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expedient; that he should abide by the sentence war,-its moving millions—its slaughtered | Edipus learns his involuntary crime; the
of the pope
, who was to be the sole judge of the myriads--streams drank dry by living armies sufferings of the Thebans by plague

, pesticause; that if it acquitted him he should retain

--rivers bridged by the slain-seas gay in lence, and famine, raise in the mind the his kingdom, or, if he were condemned, he

the morning with the streamers and sails of suspicions of great and unexpiated guilt; should resign it cheerfully; that, whether he lost it or retained it, he shouid seek revenge on no

countless fleets, and darkened in the even- the response of the oracle declares that divine one ; that, until his cause was legally tried and ing by their unsightly wrecks: these stupen- vengeance demands atonement for the mur decided, he should wear no royal ornament or

dous vicissitudes that surrounded Æschylus, der of Laius; (Edipus pours imprecations insignia, nor make any decree in the adminis- as it were, with an atmosphere of moral sub- on the head of the homicide, and learns from tration of public affairs; that, beyond the neces.

limity, had, in the days of Sophocles, become | Tiresias that he has invoked curses on himsary service of himself and his court, he should a mere recollection—"a tale of the days gone self. The honest indignation of Edipusassume nothing royal or by public right; that by.” Danger gave way to glory, excitement his suspicion that Creon has suborned the all those who had taken the oath of allegiance was changed for tranquillity, and deliberations prophet—the awful denunciations of Tiresias to him were released in the sight of God and in the public assemblies absorbed the interest at once compel us to dwell on this the man; that Robert, Bishop of Bamberga, Uldaric lately accorded to struggles in the field. At first stage of the awful revelation, while, at of Constance, and others, his counsellors, should be removed from him for ever; and that, if such a period, the majesty of repose which the same time, we gain

a distinct view

of the ultimately being acquitted, he should again be

peculiarly distinguishes the genius of Sopho-dire consummation. The anger of Edipus

cles had more attractions, even for the excit- leads to the interference of Jocasta, anxious powerful in his kingdom, he should be obedient and subject to the Roman pontiff, and co-operate

able population of Athens, than the terrific to shield her brother from her husband's with him manfully and promptly for the good of grandeur that could scarcely be contemplated wrath ; incidentally she states a circumstance the church; and, finally, that if he violated any

without pain. There are moods in the mind, that leads Edipus to suspect that he had one of the conditions, the absolution should be both of nations and individuals, when the murdered his predecessor, and inquiry coninvalid, he should be immediately deposed, and tranquil rivulet is more pleasing than the firms his belief

. The arrival of a shepherd a new monarch elected in his stead."

foaming cataract, and a serene landscape from Corinth awakens a hope that the still A quarrel followed this degradation : Henry preferable to the sublimity of the storm. To greater guilt of parricide might be avoided

; with a tumultuary army ravaged the Papal

this change in the national temperament, but while he is showing that Polybus was territories, and approached Rome : Gregory

and not to his own superiority, must the vic- not the father of Edipus, his story, too well never wanted ready weapons : he sent for

tory of Sophocles over Æschylus be ascribed : / understood, informs the queen that her son Robert Guiscard--a name distinguished in in power, the disciple was inferior to his stood before her in the person of her husband. the Crusades: the Norman warrior chased master; but he surpassed him in the art of Her entreaties that he should forbear inaway Henry-brought Rome to its senses, pleasing, and the trial took place when plea- quiry, but stimulate him to fresh investiwhich had wavered between Pope and Em

sure was the sole object of the judges. Neither gations--the horrid secret gradually unfolds peror, and restored Gregory to his uncon

do we, sitting down in the quiet of our closet, itself-he drinks the cup of overwhelming
trolled dominion over the souls and bodies of feel disposed to reverse the sentence: if we misery drop by drop-
men. The Pope did not long survive this admire Æschylus, we love Sophocles-the And the spell now works around him,
adventure : he fell sick, and died on the

And the clankless chains bave bound him;
decide for the former, but the ver-

O'er his heart and brain together,
25th of May, 1085. We may conclude with
dict of the heart is assured to the latter.

Hath the word been pass'd-to wither, the following character of the pontiff by the

It is said, by most critics, that the great The only parallel we know to this instance author:

aim of Sophocles was to excite pity; and it of an author trusting so much in his own "Gregory VII. was of small stature, but gi

is certain that this is the chord of the heart power, as to reveal the catastrophe in the gantic mind, lively imagination, intrepid courage, which he most effectually touches; but we

very outset, is Scott's · Bride of Lammerand of perseverance utterly incapable of yielding

doubt his having written a line with that muir:' the verses of Tristremto any difficulties which he might encounter in prepense object. If any general design can

When the last lord of Ravenswood to Ravenswood bis enterprises. Of an imperious disposition, be traced in his works, we hold it to be an

sball ride, &c. quick, decisive, rash, resolute, and regardless of anxiety to exalt human nature—to give us are as definite as the prophecy of Tiresias, results, he set the first example of doing that ennobling views of others and ourselves to which he desired others to do. He was espe

every sentence points directly to their accomteach us that moral loveliness dwells in every plishment; but though the conclusion nerer cially learned in the divine sciences, in the

heart, though circumstances may blight its disappears from our view for a moment, the rights, laws, and customs of the Roman Catholic church. In short, his impetuous and inflexible

growth, or wither its roots. Even Clytemnestra interest of the intervening incidents never humour did not allow his zeal to be accompanied

ceases to be the Lady Macbeth of antiquity flags. by the moderation which his predecessors had

in his hands; a mother's sorrow mingles in We should gladly enter into a more dedisplayed. If he had possessed this moderation,

the joy she feels, when told that her son, the tailed examination of the continuation of the much blood would have been spared; for the sworn avenger of her guilt, has died prema- Theban monarch's history--the (Edipus at quarrel between the Holy See and the empire turely; a parent's tenderness softens the Colonus—the rich descriptions of the rodivided Europe into two factions, whose bitter- threats with which she replies to the sting-mantic scenery about Athens-the glowing ness and animosity knew no bounds, and led to ing reproaches of Electra. The fearful tra- pictures of the charms of external naturethat temporal dominion of the popes, whiclı las gedy that consummated the guilt and misery relieve the wretchedness occasioned by the cost as much blood as the conquests of republican

of the Pelopid family, has been dramatized contemplation of an exiled monarch, poor, Rome.”

by the three illustrious Athenians: we are helpless, and blind. But the charm of the

not inclined to institute a comparison be- piece is Antigone,—the most beautiful perFAMILY CLASSICAL Library, No. XXXIII,

tween them, after it has been so ably done sonification of filial and feminine affection Sophocles. Translated by T. Franklin, D.D.

by Schlegel ; but we recommend those who that ever emanated from a poet's soul. Her London : Valpy.

desire to learn the differences of genius, to faithful attendance on her hapless father, to We have had many opportunities recently institute an analysis for themselves—to con- alleviate whose wretchedness she has deroted afforded us of directing the attention of our trast the gloomy horrors of retributive justice the morning of her life--her affectionate readers to the Greek dramatists, and espe- in Æschylus, and the degrading influence of pleading for her erring brother--and her cially to Æschylus, the father of tragic poetry. vice in Euripides, with the display of the anxious desire to save Thebes from the evils We have now before us the works of his heart's best affections in Sophocles, where threatened by fraternal war-invest her with rival and successor, a dramatist, who com- deepest hate springs from deepest love, and a moral loveliness which identifies her with menced his career by a triumph over his retains to the last the softening characteristics every feeling that is noble in our nature. master, and closed it by a victory over Eu- of its origin.

In the concluding tragedy of the Theban ripides, the only competitor that ever dared The Edipus Tyrannus stands alone in the trilogy,-a tragedy which, by some incom to measure strength with him. Sophocles history of the drama: it is the only tragedy prehensible mistake, is placed apart from bears the impress of the age in which he in ancient or modern literature that reveals those with which it forms a tragic trilogy lived, not stamped indeed so deeply and the catastrophe in the very opening of the Antigone appears as a sister, risking life to strongly as on Æschylus, because, in the play, and yet not only preserves the inter- pay the rites of sepulture to the body of the course of a generation, the political character est to the end, but heiglitens in its intensity unfortunate Polynices. A strength and force of Greece had assumed a milder form and a as we advance. The effect is produced by of determination now is revealed that could softer type. The exaggerations of the Persian the slow, but certain gradations by which I scarcely be expected in a creature of such

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11 f


From Alfieri.

tenderness, did we not know that a wound, but the spectator of it, prefer it to what is She seems all soft and mild enjoyment, to the tender affections momentarily inspires called pleasure, in which all is not pleasure. and the curved lines of her fine limbs flow an energy that rises above all dangers, and it is difficult to think that this head, though into each other with a never-ending sinuosity defies all consequences: it is the manifesta- of the highest ideal beauty, is the head of of sweetness. Her face expresses a breathtion of strength in weakness, courage in Minerva, although the attributes and atti- | less, yet passive and innocent voluptuousness, timidity, and heroic daring in the very soft- tude of the lower part of the statue certainly | free from affectation. Her lips, without the ness of effeminacy.

suggest that idea. The Greeks rarely, in their sublimity of lofty and impetuous passion, the But we must quit a theme, on which we representations of the characters of their grandeur of enthusiastic imagination of the have perhaps expatiated too freely, and turn gods, (unless we call the poetic enthusiasm Apollo of the Capitol, or the union of both, to the translation before us. It is executed of Apollo a mortal passion,) expressed the like the Apollo Belvidere, have the tenderwith great spirit and fidelity--the language, disturbance of human feeling; and here is ness of arch, yet pure and affectionate desire, like that of the original, is simple and ele- deep and impassioned grief animating a and the mode in which the ends of the mouth gant, not disfigured by meretricious orna- divine countenance. It is, indeed, divine. are drawn in, yet lifted or half-opened, with ment or ambitious affectation. It is indeed, Wisdom (which Minerva may be supposed the smile that for ever circles round them, a version worthy of a place in the Family to emblem,) is pleading earnestly with Power, and the tremulous curve into which they are Classical Library, and higher praise it could -and invested with the expression of that wrought by inextinguishable desire, and the scarcely receive; for that series has been grief, because it must ever plead so vainly. tongue lying against the lower lip, as in the hitherto conducted with so much spirit, taste, The drapery of the statue, the gentle beauty listlessness of passive joy, express love, still and judgment, that we are afraid of wearying of the feet, and the grace of the attitude, love. our readers by so often repeating our com- are what may be seen in many other statues Her eyes seem heavy and swimming with mendations and our hearty wishes for its belonging to that astonishing era which pro- pleasure, and her small forehead fades on continued success.

duced it: such a countenance is seen in few. | both sides into that sweet swelling and thin

This statue happens to be placed on a declension of the bone over the eye, in the The Golden Calf : a comedy, in three acts. By

pedestal, the subject of whose reliefs are in mode which expresses simple and tender Douglas Jerrold. London: Richardson.

a spirit wholly the reverse. It was probably feelings. We are glad to see that this clever little piece, Under the festoons of fruits and flowers that aspiration of delight, and flows with gentle

an altar to Bacchus-possibly a funeral urn. The neck is full, and panting as with the with which critics and the public were equally well pleased on its representation, is now pub? grace the pedestal, the corners of which are curves into her perfect form. lished,

ornamented with the sculls of goats, are Her form is indeed perfect. She is halfsculptured some figures of Mænads under the sitting and half-rising from a shell, and the

inspiration of the god. + Nothing can be con- fullness of her limbs, and their complete ORIGINAL PAPERS

ceived more wild and terrible than their ges- roundness and perfection, do not diminish the tures, touching, as they do, the verge of vital energy with which they seem to be anidistortion, into which their fine limbs and mated. The position of the arms, which are

lovely forms are thrown. There is nothing, lovely beyond imagination, is natural, unafO thou, who sit'st in stateliest majesty,

however, that exceeds the possibility of na- fected, and easy. This, perhaps, is the finest Glassing thyself beside Liguria's sea,

ture, though it borders on its utmost line. personification of Venus, the deity of superAnd, towering from thy curved shores to the sky, The tremendous spirit of superstition, aided | ficial desire, in all antique statuary.

Her Scorn'st at thy back the mountains mantling by drunkenness, producing something be- pointed and pear-like person, ever virgin, thee,

yond insanity, seems to have caught them in and her attitude modesty itself. Proud in those moles and palaces, Italy its whirlwinds, and to bear them over the Though great and fair, boasts not to rival; why | earth, as the rapid volutions of a tempest

A Bas-Relief. Probably the sides of a Are not thy citizens such as thine should be, heave the ever-changing trunk of a water

In mind, soul, spirit, somewhat worthier thee?
They with their fasts and griping penances-

spout, or as the torrent of a mountain river The lady is lying on a couch, supported by Their hoarded gold, heaped up, and heaping,

whirls the autumnal leaves resistlessly along a young woman, and looking extremely exmight

in its full eddies. The hair, loose and float- hausted; her dishevelled hair is floating about Better at once be buried—'twould cost thee less; ing, seems caught in the tempest of their her shoulder, and she is half-covered with draThat wealth which rots, their bane and their own tumultuous motion; their heads are pery that falls on the couch. delight,

thrown back, leaning with a strange delirium Her tunic is exactly like a chemise, only Shrouds with a veil of grossest ignorance these, upon their necks, and looking up to heaven, the sleeves are longer, coming half way down Makes bigots blind of those. --All here is night! whilst they totter and stumble even in the the upper part of the arm. Ăn old wrinkled energy of their tempestuous dance.

woman, with a cloak over her head, and an CONTINUATION OF THE SHELLEY PAPERS.

One represents Agave with the head of enormously sagacious look, has a most pro

Pentheus in one hand, and in the other a fessional appearance, and is taking hold of her Critical Notices of the

great knife; a second has a spear with its arm gently with one hand, and with the pine cone, which was the Thyrsus; another other is supporting it. I think she is feeling dances with mad voluptuousness; the fourth her pulse. At the side of the couch sits à is beating a kind of tambourine.

woman as in grief, holding her head in her (Continued from page 602.)

This was indeed a monstrous superstition, hands. At the bottom of the bed is another The Minerva.

even in Greece, where it was alone capable of matron tearing her hair, and in the act of The head is of the highest beauty. It has combining ideal beauty and poetical and ab- screaming out most violently, which she a close helmet, from which the hair, delicately stract enthusiasm with the wild errors from seems, however, by the rest of her gestures, parted on the forehead, half escapes. The which it sprung. In Rome it had a more to do with the utmost deliberation, as having attitude gives entire effect to the perfect form familiar, wicked, and dry appearance; it was come to the resolution, that it was a correct of the neck, and to that full and beautiful not suited to the severe and exact apprehen- | thing to do so. Behind her is a gossip of the moulding of the lower part of the face and sions of the Romans, and their strict morals most ludicrous ugliness, crying, I suppose, or mouth, which is in living beings the seat of were violated by it, and sustained a deep in- praying, for her arms are crossed upon her the expression of a simplicity and integrity jury, little analogous to its effects upon the neck. There is also a fifth setting up a wail. of nature. Her face, upraised to heaven, is Greeks, who turned all things-superstition, To the left of the couch a nurse is sitting on animated with a profound, sweet, and im- prejudice, murder, madness—to beauty. the ground dandling the child in her arms, passioned melancholy, with an earnest, and

On the Venus called Anadyomine.

and wholly occupied in so doing. The infant fervid, and disinterested pleading against

She has just issued from the batlı

, and yet appears to be in the act of rushing in with

is swaddled. Behind her is a female who some vast and inevitable wrong. It is the joy and poetry of sorrow making grief beauti- is animated with the enjoyment of it.

dishevelled hair and violent gesture, and in ful, and giving it that nameless feeling which,

+ There is an uro in the British Museum, whose one hand brandishing a whip or a thunderfrom the imperfection of language, we call relievos are of the same era, and where the same sub- bolt. This is probably some emblematic perpain, but which is not all pain, though a

ject is treated in a way by no means inferior to that
described so enthusiastically by Shelley. It is in the

son, the messenger of death, or a fury, whose feeling which makes not only its possessor, room of the admirable Faun.

personification would be a key to the whole





What they are all wailing at, I know not;, dins, when the dazzling radiance of his beau- racter and feelings of the people of tlie East

, whether the lady is dying, or the father has tiful limbs shone over the dark Euxine. and at the same time place before them directed the child to be exposed; but if the The action, energy, and godlike animation of distinct and attractive images of our power, mother be not dead, such a tumult would kill these limbs speak a spirit which seems as if our prowess, of our sciences, our commerce

, a woman in the straw in these days, it could not be consumed.

and our freedom. The subjects on which The other compartment, in the second

artists and authors would employ their talents, scene of the drama, tells the story of the pre

might be chosen for them by persons consentation of the child to its father. An old

versant with the character and condition of man has it in his arms, and with professional

the people, and an annual report made by and mysterious officiousness is holding it out

The ancient Egyptians wrote a language our Indian authorities, upon the moral or to the father. The father, a middle-aged and of signs and symbols, which Europeans have political effects which such works produce on very respectablc-looking man, perhaps not

not yet mastered; the early Christian Mis- | the natives. Such is, in brief, the proposal long married, is looking with the admiration sionaries taught savage nations the mysteries of Sir Alexander: it is, in truth, but an exof a bachelor on his first child, and perhaps of the atoneinent by the same means; and tension of the principle upon which he has thinking, that he was once such a strange something like this primitive mode of in- himself privately acted;" he has sent out little creature himself

. His hands are clasped, struction still prevails in the Indian Penin- sculpture, and dramatic poetry—written on and he is gathering up between his arms the sula, and in the tributary isles. There the purpose by Joanna Baillie ; and as the refolds of his cloak, an emblem of his gather- native tribes, by means of painting and sculp- sults have been favourable, he feels that the ing up all his faculties to understand the tale ture, and dramatic representations, not only nation might with propriety do something in the gossip is bringing.

maintain a correspondence between cities the same way for the benefit of both countries. An old man is standing beside him, pro

and nations, but keep up an uniformity of Our government might be worse employed bably his father, with some curiosity, and character, and preserve an air of politeness than in looking to this. much tenderness in his looks. Around are in their intercourse, which their knowledge collected a host of his relations, of whom the of these arts inspire. They are, in truth, an

AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. youngest, a handsome girl, seems the least indolent people, and are content to go the concerned. It is altogether an admirable shortest way to acquire the little learning

While our antiquarians have been turning piece, quite in the spirit of the comedies of they desire. They would dislike to study up every barrow and molehill in search of Terence.t

painting and sculpture in academies, but novel facts (and what could England be ex

they would lie and gaze by the hour on a pected to yield, whose history can be traced Michael Angelo's Bacchus.

noble statue or an historic painting, and im- in a continued stream from Julius Cæsar to The countenance of this figure is a most bibe a far loftier notion of the power of the

the present time?), similar excavations have revolting mistake of the spirit and meaning people who produced them, than they could

been carried on in North America, that canof Bacchus. It looks drunken, brutal, narrow- do any other way: they would smile were not fail to be interesting from the lights they minded, and has an expression of desolateness they desired to puzzle out the meaning of

are likely to throw on subjects of considerthe most revolting: The lower part of the Shakspeare through the medium of their able obscurity. In the barrows there opened figure is stiff, and the manner in which the broken English, but they would go in crowds have been found, together with human skeshoulders are united to the breast, and the to see Macbeth represented. They dislike letons, earthen vessels

, and utensils composed neck to the head, abundantly inharmonious. all mental labour, and much of the bodily of alloyed metal, indicating the past existence It is altogether without unity, as was the idea too, and as art springs from nature, and speaks of an art at present unknown to the nations of the deity of Bacchus in the conception of a all languages with the same clearness and of that continent. This fact, connected with Catholic. On the other hand, considered fluency, they are content to take her for their others produced by Robertson, and confirmed only as a piece of workmanship, it has schoolmistress.

by Bullock in his Museum of Mexican Anmany merits. The arms are executed in a We have been led into these remarks, by tiquities,' is sufficient to prove that America

, style of the most perfect and manly beauty, reading the evidence lately given by Sir though called the New World, is quite as old The body is conceived with great energy, and Alexander Johnston, before a Committee of as our portion of it; nor is it at all improthe manner in which the lines mingle into the House of Commons, for inquiring into bable that we are the youngsters of the race each other, of the highest boldness and truth. the affairs of the India Company, and the of Adam;

for, with the exception of the PyraIt wants unity as a work of art—as a repre-condition of the people of the East. Sir mids of Egypt, and the Vases lately discosentation of Bacchus it wants everything. Alexander has considered the subject ripely; vered in Italy twenty feet below the present A Juno. to his own observations he has added the surface of the soil, we have nothing in Europe

to show, as proofs of antiquity, equal to the A statue of great merit. The countenance testimony of many intelligent officers, who

have served or are serving in that country; fact recorded by Mr. Ferrall;t who states, expresses a stern and unquestioned severity and we look upon his remarks as of great that at the Bull Shoals, east branch of White of dominion, with a certain sadness. The

importance to those who desire to extend River, in Missouri, several feet below the lips are beautiful-susceptible of expressing in India, European knowledge and taste, and surface of the river

, reliquiæ were found, scorn-but not without sweetness. With fine

maintain among

the numerous nations an which indicated that the spot had formerly lips a person is never wholly bad, and they idea of our mental as well as bodily superi- been the seat of metallurgical operations

, never belong to the expression of emotions

where the alloy appeared to be lead united wholly selfish-lips being the seat of ima- ority, Nor will it be useful to the East alone;

it will confer a benefit upon art in this land, with silver; arrow heads also cut out of flint, gination. The drapery is finely conceived, and show our Academy that the East opens and the manner in which the act of throwing her gates to receive their works, though the

and fragments of earthenware that had un

dergone the operation of fire were found back one leg is expressed, in the diverging folds of the drapery of the left breast fading home. To all those who join in these sencountry is reluctant to purchase them at there; and though we have no data to tell us

at what time these operations were carried in bold yet graduated lines into a skirt, as it descends from the left shoulder, is admirably the more complete introduction of painting timents, and they are founded on knowledge, on, the period must have been very remote,

as the present banks have been since entirely imagined.

and sculpture, and the drama, into the East, formed by alluvial deposits. An Apollo,

A still more curious circumstance, menwith serpents twining round a wreath of appears a matter of vast importance—they

are looked upon as ready instruments for tioned by Mr. Ferrall also, is, that a few years laurel on which the quiver is suspended. improving the understanding, raising the since a number of pigmy graves were disIt probably was, when complete, magni, moral character, and securing to Britain the covered near Merrimac River, in St. Louis ficently beautiful. The restorer of the head admiration and attachment of the natives of County. The cofins were of stone, and the and arms, following the indication of the India.

length of the bodies could not have exceeded muscles of the right side, has lifted the arm,

With this in his mind, it is proposed by three feet and a half to four feet; and, as the as in triumph, at the success of an arrow, Sir Alexander, that our Indian Government graves were many, and the skeletons in some imagining to imitate the Lycian Apollo in

be empowered to lay out a certain sum an- nearly entire, it was easy to perceive they that, so tinely described by Apollonius Rho-nually, to encourage historical painters, could not have been those of children. This bas-relief is not antique. It is of the Cinqui | duction of such works as may suit the chasculptors, and dramatic writers, in the pro

+ See Rambles through the United States of Ame rica.' Athenæum, No. 250,

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scene or

Of this discovery notice has been taken , become as little known to the inhabitants of age, and I should suppose that her majesty by Mr. Flint, who observes, “ that the more Australia, as New Holland now is to the weighed, when I saw her, six or eight pounds." the subject of the past races of men and people of Italy; for unless the Australians Many mummies have been found also in animals in America is investigated, the more be led to the Níediterranean for the purposes other parts of America, especially in an experplexed the inquiry becomes. The huge of commerce, what earthly motive will there tensive cavern, says Mr. Flint, near the Teelbones of the animals indicate them to have be to induce them to pass the straits of Gibral- tenah or dripping fork, and not far from the been vastly larger than any now existing, tar?—nay more, what motive will ever lead point where the river empties itself into the while all that I have seen and heard of the them to England, when the only native pro- La Plata. men seems to show, that they were smaller duce that this country can yield (its tin), will These and other coincidences might tempt than the men of our times.”

be either exhausted, or the market be better one to believe, that a connexion has existed But, as we know from testimonies quoted supplied by some of the islands in the Indian at some period between the two hemispheres. by Lawrence (Lectures, p. 377), that almost Archipelago?—and when that time shall ar- But surely it were more reasonable to supall the North American tribes are of small rive, thousands of years may pass before pose, that as the phenomena of man's mental stature, is it not fair to infer that, as plants England, once lost, shall ever be recovered. and corporeal existence are everywhere and animals increase or decrease by cultiva- This will doubtless appear a startling pa- similar, so the thoughts and actions, the retion, or the want of it, so human beings radox to those who have been accustomed to sult of such similarity in mind and body will may vary in their size from the effect of ac- speak of England as the mistress of the be similar ; , and thus we can readily account cidental circumstances ? and thus the tradi- and to see her flag waving over the for the similarity of the tradition among the tion of the giants we read of in Homer, may, four quarters of the globe.

Europeans, respecting a Saturnian age, when after all, be true; since, even in our days, we The time however has been, nor far distant, all was peace and plenty, with one amongst know that the people in the neighbourhood of when the same was said of Tyre, Carthage, the Quapaws, that the barrows mentioned Potsdam are remarkable for their height, as and Venice; and yet they have all sunk, or

above, were raised many hundred snowst being the descendants of the giant body- are sinking fast, into oblivion. The Phe- ago, by a people no longer existing, but guards of the great Frederick of Prussia ; nor can it be doubted, that the athletic men of language of the second, we know nothing, tion, and when there were no wars. nician dialect is quite lost; and even of the living then in a happy age, when game was

so plentiful as to be obtained without exerLancashire will dwindle down to the com- save from a mon standard, as soon as the baneful effect of and where she stood is a matter of dispute the country as the abode of man, may be

two in Plautus ;

In further proof of the great antiquity of confining children to the close and impure What was it but a spirit of commercial enair of cotton factories shall begin more fully terprise that first led her to Britain (the mentioned, the loss of so many languages, to develope itself.

foreign tin-land), in search of a metal to be all of which must have taken some time to It is not, however, so much by the size of found nowhere else so good or so plentiful | have been effected in comparatively few years.

establish, although their destruction might men, as by their proficiency in the arts, that as in the Scilly Islands, and which were, we can form the best idea of the antiquity of by the Greeks, called Karoltepiões; from Of the languages spoken by the aborigines any given race. Now, as we partly prove

kaositepos, tin; while the Latin word stan- of North America, threc, it appears, are so the antiquity of Egypt by the different facts nium proves its connexion with the Cornish distinct, as to have no perceivable affinity connected with the mummies, so is it fair to stan, still preserved in the word stannary, with each other, and still less, says Mons. infer, that where mummies' are found in i. e. the tin dues paid to the Duchy of Corn- Duponceau, with the European tongues, from America, there we have convincing proofs wall.

which they differ in the marked peculiarity of the existence of a race long since extinct; To return, however, to the more interesting of dividing things into animate and inanimate, and when once the mind is thus thrown back subject of the American Mummies, we will and not into genders, male and female'; a on the past, there is no limit to the view it extract the description given by Mr. Flint, distinction carried by all Europeans, except either sees, or fancies it sees.

from which it will appear that, though the the English, to a most absurd length; although But it will be said, that if the world be

American Embalmers were not equal to the it must be confessed, that, in the formation of so very old, how can we account for the daily still they knew enough of it to enable them inanimate objects

, good reasons may have

the language, where genders are applied to Egyptians in all the accessories of the art, discovery of new people in different portions of it? The fact is, the people so met with may

to preserve the bodies of the dead to a time presented themselves to the inventors of the have existed time out of mind; as in the case of when every other trace of the existence of words, for such an apparently arbitrary dif

the embalmers was lost:Clapperton's recent discovery of a numerous

ference-reasons, however, that it is dillicult nation in the very heart of Africa, who must

• The two bodies that were found in the vast

now to guess at, as we have lost the clue to have existed there for many hundred years : limestone cavern in Tennessee, one of which I

lead us through the labyrinth. and even the discovery of the New World saw at Lexington, were neither of them more

But though the American languages thus only proves, that though the means of getting than four feet in height. It seems to me that differ from the European, yet we are told, this must have been nearly the height of the

that in their polysynthetic or “

many comto America had existed for many years, yet living person. The teeth and nails did not seem pounding” character, they approach to the the motive for making the voyage never existed; or if it existed in single individuals, in the desiccating process by which they were to indicate the shrinking of the flesh from them richness of the Greek. For example, we

find in the Arancuanian language, the word still they might want the means of putting preserved. The teeth were separated by con- idnancloclarin, i. e. "I do not wish to eat their wishes into execution.

siderable intervals; and were small, long, white, with him," and a similar verb in the DelaTrue it is, that there is less chance now and sharp, reviving the horrible images of nur

ware tongue, n'schingiwipona, i.e. “I do not than ever there was, of people and places, sery tales of og res' teeth. The hair seemed to

like to eat with him”; to which Mons. D. adds once well known, being completely forgotten, have been sandy, or inclining to yellow. It another example from the latter language, in consequence of the invention of printing;

is well known that nothing is so uniform in the machtitschwanne, i. e. “a cluster of islands

present Indian as his lank black hair. From yet even a language that has been committed ihe pains taken to preserve the bodies, and the

with channels every way, so that it is in no to print may be lost, as in the case of the Polish language, which, in all likelihood, will

great labour of making the funeral robes in place impassable for craft.”

which they were folded, they must have been Now, though these words seem at first to now be swallowed up in the Russian, and in of the 'blood-roval,' or personages of great con

have no possible connexion with any Euroafter times be studied only as the hierogly- sideration in their day. The person that I saw, pean tongue, yet when we come to analyze phics of Egypt, or the less intelligible arrow- had evidently died by a blow on the skull. The them, we think we can discover in two of them headed letiers on the bricks of Babylon; blood had coagulated there into a mass, of a tex- points of resemblance, which only wait for nay, even Greek itself-the noblest medium ture and colour sufliciently marked to show that

more specimens to enable us to speak posiever invented by man to convey his thoughts, it had been blood. The envelope of the body. tively on the subject. Thus, for exanple, in -stards every chance of being, ere long, was double. Two splendid blankets, completely the word inancisclavin, one can detect the really a dead language, when we find so

woven with the most beautiful feathers of the words id " I," nan " not,” clocla “eat," rin little attention paid to it in a country that, wild turkey, arranged in regular stripes and

“with”; where id is like the German ich, compartments, encircled it. The cloth on which in other respects, is boasting of its high state these feathers were woven, was a kind of linen

and nan like the German nain; while clocla of civilization.

of neat texture, of the same kind with that which It requires then no spirit of prophecy to

+ This reminds one of the language of the Greek is now woven from the fibres of the nettle. The

poet, Rhianus, who, meaning to describe tuenty yeur's, predict, that almost the whole of Italy will l body was evidently that of a female of middle I speaks of twenty grasses,




is evidently, like the Latin gula, derived from his illustrations of the Royal Gallery of Flo- “ beautiful exceedingly," it will be welcome the sound made by a person eating, and rence' would alone have sufficed to endear his to all lovers of art and genius. The painter similar to the English gobble ; nor is vin very memory to every cultivated mind.

has declared it to be the finest of all his different from wi' him, that is with him.

Our friends in Naples, ever since Vesuvius works, not even excepting Owen of Lanark Thus, too, in the Delaware word, mach- has grown less wrathful, have been flocking to

and the Countess Guiccioli. titschwanne, one may detect mach like the

the spot in such multitudes, that it is become English much, and wanne, the old English volcano ; and our host, Il Guida del real Ve; more like a Mecca or Loretto than a hideous novelties; but in the leisure which our pub

This is all we have heard in the way of home wain, corrupted from the German wagen, suvio, as he styles himself

, not to be belindhand lisbing quiet has left us, we have been running
the origin of wagon, while titsch, like the
Latin Tethys, is probably sea-water; and

with his own well-doing, has, to the content hastily over the continental periodicals, to in
ment of his followers, undertaken to appease

form ourselves of what might be expected from
thus machtitschwanne is in reality much sea- their hunger with savouries on the very edge of the foreign press-Germany is, of course, the
water way.
the crater.

most prolific. We observe that a German

translation of the Chansons of Béranger has OUR WEEKLY GOSSIP ON LITERATURE

recently been published at Stuttgart. The

grave and serious character of the German Rome 22nd August.

The publishing world is silent, and con- people has hitherto taught them to consider SOME attention has been excited among the

founded by the success of the Society for the poetry as allied to the deepest passions and antiquaries of this place by the discovery of Diffusion of Knowledge, which has swal

affections—thence may arise their compara

tive disrelish for the lighter and more sparkthirty bodies, covered over with large tiles, on

lowed up the gains of booksellers, and the the banks of the Aviene, near the grotto of Nep- hopes of authors: this steam-engine style of also

, is little adapted to exhibit the grace,

ling effusions of the muse. Their language, tune at Tivoli. Several medals and fragments manufacturing books cannot, however, last of inscriptions were found scattered on the spot, long; genius must sooner or later resume

the delicate pleasantry and gaiety of the

French bard. -A new work is also anbut, in general, they have not proved of much the ascendancy, and destroy, like Aaron's value. On one of them may be traced the letters rod, all such false enchantments. Some of our

nounced as in the press, by Messrs. TzschopMILITI....C. AUG.; and on another the word booksellers aided largely in calling into exist- ple and Stenzel

, containing a collection of LEZBIA. The whole of these remains have ence this mushroom literature : books were

original documents, illustrative of the origin been carefully removed to the Townhall of the by these persons considered as newspapers,

of the Slavonic cities, and the introduction district. for the service only of the day of their birth,

and spread of the German colonies—a quesThe last meeting of the Academy of Archæ

tion often considered, and of great imporology took place on the 2nd instant; and the most and were puffed into circulation by critical

tance in history. attractive part of the proceedings was a detailed breezes and trade winds; next day brought a new book and a hundred new puffs, and

Two important works on Theology hare

just made their appearance in Holland—a secretary, of an antique Grecian marble found the romance or novel of the day before, was

new edition, in 2 vols. 4to., of Wetsten's in the island of Syros, and presented to the sent to oblivion. The bookseller who pub

New Testament, with considerable additions
Academy by the Austrian traveller, Colonel lished the book, was reckoned everything,
Prokesch, who is at present on a mission to the and the author nothing, and, by his patronage,

by Lotze; and an Encyclopædia of Theology, court of Rome, It is the more valuable from

written for future divines, as the author, Dr.

Every desperate blockade dared to write. containing two words which have hitherto We had hoped that such publishers were be

Clarisse, quaintly expresses it. We cannot escaped detection ; these are, Archoine (Archon- ginning to be sensible of the ruin thus brought English would be highly useful, as opening

but think that a translation of this work into tess), and Demothoineo (a festive banquet given to the populace). The learned Secretary then proon literature, and of its reaction on them

sources of knowledge to English theological nounced an eloquent eulogium on our lamented selves; but there is a dulness, on which even

students, which are at present wholly unknown countryman, Dodwell, who was a corresponding experience throws away its wisdom. We

by the great majority of scholars in this member of the Academy. After dwelling on the have had a sad specimen lately of this catch

country. But it will perhaps more interest indefatigable industry which distinguished his penny trickery, in the publication of “Zohrab the general reader to be informed, that A. whole life, Visconti held up his single-hearted the Hostage. This work was professedly devotion to the advancement of antiquarian reviewed in the Bookseller's Gazette of the who recently visited England for the purpose

M. Passaraut, historical painter at Frankfort

, science and investigations, as entitled both to eighth of this month, at a time when we the gratitude and admiration of every scholar. have reason to believe, the printing was not

of exploring the collections of the great

of He next traced Dodwell's pilgrimages through finished it was made the leading article,


, and of ascertaining the progress Italy and Greece, and referred to the noble col; and ten columns were given, to satisfy the

native art, now announces a work on these lections he had formed, the excavations he had

subjects, in which will be found, he says, set on foot, and the works he had published ;

world of the importance of the work. In much interesting matter relative to the peramongst the latter, none, Visconti observed, this professed review, there was, of course, a

sonal history of many living artists, with promised to be of more extensive utility, than fine flourish about the "admired author,"

whose friendship he was honoured during his projected publication on the ancient struc

the “delightful author,” and his “entertain- his stay: the whole interspersed with remarks tures of Greece and Italy, for which he had not ing narrative;" and this serviceable paragraph

on the public and private life of the English. only prepared a considerable portion of the text, has ever since been circulating all over the

Approaching towards Italy, we read, that but left behind him as many as one hundred and country—it has been impossible to take up a

in Piedmont an association has been formed fifty-three designs and plates. The orator then newspaper, without stumbling on it; we are

among the printers, for the purpose of re-pubinstanced the extent of his labours and attain- of opinion, that not less than one hundred lishing voluminous and expensive works. ments in the science of Lithology; as an evidence pounds has been expended in giving it curof which he stated, that Dodwell had collected

• The Sermons of Segneri,' in 12 volumes

, Now the orders from the country, I is the first announced to appear

. As to Italy rency. two hundred specimens of lavas, thrown up by for this interesting narrative of this delight- itself

, it is well observed by a foreign writer

, the spent volcanoes in the vicinity of Rome, ful author," must arrive in London by the and far surpassing those either of Ætna or Ve

that its literary traffic with the rest of Eusuvius in beauty; besides having, at a very 25th or 26th, to ensure the receipt of the

rope seems to be impeded by the Alps and considerable expense both of toil and money,

work by the booksellers' monthly parcels

. Apennines. It is certain that the new porn brought together two thousand five hundred Will not this then be admitted as a system ductions of the Italian press are longer in specimens of English, French, Swiss, and Italian most ruinous to our literature, when we add, becoming known to the literati of foreign marbles; many of which he had himself dis- that • Zohrab the Hostage' has not yet been

countries, than the works published in any covered. This address was rapturously ap- seen, except by this trade critic, and that it

other of the European communities : even plauded at its conclusion by one of the most is not even now published !

in Italy itself the knowledge travels slowly; numerous and respectable audiences which have

We hear that Professor Wilson has been and the new works of Florence are among ever attended the sittings of the Academy.

The loss of Zannoni, who died at Florence much pleased with his cruise in the Vernon, the latest novelties at Bologna, a year and a on the 12th instant, where he has long and ably wonders of the deep: we hope he will take

and that he proposes to write a song on the day after publication. The most important filled the appointments of Secretary of the Della

works which have lately appeared, we believe Cruscan Academy and Director of the department London in his way home, and let us hear to be • The Ritratta ed Elogi di Liguri il. of Antiquities to the Grand-Duke of Tuscany, is

a stave of it.— Wordsworth, too, has been lustri," (Genoa); a continuation of the work works in Greek, Etruscan, and Latin literature, likeness is said to be great, and though not I nuazione delle Memorie degli Scrittori e Letgreatly deplored. Independently of his erudite sitting for his portrait to Pickersgill: the begun by Gervasoni; and Pezzana's "Conti

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