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l. Bolton. 2 Kirkstall. 3. Bristol. 4. Holyrood. 5. Fountains.



Morning (1890). In 1896 he was
elected A.r.a., in the year of his
fine picture Richard III. and
Lady Anne (etching by M. L.
Flameng); and R.a. in 1898, his
diploma picture being A Lute
Player. Abbey is best known to
Americans for the frescoes—
fifteen panels telling the story of
the Holy Grail—in the Boston
Public Library (1901), and for
the eight immense paintings in
the dome of the Pennsylvania
capitol at Harrisburg (1908);
and to the English for the pic-
ture of King Edward's coro-
nation (1904), now in Windsor
Castle. Other paintings are
Hamlet (1897); King Lear's
Daughters (1898); Crusaders
Sighting Jerusalem (1901); Co-
lumbus in the New World (1906).

In general, Abbey's works are
story pictures, and show remark-
able ability to enter into and
interpret the conceptions of
other minds and bygone ages.
It was this fineness of dramatic
imagination that made him such
a good illustrator. His ideal fig-
ures are characterized by great
purity ot feeling, as well as by
delicacy of drawing; while the
compositions abound in histori-
cally accurate detail, and are
rich in masses of vivid color.

Abblategrasso, town, prov-
ince Milan. Italy, 17 m. south-
west of Milan, on the Naviglio
Grande Canal. It has a castle, a
convent, and a hospital. There
is considerable trade in rice.
Pop. 14,000.

Abbot, the head of a monas-
tery. The name was first given
as a title of honor to any monk,
then to aged or distinguished
monks, finally to the superior
alone. In the East the corre-
sponding title is archimandrite or
hegumenos. In the West, in
orders iounded after the eleventh
century, superiors are known,
not as abbots, but as priors,
guardians, rectors, provosts, etc.
An abbot may be chosen tor life
or for three years; must be at
least twenty-five years old, and a
priest; the choice is made by the
professed monks who are in holy
orders, and confirmed by the
bishop, or, in case of exempt
monasteries, by the superior ab-
bot or by the Pope; must, as a
rule, receive solemn benediction
for his office at the hands of a
bishop; he may empower priests
to absolve his subjects, etc.; in
important cases he must obtain
the consent of the community.
He may preside over one house,
or over many; he may be exempt
from episcopal jurisdiction, and
be subject directly to t he Pope; he
may possess quasi-episcopal j uris-
diction over a whole district; he


may be mitred—i.e., have the
right to wear the insignia of a
bishop; he may hold political
rank, like the prince-abbots of
Germany, or the twenty-eight
English abbots who sat in the
House of Lords before the disso-
lution of the monasteries.

Commendatory abbots are per-
sons who enjoy the revenues of
an abbey without necessarilv
being monks. Originally ap-
pointed for the protection of the
monasteries in troublous times,
they were afterward appointed
as a mark of royal favor. Hence
the French courtesy title of abbe
or the Italian abbate. given to
secular unbeneficed clerics."

Abbot, Benjamin (1762-
1849), American educator, was
born in Andover, Mass., and was
educated at Harvard University.
For fifty years he was a teacher,
most of the time being principal
of Exeter Academy at Exeter,
N. H., where he numbered among
his pupils Bancroft, Edward and
Alexander H. Everett, Jared
Sparks, and Daniel Webster.

Abbot, Charles. 'See Col-
Chester, Lord.

Abbot, Ezra (1819-84), Bib-
lical scholar, was born in Jackson,
Me., and educated at Bowdoin.
From 1872 to 1884 he was Bussey
professor of New Testament
criticism at t&e Harvard Divin-
ity School. ,He edited Hudson's
New Testament Concordance
(1870), and assisted the Amer-
ican committee for New Testa-
ment revision (1871-81). He
edited Smith's Bible Dictionary
(1807-70); wrote Literature of the
Doctrine of a Future Life (1804)
and Authorship of the Fourth
Gospel, and revised Schaff's Com-
panion to the New Testament
(1883) and Mitchell's Critical
Handbook to the New Testament
(1881). Consult Barrows' Life.

Abbot, Francis Ellingwood
(1836-1903), American leligious
and philosophical writer, was born
in Boston. Mass., and was edu-
cated at Harvard University and
Meadville Theological School.
He had charge of several Uni-
tarian churches and was instruc-
tor of philosophy at Harvard
(1887-8). He also edited The
Index, a religious liberal weekly.
He was the author of Scientific .
Theism (1886);7Vi« Way Out of
Agnosticism (1890); Syllogistic
Philosophy (19O6).

Abbot, George (1562-1033),
archbishop of Canterbury, was
born in Guilford. He gained a
fellowship at Oxford (1583). and
became master of University
College, dean of Winchester, and
vice-chancellor (1600) of Oxford.
He was bishop of Coventry and
LichfJeld (1609), then of London


(1610), succeeding Bancroft as
archbishop in 1611. As president
of the Essex Divorce Commis-
sion, he incurred the king's dis-
pleasure by opoosing the peti-
tion (1613). Ill-health and the
accession of Charles I. (who fa-
vored Laud) crippled his influ-
ence, and in 1627 he was deprived
of authority. An ardent Calvin-
ist, he did not scruple to employ
torture and the stake. He as-
sisted in the translation of the
Bible. Consult Hook's Lives of
the Archbishops of Canterbury.

Ahhot, Henry Larcom( 1831).
American engineer officer, was
born in Beverly, Mass. He
received his military education
at West Point, Under General
Humphreys he took part in the
hydrographic survey of the Mis-
sissippi delta, of which he wrote
(with Humphreys) an elaborate
report. Physics and Hydraulics
of the Mississippi River. During
the Civil War he saw service in
the Manassas campaign; was
wounded at Bull Run, and took
part in constructing the defences
of Washington. He also served
in the Virginia Peninsula Cam-
paign (1862), and in the opera-
tions before Richmond in 1864-5.
In 1865 he was chief of artillery
in the operations before Fort
Fisher, and in the Department of
Virginia. He attained the rank
of brigadier-general. After the
war he was engaged in the mili-
tary and scientific duties of the
Corps of Engineers, until his
retirement from active service in
1895. He received the degree
of Ll.d. from Harvard in 1886.
He was a member of the Board
of Consulting Engineers which
formed, in 1896, the adopted
plan of the Panama Canal.

Abbot, Joseph Hale (1802-
73). American educator, was born
in Wilton, N. H., and was edu-
cated at Bowdoin College. He
taught mathematics and modern
languages at Phillips Academy,
Exeter, and was a frequent con-
tributor to the Transactions of
the American Academy of Arts
and Sciences. He was one of the
editorial staff in the compilation
of Worcester's Dictionary of the
English Language (1860).

Abbot, Samuel (1732-1812),
American merchant and philan-
thropist, was born in Andover,
Mass. Hewasoneofthefounders
of Andover Theological Seminary,
and its generous friend. He gave
the institution $20,000 in his
lifetime, and left it $100,000 by
his will.

Abbot, Willis John (1863),
formerly editor of The Pilgrim,
and writer of story books for the
young, was born in New Haven,
Conn, and was educated at
Abbot Abbott

the Univ. of Michigan. In the nineties, he was on the editorial staff of the Chicago Times and the Neu.' York Journal. He wrote the Blue Jackets series. Battle Fields and Camp Fires, Bailie Fields and Victory, and Battle Fields of 1861.

Abbot of Unreason, also Lord Of Misrule, the master of the revels at the season of Christmas, the former being his title in Scotland, the latter in England. At Oxford and Cambridge the part was filled by a Master of Arts, who superintended the annual representation of Latin plays by the students, and took charge of their Christmas diversions. His 'reign' lasted from All-Hallows Eve to Candlemas Day. The revels of the London Inns of Court (e.g., Inner Temple and Gray's Inn) were presided over by a Lord of Misrule.

Abbotsford, the home of Sir Walter Scott from 1812-32, is an estate on the r. bk. of the Tweed. 3m. from Melrose. In 1811 Scott bought a farm of 110 acres, called Cartleyhole (not Clariyhole, as Lockhart calls it), and named it Abbotsford. In 1813 he added the hilly tract from the Roman road near Turnagain to Cauldshiels Loch; in 1815, Kaeside, 'a large lump of wild land '; and, in 1817, the lands of Toftfield, which he bought for £10,000. The house stands on a terrace between the river and the road from Melrose to Selkirk. It is a picturesque, irregular building in the Scottish baronial style. Abbotsford, completed only in 1825, was involved in the collapse of 1826, and was not liberated till 1847. on the death of Scott's son. The Scott .Collection of books, paintings, and relics is held in trust by the Dean and Council of the Faculty of Advocates, who leave it in the keeping of Scott's representatives. See Scott's Familiar Letters (1894): Lockhart's Life; Washington Irving's Abbotsford; Scott's Journal (1890); Jeffrey's Hist, of Roxburghshire (1864), vol. iv.; Ornsby's Memoirs of J. R. Hofe-Scott (1884); Hannay's Glimpses of the Land of Scott, illust. by MacWhirter (1888); Mrs. Maxwell Scott's Abbotsford, illust. by W. Gibb (1893), and Making of Abbotsford (1897): Napier's Homes and Haunts of Sir Walter Scott (1897). See Scott.

Abbott, Austin (1831-96), American lawyer, instructor, and legal writer, was born in Boston, Mass., and educated in New York. The son of Jacob Abbott, the well-known Congregational clergyman, and brother to Lyman and Benjamin Vaughan Abbott, Austin Abbott attained eminence in his profession, and in 1891 was appointed dean of the faculty of

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chief published writings include Primitive Industry (1881); Cyclopedia of Natural History (1886); Days Out of Doors (1889;) Recent Rambles (1892); When the Century was New (1897); Clear Skies and Cloudy (1898); In Nature's Realm (1900).

Abbott, Edward (1841-1908), American P. E. clergyman (formerly a Congregationalist), 4th son of Jacob Abbott, and brother of the Rev. Dr. Lyman Abbott, was born at Farmington, Me., educated at the Univ. of N. Y., and studied theology at Andover. He was editor of The Congregationalist and of The Literary World, Boston; and in 1879 became rector of St. James's Church. Cambridge, Mass. His works include a Memoir of Phillips Brooks (1900) and one of his father, Jacob Abbott (1882); a Paragraph History of the United States (1875) and a Paragraph History of the American Revolution (1876).

Abbott, Edwin Abbott (1838), English theologian; born in London; taught at King Edward's School, Birmingham, and at Clifton College: headmaster of the City of London School (1865-89). His scholarly publications include Through Nature to Christ (1877); Shakespearian Grammar (1870); Latin Prose (1873); Francis Bacon (1885); Anglican Career of Newman (1892); St. Thomas of Canterbury (1898); Clue: a Guide through Greek to Hebrew Scripture (1900).

Abbott, Emma (1849-91), American opera singer of considerable fame in her day in Europe and the U. S., was born at Chicago, 111. Attracting the notice of Clara Louise Kellogg, Miss Abbott became, under her patron's influence, leading soprano singer in the Church of the Divine Paternity, New York city, after which she went to Paris to pursue her musical education under Mme. Marches!. She made her debut in London, and, returning to the United States, she organized the 'Emma Abbott Opera Co.," which proved highly successful. On a professional tour in 1891 she was taken seriously ill. and died at Salt Lake City, Utah.

Abbott, Frank Frost (1860), American educator and writer, and professor of Latin, Univ. of Chicago, was born at Redding, Conn., and educated at Yale. For several years he was professor of Latin at the American School of Classical Studies, Rome. He wrote a History of Raman Political Institutions (1901).

Abbott, Jacob (1803-70), Congregational clergyman and prolific writer of popular stories for the young, was born at Hallowell,


Maine. After graduating at Bowdoin College, he was a professor of mathematics in Amherst College, and afterward studied for the ministry at Andover, and for a time was in charge of a church at Roxbury. Mass. He subsequently made his home in New York. Among the best known of his works are his American Histories for Youth (8 vols.). The Franconia Stories (10 vols.), Harper's Story Books (36 vols.), The Rollo Books (36 vols.). Histories for the Young (19 vols.), and Marco Polo's Adventures (6 vols.).

Abbott, Sir John Joseph Caldwell (1821-93), Canadian statesman, was born at St Andrews, P. Q., and was educated at McGill University, Montreal, after which he studied law. In 1847 he was admitted to the bar, and twelve years afterward he was elected a member of the Canadian Assembly. He was an ardent politician as well as an able commercial lawyer, and held, on repeated occasions, high responsible trust as a statesman and administrator. On the death, in June, 1891, of Sir J. A. Macdonald, long at the head of the Canadian government, Mr. Abbott, who had been knighted for his patriotic services to the Dominion, became premier, a post he held until November, 1892, when he resigned because of ill-health, but became a minister without portfolio in the cabinet of his successor, Sir John Thomson.

Abbott, John Stevens Cabot (1805-77), American writer, was born at Brunswick, Me., and educated at Bowdoin. In 1830 he was ordained a Congregational Clergyman, and afterward held pastorates in Mass. He published Mother at Home (1833, and later translated into many languages); Hist, of Napoleon Bonaparte (1868); Hist, of the Civil War in America (1863); American Pioneers (12 vols.). He wrote entertainingly, but his historical matter is uncritical and often inaccurate, this being especially true of his highly eulogistic biography of Napoleon.

Abbott, Lyman (1835), son of Jacob Abbott; born at Roxbury, Mass., and educated at the New York University. In 1860 he took charge of a church at Terre Haute, Ind., and in 1865 he became pastor of the New England church in New York city. Afterward he was associate of Henry Ward Beecher, at Plymouth church, Brooklyn, N. Y.. and was pastor of that church from 18S8 to 1899, when he resigned to devote himself entirely to the editing of the Outlook. With his brothers. Benjamin and Austin, he published legal works and novels, under the pseudonym


'Benauly,' and he has written many books on religious subjects —e&. a Diet, of Religious Knowledge (1872), Evolution of Christianity (1892), Life and Literature of the Ancient Hebrews (1891), and a Life of Beecher (1883).

Abbrcvlatlo Placltorum (Lat. abstract of pleas). An early English law book containing brief reports of cases decided in the court of Kings Bench in the 12th century.

Abbreviations are distributed throughout this work in alphabetical order. See also PaueogRaphy.

AbbreviateTM, the draughtsmen of papal bulls, etc. See Bull.

Abd (Ar. 'slave,' 'servant,' 'worshipper'), in Mohammedan countries, forms, in composition with Allah (God) and with other names or attributes of deity, many of the common Arabic personal names—e. g. Abdullah, Abd-elKader.

Abd-el-Kader, or AbdulKadir, Emir (1807-83). Algerian patriot, was the son of a marabout of Mascara, with whom he twice performed the hajj, and visited the shrine of Sidi AbdulKadir at Bagdad. Preaching a jihad (holy war) against the French, he opened the campaign at Oran in 1833. Concluding a treaty with the French, he was recognized as emir in 1834; but war was soon resumed, and Abdel-Kader fled to Morocco in 1843. In 1847 he gave himself up to General Lamoriciere, and was sent to Toulon. Released by Louis Napoleon in 1852, he received a pension of 100,000 francs (1863), and finally resided at Damascus. He wrote a work on the Consolations of Philosophy (translated in 1858 into French under the title Rappel a I'Intelligent: Avis d I'lndifffrent), and contributed commentaries to Les Chevaux du Sahara of E. Daumas (trans, by J. Hurton, 1863). See Lives by Churchill (1867) and Pichon (1899).

Abdera, tn., Thrace, on the .1 Ki .in Sea. It was the birthplace of Democritus and Protagoras; but its inhabitants had a reputation for stupidity, and ' Abderite ' or ' Abderian ' was a term of reproach, similar to 'Gothamite.'

Abdication, the surrender, properly the voluntary surrender, of an office of trust, especially of the office of king or head of the state. An abdication, however, is generally a forced resignation —a surrender of power due to stress of political circumstances. Among the most noteworthy instances are the following, in ancient history: Ptolemy Soter in 285 B.C., Sulla in 79 B.c., and Diocletian in 305 A.d. In modern his* Abdomen

tory: John Baliol of Scotland in 1296; Edward u. of England in 1327; Richard II. of England in 1399; Amadeus VIII. of Savoy in 1434; Charles V., throne of the Netherlands in 1555 and of Spain in 1556; Christina of Sweden in 1654; James II. of England in 1688; Augustus of Poland in 1707; Philip v. of Spain in 1724; Victor Amadeus of Sardinia in 1730; Stanislaus Leszczynski of Poland in 1735: Poniatowski of Poland in 1795; Charles Emanuel of Sardinia in 1802; Charles iv. of Spain in 1808; Louis Bonaparte of Holland, 1810; Napoleon, 1814, 1815; Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia, 1821; Charles X. of France, 1830; William i. of the Netherlands, 1840; Ferdinand of Austria, Louis Phiihpe of France, Ludwig of Bavaria in 1848; Charles Albert of Sardinia, 1849; Amadeus of Spain, 1873; Milan of Servia, 1889; Yi Heui of Korea, 1907: Abdul Hamid n. of Turkey, Ali Mirza of Persia, 1909.

Abdomen. In systematic zoology this term is used to describe the posterior region of the body in insects, crustaceans, arachnids, and other arthropods which have the body divided into regions. The abdomen in arthropods is typically segmented, or divided into rings; but the segments tend to disappear in parasitic or muchmodified forms. In vertebrates it is the cavity supported by the pelvis, separated from the thorax by the diaphragm, and surrounded by muscular body-walls, and encloses the intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, bladder, and internal genital organs. A deli

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favorable with regard to bullet wounds. In peritoneal wounds caused by Mauser bullets, 'expectant' treatment has become the rule for ordinary cases, and proved successful in sixty per cent. Abdominal diseases are referred to in connection with the special organs. For abdominal surgery, see Laparotomy.

Abducens, or sixth cranial nerve, rises in the medulla oblongata, and supplies the external rcctus muscle of the eye, which draws the eyeball outward.

Abduction. At common law the forcible carrying off of a woman for the purpose of marriage or carnal intercourse. Thus defined the act is a criminal offence, irrespective of the age of the woman or whether she is at the time of the abduction under the legal guardianship or control of any other person. Where the person abducted is a child under guardianship, the act may involve the additional offence of kidnapping. The common law also gave to the husband, parent or guardian of a wife, child or ward abducted an action for damages for the private wrong inflicted. In the United States as well as in England the offence is now generally defined and its penalties fixed by statute, and in many states the somewhat restricted definition of the term at common law has been enlarged so as to include the detention or harboring of a female under the age of consent for purposes of prostitution, the luring away from her parents for the purpose of marriage of a young woman under age in order to secure control of her property, etc. The local statutes should be consulted for the law of a particular jurisdiction.

Abdul-Aziz (1830-76) succeeded his brother, Abdul-Medjid, as Sultan of Turkey in 1861. His reign was troubled by the cholera epidemic at Constantinople (1865), revolts in Crete and Herzegovina, and by the Bulgarian atrocities of 1876. In May 1876 he was deposed, and within a week was murdered. See Lusignan's Reign of Abdul-Hamid II. (trans. 1889).

Abdul-Hamid I., or Ahmed IV. (1725-89), Sultan of Turkey, son of Ahmed m.; succeeded his brother, Mustapha. Tan. 21, 1774. The chief events of his reign were the successes of the Russians, the treaty of Kainardji (July 21,1774), the annexation of the Crimea in 1783, and the siege of Ochakov in 1788. See Tarischi's History of AbdulHamidandSelim ///.(1867). Abdul-Hamid II.(1842),sonof Abdul-Medjid, became Sultan in 1876, in succession to his brother the insane Murad v. Events of Abdul's reign: Servian war (1876); Russo-Turkish war (1877-8); the Armenian atrocities (1895-96);

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. _ ilemporain (1893) and the same author's La Politique du Sultan (1897).

Abdul-Kadlr, surnamed AlGilani (1078-1166), a Moslem saint and mystic, was born in the province of Gilan, Persia, and died at Bagdad. He wrote on, Moslem law and mystical divinity, as well as a book of odes. But he is most noted as a saint, and the founder of the Kadiriya order. See J. P. Brown's Dervishes (1868); Trumelet's La Saints de f Islam (1881); A. le Chatelier's Les Confrenes musulmanes du Hedjaz (1887).

Abdul-Kadlr. See Abd-elKadee.

Abdullah-el-Telshl es-Sayyid (1830-99), successor of the Mahdi, Mohammed Ahmed, was born in Dar Fur, and belonged to the Baggara tribe; succeeded to the Mahdi's position in 1885; defeated the Abyssinian emperor John in March, 1889, but was himself beaten by the Italians at Agordat in 1893, by Lord Kitchener atOmdurman in 1898, and by Colonel Wingate at Om Debrikat, in which battle Abdullah perished.

Abdul-Latlf al-Bagdadl (1162-1231), a Moslem savant born at Bagdad. He studied and taught medicine and philosophy at Cairo and Damascus, and aied at Bagdad. He wrote a Hist, of Egypt (ed., with Lat. trans., by

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