more by the
nish matter for turning a sentence or round of great learning and magnanimity, a mine of difusion of misery than the extension of ing a period, it is worse than an old al- humanity, a fountain of generosity, a just apterritory. Hildebrand deserves, in some de- manac," and is more likely to mislead than preciator of the worth of both high and low, well gree, the gratitude of posterity, since he first to instruct. To it the hackneyed quotation versed in the mysteries of philosophy, a Plato set the example of organizing resistance to of Pope is most perfectly applicable
of the age, in medicine a second Galen, nay, the despotism; and though he made no effort There, shallow draughts intoxicate the brain, Hippocrates of the day), Dr. Herklots (a man to establish liberty, he at least raised a power,
But drinking largely sobers it again.
of virtue, an ocean of liberality, may his good under whose protection some free principles
fortune ever continue and his age increase!) could germinate in safety. The changes of Qanoon-e-Islam, or the Customs of the
I have endeavoured, to the extent of my poor realm and the chances of time, led to a Moosulmans of India ; comprising a full heads and entitled it'Qanoon-e-Islam,ß i.e.
abilities, to arrange this work under different period when the power of the church became
and exact account of their various Rites and an engine of oppression : indeed, it was ne
The Customs of the Moosulmans.'
Ceremonies, from the moment of birth till cessarily so, whenever it leagued with the
“Although various Hindoostanee authors the hour of death. By Jaffur Shurreef. have occasionally adverted to similar subjects
, state ; but this change of circumstances is Translated by G. A. Herklots, M.D. Lon- yet no work extant contains so full an account forgotten by orators and writers : they look
don: Parbury, Allen & Co.
of them as has been given here. to the evils that arose when ecclesiastical
“ I have also included in it, local customs
have only had time to dip into this vodomination was united with regal despotism, but forget that it must have greatly tended lume, but it seems one of the highest inter- which have been superadded to the laws pre
scribed by the sacred Qoran and Huddees obto alleviate civil thraldom when it stood in est, though it may not be equally entertaining. It is a translation by Dr. Herklots, minded Englishman should not continue igno
served by Moosulmans, in order that the liberal - a contrary position. of this tendency to search for abstract prin- of the manners and customs of his country
rant of, or remain in the dark as to any rite or Perhaps the most ludicrous exemplification from a work written at his request by a
Mohummudan native of India, descriptive ceremony observed by Moosulmans. ciples in history, with a complete disregard
“Although the author (who deems himself of the modifying circumstances, is to be
The plan followed by the writer is to no wiser than a teacher of the ABC) be somefound in the disputes respecting the early birth, (and even before it,) through all the (i.e. the knowledge of the interpretation of the
trace an individual from the period of his what acquainted with the science of divinity constitution of England. As a practical guide forms and ceremonies which religion, super- Qoran and the Huddees, precepts of Mohumto the politician, it is not worth a single stition, and custom, impose upon him—but mud)
, as well as with law and medicine
, he has straw to determine whether the Saxon monarchy was as despotic as that of Russia, or the writer's intention will be best collected confined himself merely to a narration of the
commonly as republican as that of France--whether from his preface, which is so truly original observed by Moosulmans in the Dushun and the Wittenagemot was an annual parliament and characteristic, that we have determined or a privy council. The explanation of the to extract it entire, although we have not
to an idiom of language calculated to be under
stood by even the most illiterate. difficulty would not confer an additional time to offer any opinion on the work itself.
“ Of him who can judge of the state of the right on prince or people; for constitutions
THE AUTHOR'S PREFACE.
pulse of the pen (i.e. estimate the beauty of are not to be framed for non-existent cus
In the name of God,
composition), and is likewise erudite, I have
the Merciful and thy blessing ! toms, departed feelings, forgotten habits, and
this request to make, that should he observe
Compassionate! modes of faith and practice that have long
any errors in it, he would kindly consign them
“Glory be to that God who has, out of a drop to oblivion, by erasing them with his quill. since sunk into oblivion, but must be suited of fluid, created such a variety of creatures, rato the circumstances of the period in which tional and irrational! Adored be that Creator, corresponding with Anno Domini 1832.”
“ This work was completed Anno Hijræ 1248, they are adopted.
who has established such a variety of forms, How often have we heard some such con- statures, and vocal sounds among them, though versation as the following: “ Avoid such a their origin is the same pure, liquid, and Life and Pontificate of Gregory the Seventh. change, it leads to revolution.”_" That is genuine spirit!
By Sir Roger Greisley, Bart. London: the very reason I will support it.” But, in “ In Praise of the Prophet (i. e. Mohummud). Longman & Co. fact, the reasons assigned by both amount “ A thousand thousand salutations and bene- There lived at Rome, in other days, a race precisely to-nothing. A word of four dictions are due to his sublime holiness Mo
of priests who asserted a right to make or syllables sounds very well, and rolls glibly hummud Moostufa † (the blessing and peace of unmake kings--take or give away countries off the tongue; but it must not be mistaken God be with him!) through whose grace the -doom to perdition those they hated, and for an argument. A revolution inay be a sacred Qoran descended from the Most High! raise to heaven those they loved ;-who gave great or a small change--may be a blessing How inadequate is man justly to praise, and indulgence for sin, and remission for transor a curse--may lead to happiness or misery
gression--placed a bar on the way to heaven, or may eventually leave matters pretty his companions and posterity!
and exacted a heavy toll from all travellers nearly as it found them. Of every species
“My object in composing the present work of these revolutions we have examples in
is this: 1, Jaffur Shurrect, alias Lala Meean, / -and who, while they claimed infallibility
to themselves, made fallibility the portion history; and to quote one of them per se as
of the Qoreish tribe, born at Nagore (may God of the rest of mankind. Of those audaa parallel, without proving that all circum
illuminate his tomb, pardon his iniquities, and cious men the most remarkable was Hildestances are precisely similar, is an act either
sanctify his soul!) a native of Ooppoo Elloor brand, who, from the obscure condition of of folly or knavery. Magna Charta was a (Ellore), lave for a considerable time been in nonk, rose gradually to the Papal Throne, revolution-the Bill of Rights a revolution attendance upon English gentlemen of high and for eleven years and more made himself -Christianity itself a great revolution ;- rank and noble mind (may their good fortune and to assert that there should be no more ever continue !), and under the shadow of their “ + Literally 'this know-nothing;' one of the many
expressions of humility which Oriental writers are acwings have nourished both soul and body; or, revolutions, is to declare that the only duty
customed to use in speaking of themselves; such as this of a legislature is to register absurdities in other words, my office has been that of a sinner;' 'this beggar;' this slave."" teacher of language.
“At the very earnest solicitation of the author, the and consecrate abuses. Just as absurd is
“ Gentlemen of penetration used often to ob
translator has been prevailed upon (very much against the contrary argument, that benefits must serve to me with the deepest interest, that if a
his own inclination) to allow the above hyperbolical er: result from every revolution: we hare wit
logiums to remain, though conscious of his being little concise work were written in a familiar style, entitled to them. He has been induced to accede to nessed one where the price paid for the be
and in the genuine Dukhunee language, con- the author's wish, more particularly to show the remarknefit was a disproportionate mass of misery taining a full account of all the necessary rites, epistolary correspondence, as well as their intercourse
able proueness of this class of people to flattery. In their and suffering.
customs, and usages observed by Moosulmans, with each other, they are equally lavish of praise. A We have met, in speeches and pamphlets
somewhat similar specimen will likewise be found at the “ + Moostufa, i.e. 'the chosen.'»
conclusion of the work," published during the last two centuries,
“1. The late,' or, as we should say, who is now in More strictly rules (canons) of the Mohummudan such gross perversions of historical autho
and finish this
the terror of the nations of Europe. To the that he was "nobly educated.” He was early / speakable patience, attributing my conduct to delineation of his character Sir Roger Greisley distinguished for his learning, his inflexibility tameness and indifference, you have raised yourhas dedicated this volume; from the scattered of purpose, and tameless intrepidity of spirit: self up against me, and given me to understand notices of friends and foes-letters of remon- in those fluctuating times, when empires that it is necessary either that you should die, strance or insult to princes—decrees regard- shifted to and fro like shadows on the water,
or that I should lose my life and kingdom. ing salvation and obedience -- bulls, which the monk Hildebrand was ever the foremost / Wherefore, thinking it more fitting to reply by settled alike all questions, religious, po
deeds rather than words to such an unheard-of to support the church against all conquerors, litical, or domestic-excommunications of and, like the saint under whose banner he lished in a general assembly of the great lords of
act of contumacy, those matters have been puball natures and ordinances of all hues, the warred, he was as ready with the sword as author has extracted a biography which the tongue. He seems to have been one of been suppressed ; and it is plainly demonstrated
my kingdom, which, out of respect, have hitherto throws some little light upon the dark- the first to perceive that the power of the Pope that you can no longer maintain yourself by any ness of the eleventh century. He has, how- might be extended over the bodies as well as means in the chair of St. Peter. It being, thereever, brought more knowledge than modera- minds of men by a judicious use of the name fore, my bounden duty to adhere to this detion to the task: he delights more in showing of St. Peter, and a liberal interpretation of cision, I take from you all right to the papacy, the deformities than the merits of his those mysterious words in Scripture about and I command you to depart from that city, the subject, and seems much too willing to attri- carrying the key. The first step towards this patricianship of which has been granted to me bute all the proceedings of his victim to a love was the release which Rome gave themonkish both by God and by the Romans.” of power alone, and a natural desire to do institutions from the control of their bishops : Gregory far excelled Henry in such fulmimineer. We have no doubt that many of the second was the claim set up, and allowed, nations: he replied by the following sentence those acts arose from a real belief in the right for the Pope's supremacy over all the princes of excommunication :of the church, and from a wish to do good and priests of Christendom: the third- was
“St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles, lend us to the souls of men: be that as it may, our the substitution of tradition for Scripture; your ears, and listen to your servant whom you biographer has composed his work in some- and the fourth was auricular confession. The have cherished from his infancy, and delivered
out of the hands of those who have a common thing of a new spirit: he desires to expose high deservings on the part of Hildebrand
enmity to him and you. And you, mother of rather than honour the character which he were at length rewarded by the papal chair.
God! St. Paul, and all the saints, bear witness, draws: he sets up an image, not for us to As soon as he was, in the usual way, ac
how the holy Roman church raised me by force, admire, but to join him in throwing stones knowledged by the kings of the earth, he and against my will, to the government; although at. We scarcely know what the writer can began to display his ambition, and put forth I should have preferred rather to pass my days mean in thus making the object of his so- his power. He claimed the kingdom of Spain in a continual pilgrimage than to ascend thy pullicitude
because it was of old “the right of St. Peter,” | pit for any human motive. Inasmuch as I think A fixed figure, for the band of scorn
and, though he did not desire to reign there, that it will be grateful to you that the Christian To point his slow unmoving finger at.
he demanded his “just tribute”: he desired people trusted to my care should obey me; supIt is true that in former times the head of the Romish Church resembled a wild beast
to place himself at the head of the Christian ported by these hopes, and for the honour and
army-march to Constantinople-reduce the the defence of the church, in the name of the strong and ravenous, with sharp teeth and
Armenian dissenters by the sword-unite the omnipotent God the Father, Son, and Holy claws cruel and clutching, and a capacity of
churches of the east and west-and, having Ghost, by my authority and power, 1 prolibit swallow vast and portentous : but now: in fixed the banner of the true religion on the King Henry, son of the Emperor Henry, who, these our days, he is harmless enough: he walls of Jerusalem, return and reign in Rome. against your church, from governing the king. is oppressed with age, his claws are cut
He spoke kindly and mildly to William the doms of Germany and Italy. I absolve all never to grow again, his teeth are all plucked
Conqueror of England, because that sagacious. Christians from the oath which they have taken out, save a stump or two; the merest children king paid all the dues of the church: he re- to him ; and I forbid all men to yield him that may now approach him as they would do the proached, in fiercé language, the King of service which is due to a king. Finally, since he stuffed skin of a tiger-nay, admire his fine colours, stroke his velvet paws, and pat his and more particularly for having robbed some France for adultery, rapine,perjury, and fraud, has not chosen to obey as becomes a Christian;
has communicated with persons excluded from grisly nose in perfect security. It has been Italian merchants on their way to a French
the communion of the faithful; has despised the the pleasure of the author to write his book fair: he interfered in the affairs of Muscovy warnings which I had given him for the good of in his own manner, and we must take it as it is. On this point he may as well speak gon within his own kingdom-and, finally, -disputed the powers of the King of Arra- his own soul; and has separated himself from
the church, whilst he endeavoured to extermifor himself: he wrote to the King of Denmark to place with the bonds of anathema, that all people may
nate her authority; I, in thy name, bind him * Let me invite the Catholic and Protestant
the church in that country, and all that it reader to peruse these pages, and see, in the
know that thou art Peter, and that upon thee contained, under the care of the see of Rome. eleventh century, the establishment of those doc
the Son of God hath built his church, against trines of the Roman church by which it has ever
The ambition of Gregory alarmed the Em- which the gates of hell cannot prevail." since, up to this period, been distinguished; peror, Henry the Fourth—a prince, brave
The effect of these words would be laughter which, till then, were, for many ages, in a
and pusillanimous by turns : he was affronted in our day: it was otherwise then ;--Henry wavering and unsettled state. A simple monk, by the pontiff's interference with the religious
was left without a home or a subject: he emerging from his cloister, and assuming the affairs of his kingdom: enraged, some say, at humbled himself-came barefoot to Rome direction of the public affairs of the Roman the dalliance between his Holiness and MatilCatholic church, surmounted every obstacle, and da; and having a sharp sword, and not a very submission: the pontiff, who was in his palace
when snow was on the ground to make his opened a way to his successors by which they clear understanding, he rushed headlong into might place themselves in the sphere of angels
with Matilda, went to receive him :every scheme which presented itself to his and of gods. It was Gregory who taught the
“ Henry presented himself at the first gate of Leos, and Sixtuses, and Piuses how to govern fancy. His wrath boiled over in words at
the fortress, and there, in the most abject subfirst:people without the force of arms; a lesson
mission, awaited to see what would be required hitherto neither forgotten nor abandoned. A
" Henry, not by usurpation, but by Divine of him. He was made to enter alone, having sound but subtle policy, inflexible constancy,
dispensation, king, to Hildebrand, not an apos- | left all his suite outside the first of the three unshaken courage, placed the popes upon that
tolic, but a false monk. Having, even in spite walls which girt the fortress; and at the second throne, from which they have never, but for a
of my subjects, conducted myself as a most obe- barrier he laid aside all the insignia of his dig. feverish moment, been deposed. Since their
dient son, whilst I expected to receive from you nity, and put on a simple woollen tunic. Here restoration, the blind and idle credulity of the
the treatment becoming a father, I have re- he stood barefooted, in the depth of winter, withpeople, which served them as a footstool, has in
ceived only such as might have proceeded from out food, from morning until night, for three creased; and had the French nation yielded to the implacable enemy of my life and kingdom. whole days, imploring with loud lamentations that yoke which the Jesuits would have imposed
You have taken from me that hereditary dignity the mercy of God and of the pope. On the on it, the days of excommunication and dethrone- of emperor which was due to me from the apos- fourth day, being admitted into the presence of ments would have been revived."
tolic see; by the most villanous acts, you have the pontiif, after much controversy, he was abHildebrand was born about the year 1020, Italy, you have proudly, and in the face of every lowing terms :-that he should appear, at any
attempted to alienate from me the kingdom of solved from the excommunication on the folin Soana: his father was a citizen of good law, human and divine, heaped insults and in- given time and place which Gregory should apcharacter: his uncle was Abbot in the monas- juries upon the most reverend bishops, who are point, before a general council of the German tery of St. Mark; there is some foundation united to me as members to the boy: and al- princes, to answer to their charges, in presence for the sounding language of his epitaph, I though I have borne all these affronts with un- ! vi the pope himself, if the latter should deem it