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also journeyed through the Congo, and became a warm advocate of reforms in that country. In 1900 he married Princess Elisabeth of Bavaria, and to them three children have been born, Princes Leopold and Charles, and Princess Maria-Jos£.
King Albert signalized his accession to the throne by cancelling contracts for costly and_ needless public works, and set-' ting apart a fund to be used in discovering a remedy for the sleeping sickness of the Congo. He has taken an active part in the work of commercial and workingmen's associations, holding the office of president in many of them.
Albert I. (1250-1308), duke of Austria and German Emperor, eldest son of Rudolph of Hapsburg. His arrogant claim to the throne on the death of his father in 1292 was met by the election of Adolphus of Nassau, who was deposed in 1298, and in the same year defeated and slain by his rival. Albert was elected and crowned (1298), and first joined France against the Pope, and then the Pope against France. Wars with the Netherlands, Hungary, and Bohemia followed. His despotic measures in Switzerland provoked (1308) the revolution which led to the formation of the Swiss Confederation. Albert's refusal to recognize the claim of his nephew, Don John, to the dukedom of Swabia aroused a conspiracy against him, and he was murdered.
Albert I. (1100-70). duke of Brandenburg, called 'The Bear,' founder of the house of Anhalt. He succeeded his father in 1123, and in 1125 became duke of the Ustmark and Lusatia. In 1134 he was invested by the Emperor with the province of the Nordmark. or the territories on the left bank of the Elbe taken from the Slavs. These Albert transformed into a German province. In 1147 lie undertook a crusade against the Wends; and in 1150 came into possession of the margravate of Brandenburg, and took the title of Duke of Brandenburg. In 1169 he resigned in favor of his eldest son.
Albert III. (1114-88), surnamed Achilles, and also UlysSes, third son of Frederick i., elector of Brandenburg, whom he succeeded (144O) in the principality of Ansbach. From his brother John he inherited the principality of Bayreuth in 14IU; and in 1470 received the electorate of Brandenburg from his brother Frederick II. Under his rule the Franconian lands Vol. I.—Mar. '13
were reunited with Brandenburg. He effectually resisted the attempts of the Teutonic knights to repossess themselves of the Neumark, and engaged in successful wars with Mecklenburg and Pomerania. He wrote the Disposilio Achillea, a family ordinance which provided for the future separation of Brandenburg and Ansbach-Bayreuth; and, according to Hallam, first legally established primogeniture.
Albert III. (1443-150O), duke of Saxony, surnamed 'The Bold,' younger son of the Elector Frederick (1443-1500), passed a portion of his early life at the court of Frederick ill. in Vienna. On their father's death, the brothers Ernest and Albert ruled Saxony in partnership; but subsequently, by the agreement of Leipzig (1485), Ernest received Thuringia, and Albert Meissen. A brave and accomplished soldier. Albert fought in the wars of Frederick of Austria against Charles the Bold (Duke of Burgundy) and others. His intervention on behalf of Maximilian I. gained him the stadtholdership of the Netherlands, as well as the hereditary governorship of Friesland. He was the founder of the present royal house of Saxony. See Albertine Link.
Albert V. (1490-1545), archbishop of Magdeburg and elector of Mainz, commonly known as Albert Of Brandenburg, was the second son of the elector, John Cicero of Brandenburg. He entered holy orders; became in 1513 archbishop of Magdeburg; in 1514 archbishop and elector of Mainz; and in 1518 cardinal. He was one of the principal adversaries of the Reformation, and Luther attacked him in a pamphlet, though at first Albert had tried to bring about reconciliation between the two parties. In return for the payment of 500.0OO florins he granted his Protestant subjects in the see of Magdeburg the free exercise of their religion. He was the first German prince to admit the newly created order of the Jesuits into his dominions; and he took a prominent part in the preparation for the religious wars which broke out shortly after his death.
Albert, Alexandra Martin (1815-95). French political leader, played an active part in the revolution of February. 1848. He became a member of the provisional government, and presided over the commission for the organization of Louis Blanc's national workshops. He represented the department of the Seine in the Assembly, but suf
fered ten years' imprisonment for a political offence. In the Siege of Paris, in 1870, he served on the Commission of Barricades.
Albert, Eduard (1841-1900). Austrian surgeon, was born in Senftenberg, Bohemia. He studied at Vienna, where, in 1881, he became professor of clinical surgery, after acting as professor of surgery at Innsbruck. Results of his important researches appear in his Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Chirurgit (1878); Beitrdge zur opcraiiven Chirurgie (1878-80); Lehrbtuh der Chirurgie (1889-91); Diagnostik der chirurgischen Krankheiten (1890); Zur Theorie der Skoliose (1890).
Albert, Eugen Francis Charles D' (1864), pianist and composer, was born in Glasgow, the son of a French musician. He was trained first by his father, and subsequently in London under Sir Arthur Sullivan and others; but he owes much to Liszt and Hans Richter. With the latter he went to Vienna in 1881, where he achieved marked success. His compositions include the operas Ghismonda (1895); Die Abreise (1898); Kain (1900), Tiefland (1903); Flaulo Solo (1905); Der Geborgte Ehemann (1907). He is court pianist to the king of Saxony.
Albert, Francis Charles AuGustus Emanuel (1819 - 61). Prince Consort, husband of Queen Victoria of England, was the younger of the two sons of Ernest, Duke of Saxe-CoburgGotha. He was educated at Brussels and Bonn (1836-8), where he showed himself an ardent student, acquired many accomplishments, and developed a taste for music and the fine arts. King Leopold and Baron Stockmar had long contemplated an alliance between Prince Albert and Princess Victoria, and the pair were brought together in 1836. When the succession of Victoria was assured the betrothal took place, and on Feb. 10, 1840, the marriage—which was one of real affection on both sides—was solemnized in the Chapel Royal, St. James' Palace. The Prince Consort's position as the husband of a constitutional sovereign was difficult, and in the early years of his married life his interference in matters of state was resented. Ultimately he became 'a sort of minister, without portfolio, of art and education,' and in this capacity won much esteem and popularity. He also interested himself in agriculture and in social and industrial reform. To him was due the great Exhibition of 1851, which resulted in a balance of tl.OOO.OOO, avail
able for the encouragement of science and art. His personal character was high, and he exercised great influence on his children. On Dec. 14, 18G1. he succumbed to an attack of fever. Consult Sir T. Martin's Life of the Prince Consort; Letters of Queen Victoria (1907).
Albert, Frederick Rudolf. archduke of Austria (1817-95), Son of the Archduke Charles, was born in Vienna. He fought at Santa Lucia. Gravellona, Mortara. and Novara (all 1848), under Radetzky, and as field marshal commanded the army at Custozza (1866). He did much to reorganize the Austrian army, and was the author of works on military subjects.
Albert, Heinrich (1604-55 or 56), musical composer, was born in Lobenstein, Vogtland. He studied music under his uncle Schiitz in Dresden, and was appointed organist in the cathedral at Konigsberg in 1631. His hymns were set to music by himself, and include Coll des Himmels und der Erde; Zum Sterben ich bereitet bin. His secular poems are noted for their grace and lightness. They are collected in Poetisch-musikalischen Lustwaldlein.
Albert, Joseph (1825-86), photographer, began his professional career at Augsburg in 1850, and in 1858 settled at Munich. He produced a large number of copies of famous pictures and drawings by what is called the Albertype Process. See Process Work.
Alberta, province of Dominion of Canada, includes the former district of Alberta, the western half of Athabasca, and a strip of Assiniboia and Saskatchewan. It is bounded on the west by British Columbia; on the south by the international boundary (49° N. lat.); on the east by Saskatchewan; and on the north by the 60° parallel of north latitude. Length, north to south, 750 miles; average width, east to west, 347 miles; area, 255,285 square miles.
Topography.—Topographic conditions divide the province into a southern region of open rolling country without trees, except along the streams and foothills of the Rocky Mountains, and a northern region of timbered country, broken here and there by patches of prairie. The Rocky Mountains have a gradual ascent on their eastern side, but the approach from the west is much more abrupt. Through these mountains the best known of the passes leading from Alberta to British Columbia are (1) the Crow's Nest, (2) Vol. I.—Mar. '13
the Kicking Horse, (3) the Yellowhead, and (4) the Peace River.
The rivers of Alberta run for the most part from west to east, in conformity with the general slope of the province. In the south the Belly and Bow Rivers, both of which have their sources in the foothills of the Rockies, eventually unite to form the South Saskatchewan River, which in turn is joined farther east by the Red Deer River. Between 52° and 53° N. lat. is the source of the most important river in the province, the North Saskatchewan, which, after receiving the Battle River as its tributary, continues east to join the South Saskatchewan. United under the name of the Saskatchewan River, they flow into Lake Winnipeg, in Manitoba, and eventually into Hudson Bay under the name of the Nelson River.
The province is divided at 53° 28' N. lat. by a height of land, to the north of which the rivers flow toward the north and east. These rivers are the Athabasca, which empties into Lake Athabasca, and the Peace, which is joined near Lake Athabasca by a stream from the lake, and continues its course as the Slave River to Great Slave Lake. Thence to the Arctic Ocean it is known as the Mackenzie River.
The most important lakes in the province are the Athabasca (area 2,842 sq. m., of which 1,041 are in Alberta), Lesser Slave (area, 479 sq. m.), and Claire (area, 405 sq. m.).
The highest peak in Alberta is Mount Columbia (alt. 14,000 ft.). There are 40 other mountain peaks in the province exceeding 10,000 feet in altitude.
Climate And Soil.—It is rather difficult to give an idea of the climate of Alberta as a whole, on account of the great size of the province and the varying meteorological factors. The mean annual temperature and rainfall of three representative centres are as follows: Calgary, mean annual temperature, 37.4°; rainfall, 16 inches. Edmonton, mean annual temperature, 36.7°; rainfall, 17 inches. Fort Chippewyan, mean annual temperature, 26.9°; rainfall, 13 inches. Calgary, in the south, has an average temperature of 15° in winter; Edmonton, in the central part, has an average winter temperature of 10°; and Fort Chippewyan (lat. 59° N.) has an average winter temperature of 7°. There are not as great differences in the summer temperatures of these three places, since the altitude of the northern part of the
province is much less than that of the south.
The average annual precipitation for the province as a whole is 13.35 inches. The rainfall is greatest from May to August— the time when rain is most needed.
For the most part, the soil is a rich alluvial loam, so fertile that manure and artificial fertilizers are unnecessary. The loam overlies a thick bed of clay.
Geology. — The geological conditions are known only in a general way, as yet; although every year the information gathered by the geological survey parties becomes more localized and detailed. The southern part of Alberta comprises part of the third prairie steppe, with an altitude of 2,000 to 3,000 feet. It includes some sterile portions, but as a rule the soil is good. Probably the larger part of this district is occupied by Cretaceous strata, overlaid more or less by sands of Glacial or post-Glacial age. In the western part the Cretaceous strata are succeeded by Cainozoic deposits, consisting of sandy clays with associated beds of coal and lignite. Toward the north the lignite is of a woody or earthy character, but is of better quality in the southwest. The eastern portion of the Rocky Mountain chain enters Alberta in the form of distinct ranges curving toward the northwest. Farther south the ranges are much higher.
Flora And Fauna.—In the south the province is clothed in a mantle of short grass in the summer season. Trees are found in clumps on the hillsides and along the banks of rivers. The northern part is more thickly wooded, and is crossed by the forest belt. The different varieties of trees include the poplar and birch in the south. In the north and in the mountain valleys of the west, the pine, spruce, balsam, and Douglas fir are found.
In the mountainous part of the western portion of Alberta bears and panthers are still found, together with moose and deer. The coyote and occasionally the grey timber wolf are met with. In the mountains themselves wild goats 'and sheep afford good sport for the hunter. Gophers are numerous in the plains. Other wild animals include the porcupine and wolverine. The extreme northern part of the province is still the home of the hunter and trapper; and, with its wealth of such fur-bearing animals as the mink, marten, otter, and muskrat, affords a
ready but rather uncertain means of livelihood to the rapidly diminishing number of these men. This portion of Alberta is one of the breeding places of the migratory birds which have made their way north. These include vast numbers of geese, ducks, partridges, and many varieties of song birds.
Forestry. — The forests of Alberta are owned by the Dominion Government, so that the province has no control over them. The forest area consists of a narrow belt of timber, running in a northwesterly direction through the northern part of the province. There are also scattered patches of trees throughout the rest of the province, to say nothing of the valuable and heavily timbered area on the eastern slopes of the Rockies. The Dominion Government has reserved 18,564 square miles of this forested portion, in order to regulate and preserve the water supply of the important rivers whose sources are found there. The lumber cut in 1910 was 45,127,000 feet B. M.
Fisheries. — The fishing industry in Alberta is not important, owing largely to the fact that the northern part of the province is still thinly populated; and it is there that the sources of supply are most promising. Whitensh, pickerel, and pike are found in almost all the rivers and lakes. Athabasca River and Lake abound in whitefish of excellent quality, and it is only a question of time when the fishing industry in that part of Alberta will take its place as an important source of wealth. Close seasons have been established; but the Indians are allowed to catch fish at any time, if they are used for domestic consumption. During the fiscal year ending March 31, 1909. the value of fish and fish products was $82,502. Of this amount, $47,083 was obtained from the sale of whitefish; $24,110 from the sale of pike.
Mining. — The province is very rich in coal deposits. Lignite is found in large quantities over an extensive part of the western portion. Bituminous coal is mined in the Rockies from the international boundary north to the Yellowhead Pass. At Anthracite and Bankhead so-called anthracite coal is mined. Low carbon bituminous varieties are found at Lethbridge, Taber. Burmis, and Lundbreck. The principal collieries of the bituminous kinds are situated at Coleman, Frank, Lille, Byron Creek, Hillcrest, Bellevue, Passburg, and Canmore. In 1910 there Vol. I.—Mar. '13
were more than 120 collieries in operation. Important areas have recently been found near the headwaters of the Embarras and Pembina Rivers. Highergrade coal is present in the Brazeau Range district.
Gold is found in the banks and bars of most of the great rivers, but not, as a rule, in paying quantities. Natural gas is abundant, and is used extensively, especially in the vicinity of Medicine Hat. There are indications of petroleum in the Athabasca region.
The value of the mineral production in 1907 was $4,657,524; in 1910 it was $8,996,210. The output of coal in 1910 was 878,011 tons of lignite, 1,896,961 tons of bituminous, and 261,785 tons of anthracite. The value of the coal output for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1911, was $3,933,958.
Agriculture.—For agricultural purposes the province may be divided into three parts. The southern part, extending from the international boundary to Red River, north of Calgary, and including the basin of the South Saskatchewan River, is practically all rolling prairie, with little timber, and an average altitude of 2,500 feet. The rainfall is light, and irrigation is necessary for mixed farming and spring wheat. The valley of the Bow River contains the largest amount of irrigated lands in the province. Here wheat is fairly successful without irrigation, but the yield is greatly increased by it.
Central Alberta extends from the Red River north to the height of land separating the drainage basin of the North Saskatchewan from that of the Athabasca River. This is open prairie country, interspersed with stretches of poplar and spruce, and is suitable for mixed farming, though all grain crops yield abundantly. Clover and timothy are grown here.
Northern Alberta was for a long time considered quite unsuitable for agricultural purposes; but this opinion has been greatly modified in recent years. In this portion of the province the isothermal lines run north of northwest; and although the winters are very cold, the summers are almost as hot and prolonged as in the southern part of the province. Northern Alberta, especially the Peace River Valley, is being settled rapidly, even in advance of transportation facilities; while experience has shown that the farther north wheat and barley can be grown, the heavier is the yield, other
things being equal. The average yield of spring wheat is 20.62 bushels to the acre. Winter wheat, the leading crop in Southern Alberta, has a still larger yield.
The value of the field crops in 1911 was $47,750,000. The production was as follows:
Yield per Total
Crop. acre in yield in
Winter wheat 25 28 \i >11 ,'MI
Springwheat 21.64 28,132,000
OaU 48.34 56.9«4.UUO
Barley 26.54 4,151,000
Rye 27.30 564,000
Flai 10.39 973,000
Potatoes 193.03 4,417,000
Turnips, etc 300.61 3,527,000
Hay 4 clover.... *1.66 *274,000
The output of creameries in 1910 was 2,315,000 pounds of butter, of the value of $575,000. For the same year the production of cheese factories was 220,000 pounds, valued at $27,500.
Stock Raising.—The ranges of Southern Alberta have long been famous for the low cost at which cattle can be raised, and the excellence of the beef produced. Usually, the cattle require no shelter in winter; and it is possible to leave them out of doors for the entire year, even in the Peace River district —and this with but trilling loss. However, they now receive much better care, especially in the winter, than was profitable or possible in the old ranching days. In the south, buffalo and bunch grass is cured on the ground, and this forms a very nutritive food for the cattle. The industry is gradually being driven farther north, as the south is being used more for agricultural purposes with the introduction of irrigation facilities.
The live stock in the province in 1911 was as follows: horses, 317,000; cattle, 1,100,000; sheep, 179,200; swine, 149,400—making a total of 1,735,900 (as compared with 1,569,353 in 1908).
The shipments of live stock during the year were as follows: cattle, 154.OOO; horses, 25,000; sheep, 60.OOO; swine, 50,000—a total of 289,000 (as compared with 195.000 in 1905). During the year the Canadian West consumed by far the larger part of these shipments.
Transportation.—Many of the larger rivers—such as the North and South Saskatchewan and the Athabasca—are used for transportation purposes, but generally for local and restricted areas. It is possible that their usefulness may be increased in the future by dredging; but railways will continue to be more and more important as instru
ments of transportation. The official railway figures for the year ending June 30, 1912, give a mileage of 1,897 in the province—an increase of 402 during the year. The Canadian Pacific Railway owns 1,390 miles; the Canadian Northern 395; and the Alberta Railway and Irrigation Company (now a part of the Canadian Pacific) 112 miles. It will be noticed that the Grand Trunk Pacific is not credited with any mileage, although it is actually operating many miles of line within the province. This is because its system is still regarded as 'under construction.' In addition to the 1,897 miles referred to above, there were in actual operation in the province 401 miles; 718 miles more were completed; 796 miles were under contrapt; and 700 miles were surveyed.
That part of the country which is most in need of railway communication at the present time is the Peace River district, and the lines of steel are slowly but surely reaching out north from Edmonton. The province was unfortunate in the attempt made some time ago to solve this problem; but both the government and private railways are now doing their best to make up for the time lost.
Manufactures.—The growth of manufactures in the province is shown by a comparison of the figures for 1910 and 1905. In 1910 there were 290 industrial establishments, with (29,518,346 capital, and 6,980 employees, which paid out (5,116,782 in salaries and wages; the total value of products was (18,788,826. In 1905 there were 120 , industrial establishments, with (5,545,821 capital, and 2,045 employees, which paid out (1,167,107 in salaries and wages; the total value of products was (4,365,661.
The values of the imports for the fiscal years 1910 and 1911 were (5.948,225 and (9.094,726, respectively.
Finance.—For 1911 the government receipts were (3,446,744, and the expenditures (3,418.07O. The assets for 1912, with bridges and public buildings included, were (7,733,579; the liabilities, including loans, were (7,293,333.
Population.—In 1901 the population was 73,022; in 1911 it was 374,366—an increase of 301,641, or 413 per cent. The increase in the rural population was 18O.327; in the urban population. 121,314. The population of the principal towns in 1911 was: Calgary, 43,736; Edmonton (capital). 24.882; LethVol. I.—Mar. '13
bridge, 8,048; Medicine Hat. 5,572.
Education.—In 1910 there were 1,195 schools, with 1,610 departments, and 55,307 enrolled pupils. The amount expended on school buildings was (1,062,986; on teachers' salaries, (908,045. Certain privileges are granted to Roman Catholics in the education of their children. The University of Alberta (q. v.) is in Edmonton. Sectarian colleges are located there and in Calgary.
Government.—The Legislative Assembly consists of 41 members (1913). The executive authority is vested in a LieutenantGovernor, with a responsible ministry. The Dominion Government retains control of the public lands, and pays an annual allowance to the provincial government in consideration thereof. The province is represented in the Dominion Senate by 4 members, and in the House of Commons by 7 members.
Recent Legislation. — The provincial government has acquired and now operates the entire telephone system throughput Alberta, being the first province in the Dominion to undertake the public operation of the telephones. A Department of Railways and Telephones and a Department of Municipal Affairs have been established. An act has been passed permitting the exemption of improvements in cities and towns from taxation—the socalled 'Single-Tax' Act. The provincial government may facilitate railway construction in the Peace River District by the guarantee of the bonds of the railway companies.
History.—Alberta was first discovered and partially explored and colonized by the French. Fort La Jonquiere, near the present site of Calgary, was established by them in 1752.
The Northwest Company of Montreal, the great rival of the Hudson Bay Company, established trading posts in Alberta, and built Fort Athabasca in 1778. Fort Chippewyan was founded in 1788. This aroused the antagonism of the Hudson Bay Company, which looked upon Northern Alberta as within its sphere of influence, although the company had done little to develop its fur-trading possibilities.
Somewhat later, Alexander Mackenzie, after following up the course of the North Saskatchewan River to the height of land, explored the river which now bears his name. He also succeeded in reaching the Pacific Coast through the Peace River
Pass, being the first white man to cross Canada from ocean to ocean. The district of Alberta, which formed part of the present province of Alberta, was organized irt 1875. Alberta was proclaimed a province by the Dominion of Canada on Sept. 1, 1905.
Bibliography. — Consult Sir W. F. Butler's The Wild North Land and The Great Lone Land; A. G. Cameron's The New North; A. C. Laut's Pathfinders of the West; Willson's The Great Company; The Province of Alberta (in Porter's 'Progress of the Nations' series).
Alberta, University of, a provincial, non-sectarian university, founded and supported by the government of Alberta, Canada. It is beautifully situated on the North Saskatchewan River, in the Strathcona section of the city of Edmonton. The Faculty of Arts and Sciences was opened for lectures in September, 1908. A tract of 258 acres has been acquired for the site, and extensive building operations were started in 1909. In 1912 the institution had 310 students, 34 of whom were women. Two residence halls have been completed, and a third one is in course of construction, as well as one of the main teaching buildings of the University. There is a teaching staff of 25 professors and lecturers. New departments are being constantly added.
Albert Edward Nj-anza (now known as Edward Nyanza), a lake in the upper part of the Nile basin, Central Africa, of nearly circular form, lying just south of the Equator, about 2,900 feet above sea level, between Ankole (Uganda Protectorate) and the Congo. It has a circuit of 140 miles and a diameter of 45 miles; drains the southern slopes of Mount Ruwenzori through the Wami and Mpanga Rivers; and sends its overflow through the Semliki north to the Albert Nyanza. First discovered by Henry M. Stanley in 1876, it was explored by him on a second journey in 1889, and named after the then Prince of Wales.
On most maps the Edward Nyanza is shown projecting northeast some distance beyond the Equator; but this sheet of water, formerly supposed to form part of that inland sea, and named Beatrice Gulf, is now known to occupy an independent basin of crater-like formation, Lake Rusango or Ruisamba, separated from the Edward Nyanza by a tongue of land, and without any outflow.
Albertl, Leone Battista DegLi ( 1404-72), Italian writer,