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CcbtS, 6S m. s.w. of the town of Cebu. Petroleum is found near by. Pop. (1903) 9,579.
Aleman, Mateo (c. 15501610), Spanish novelist, born at Seville. He was the author of the popular story of roguery, La Vtda del Picaro Guzman de Aljarache (1599; several English trans.), also of Orlografia Castellana (1608); was for twenty years in the service of the king of Spain; died in Mexico. See Ticknor's Hist, oj Spanish Literature.
Alemannl, or Alamans, a fusion rather than a confederation of Teutonic tribes who rose into prominence during the later years of the Roman empire, with which they were almost constantly at war during the 3rd. 4th, and 6th centuries. *From the source of the Rhine to its conflux with the Main and the Moselle the formidable swarms of the Alemanni commanded either side of the river, by the right of ancient possession or recent victory,' says Gibbon, in describing their situation on the eve of the battle of Tolbiac, 24m.from Cologne, when they suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of the Franks under Clovis, in 496. Thereafter they were allowed by the Emperor Theodoric to settle in what is now S. Bavaria. They were the ancestors of the modern Swabians. From their name comes the French Allcmand and Aliemagne, applied to the whole of Germany. Almain was also formerly used in England to denote the Germans of the Rhine districts.
Alembert. See IXAl-EMBERT.
Alembic, an apparatus for distillation used by the alchemists: now superseded by retorts and flasks connected to a condenser.
Alemtejo, the largest prov. of Portugal, drained by the Tagus, • the Guadiana, and the Sado; detached mountain ranges in the E., with cork trees, oaks, and chestnuts, towards the w. treeless plains, where sheep are pastured; coast swampy. Cereals are grown, and there are copper and iron mines, and mineral springs, but very little manufacture. Area, 9.423 sq. m. Pop. (1900) 413,531. Chief tn., Evora.
Alencon, cap. of dep. Orne, France, on the Sarthe. 132 m. w. of Paris. Woollen and linen manufactures; the point <f Alencon lace industry is decaying. It was held by the English during the Hundred Years' war from 141549. Pop. (1901) 17,270. Alencon has been the title of a duchy held by various members of the royal family of France, from Charles n. of Valois, who fell in the battle of Crfcy, to the present day.
Aleppo. (1.) Vilayet (63,205 sq. m.), N. Syria, Asiatic Turkey, extending from the Mediterranean to the Euphrates. Pop. 905,8CO.
(2.) Town (Turk. Haleb-es-Skabba; anc. Bercra), cap. cf above, on the Koeik, 70 m. E. cf the Mediterranean, Alexandretta being its port. An important and historic trade centre, inhabited by Turks, Armenians, Greeks, Jews, Maronites, Syrians, four- fifths being Mohammedans. The Italianized name commemorates the trade connection with Venice, active to the close of the 15th century, when the Cape route to India robbed it of its importance. Conquered by Saracens (636 A.d.); sacked by Tamerlane (1402); captured by Turks (1517); devastated by earthquakes (1170 and 1822); ravaged by plague (1827) and cholera (1832). Chief exports: native manufactures (i.e. silk stuffs, mixed silk and cotton, and cotton stuffs\ silk cocoons, wool, liquorice, morocco leather, butter, wheat and other grain, etc. Pep. 129,000, of whom 23,000 are Christians and 8.COO Jews.
Aleshkl, formerlv Dnieprovsk, tn., gov. Taurida, Russia, on the Dnieper. Fisheries, fruit culture, active trade. Pop. (1897) 9,1 19.
Alesia, or Alexia (modern Alise), fort, tn., ancient Gaul, near the source of the Seine, where Caesar besieged Vercingetorix (De Sd. Gal., bk. vii. c. 68 ff.). ales or
. . . .. (Lat.of Hales or Ales), Alexander (1500-65), Scottish Lutheran divine, was born in Edinburgh. He was canon at St. Andrews, chosen for his skill in confuting Luther's opinions to reclaim Patrick Hamilton; but, himself convinced of what he attempted to confute, had to fly to Germany (1632), where he formed a friendship with Melanchthon. Sent to England, he met Cranmer and Thomas Cromwell (Earl of Essex), and lectured at Cambridge. When Cromwell's fall was imminent, Alesius returned to Germany (1540), and, after holding for three years a professorship at Frankfort-on-the-Oder, spent his closing days at Leipzig. See M'Cne's Life of Knox, note 1 (7th eel. 1855); Strype's Memorials of Cranmer (1853).
Alessandria. (1.) Fort. tn. and episc. see, cap. of prov, of same name, Piedmont, Italy, 57 m. S.E. of Turin; built (1168) Ly the Lombard League as a bulwark against Frederick Barbarossa: the citadel was built in 1728. Now an important railway centre, and manufactures linen, macaroni, etc. Near it took place the battle of Marengo (1800). Pop. (1901) 72,109. (2.) Province, Piedmont. Italy, drained by the Tanaro and other affluents of the Po; chief industries are agriculture and silk. Pop. (1901)812,022.
Alessl, Galeazzo (1512-72), Italian architect, born in Perugia. He enjoyed the friendship of Michael Angelo, designed several
churches and palaces at Genoa, and the churches of San Paolo, San Vittoria, and the Palazzo Marino at Milan. Buildings after his designs may also be seen in Germany and Belgium.
Aletschhorn, second highest peak (13.721 ft.) in the Bernese Oberland; dominates the great glaciers of Aletsch.
Aleurone Grains, small albuminoid granules, with definite chemical and optical properties, found in the endosperm of ripe seeds.
Aleutian Islands, a curved chain of islands numbering about 150, extending w. from the Alaskan peninsula for a distance of 1,000 m. towards the Commander Is. off the coast of Kamchatka. The islands are bare and rocky, and nany of their summits are volcanoes; the largest, Unimak, which is nearest to the mainland, has two active volcanoes. The climate is inclement, but not severe. Fishing and sealing are almost the sole industries. Foxes, bears, dogs, reindeer, caribou, otters, and seals are the chief mammals. The island of Unalaska is the centre of the American whale and seal fisheries; there is a good harbor. The inhabitants, called Aleuts, are Eskimo in origin. They have been converted to the
Aleuts, an Eskiiro tribe inhabiting the Aleutian islands, consisting of two main divisions: the Unalaskans on Fox islands and the western part of the Alaskan peninsula, and the Atkans on Andreane>f, Near and Rat islands. At the time of their discovery by the Russians they numbered 20,000, but the cruelty of their conquerors and the ravages of smallpox gradually reduced them until they numbered less than a thousand in 1890. They differed from the other Eskimo in many customs and arts and were regarded as of superior intelligence. See Dall, Contributions to N. A. Ethnology, 1877, and Proceedings California Academy of Science, 1873.
Alewlfe (Clupea mattowocca). a N. American coast, river, and lake fish, 8 to 10 in. long, so called from its rounded, corpulent shape, is somewhat like a shad, but not so good for food. It is taken in great quantities and salted.
Alexander, eight Popes. AlexAnder I. (109-119) is believed to have died a martyr.—Alexander II., Anselme; de Baggio (1061-73), was born in Milan; bishop of Lucca; papal legate at Milan (1059); elected pope (1061) through the influence of Hildebrand; opposed and defeated Pope Honorius n., who was elected through the influence of the German emperor; Alexander
was opposed to the divorce of the Emperor Henry iv.; did much, under the inspiration of Peter Damiani and Hildebrand (later Pope Gregory VII.), to reform the Roman Catholic Church.—AlexAnder in., Orlando Bandinelli (1159-8 l).onc of the greatest popes of the middle ages, was born in Siena; elected pope in 1159; fought successfully against the Emperor Frederick Barbarpssa, who opposed to him successively three anti-popes, and whom he forced to sign the treaty of Venice (1177), for which he was hailed as defender of the liberty of Italy. He was successful also against Henry n., king of England, whom he constrained to do penance for the murder of Thomas & Becket. In 1179 he summoned the Lateran Council, which conferred on the pope alone the right of canonization, and drew up the laws under which the election of the popes is still governed.—Alexander iv., Rinaldo, Comtedc Scgni (1254-61), formerly bishop of Ostria and Velletri, was of weak character, and in nis struggle against Manfred, natural son of Frederick II., was defeated and compelled to fly to Viterbo,where he died.—AlexAnder V., Pietro Filargi (140910), was pope only ten months. Bishop of Milan in 1402, cardinal in 1405, he was elected pope in 1409. He died, it is believed, of poison administered by his chancellor, subsequently his successor, under the title John xxin.—AlexAnder VI., Rodrigo Borgia (14921503), whose memory is one of the most abused in history: born in 1431 in Jativa, prov. Valencia, Spain. The election of his uncle as Pope Calixtus in. turned his ambition towards the church. At the age of twenty-five he was made a cardinal, and became bishop of Valencia in 1458. The beautiful Vanozza de Cataneis, his mistress, bore him four sons and a daughter, two of whom were the notorious Caesar and Lucrezia. Elected pope in 1492, he figured conspicuously in the political events of Italy, endeavoring to establish a dynasty for his own family, in the prosecution of which purpose he is accused of having shrunk from no means, not even from assassination and poison. On the other hand, he showed himself an able administrator and politician, a patron of the arts and sciences, and a friend of the people. Ca-sar Borgia,who largely inspired Alexander's policy, is Machiavelli's tvpc of the statesman. SeeLconettf's Papa Alexandra VI. (3 vols. 1S80); Clement's Les Borgia (1882); Pastor's Gcschichtc der Ptifste (3 vols.1895); Gregorovius's Lucrezia Boreia (1S75).—Alexander vn., Fabio Chigi (1655-67), was born at Siena in 1599; cardinal and papal nuncio in Germany at the peace
of Westphalia; was elected pope in 1655. Alexander was a patron of learning, and himself the author of a volume of poems in Latin. He did much for the improvement of Rome, and constructed the beautiful colonnade in the piazza of St. Peter. He had a dispute with Louis XIV. of France, in consequence of which the papal see lost Avignon (1662).—Alexander vni., Pietro Ottoboni (1689-91), born in Venice (1610), was bishop of Tqrcello and Brescia; elected pope in 1689. He assisted Venice in her struggle against the Turks, issued the bull Inter mulliplices against the four articles of the Gallican Church, and enriched the Vatican library with valuable Mss. from the library of Queen Christina of Sweden.
Alexander, surnamed PolyHISTOR, a native of Cotyaeum, in Lower Phrygia, was brought to Rome as a slave in the time of Sulla; became tutor to the children of Cornelius Lentulus, and was liberated by his master (82 B.C.); subsequently accompanied Croesus on his travels, and died at Laurentum. He was a voluminous compiler of books on historical and geographical subjects, now only surviving in fragments (Miiller, Frag. Hislor. Greec., vol. iii.; Eng. trans. I. R. Cory, 1876), one of which contains excerpts from otherwise unknown Jewish writers. His works were largely quoted by Pliny, Eusebius, Clement of Alexandria, and others.
Alexander or Aphrodisias, so called from his birthplace in Caria, styled the 'Second Aristotle' as being the greatest expositor of the peripatetic school, was the head of the Lyceum, Athens (c. 200 A.D.), and author of numerous commentaries on the philosophy of Aristotle, some of which still exist, as well as of original contributions to philosophy. Of the former, the most important is his commentary on the Melaphvsica, ed. by Bonitz (Berlin, 1847); of the latter, De Falo and De Animo.
Alexander Of Hales (d. 1245), English scholastic theologian (Doctor Irrefrdgiibilis), having resigned his benefice in Gloucestershire, went to Paris to study, and was there appointed professor in the schools. Having resigned this position, he entered the Franciscan order (1222). He was a strenuous supporter of the papacy, and pave new authority to the teaching of the orders, which now viea with that of the secular professors of the universities. His work, Summa Universe Tiicologiir- (first printed 1475, best ed. 1576) is of no permanent value. See Erdmann's Geschichte der neufrn Philosophic (Eng. trans.).
Alexander. Abraham (1718
86), American legislator, born in N. C. Until 1775, he represented Mecklenburg co. in the Colonial Legislature. He took active part in the adoption of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence.
Alexander, Archibald (17721851), American Presbyterian clergyman, was born near Lexington, Va. He was president of Hampden-Sidney Coll. in 17961804, and in 1807-12, pastor of the Pine St. Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia. In 1812 he became a professor in the Theological Seminary at Princeton, N. J. He published A Brief Outline of the Evidences of Christianity (1823). Moral Science was published posthumously (1852).
Alexander, Barton Stone (1819-78), American soldier and engineer, was born in Ky. and after graduating at West Point entered the engineer corps. For eighteen years ne was engaged in engineering and construction work, in the way of defences, etc., and in the Ciyfl War was Sheridan's consulting engineer. He was brevetted brigadier-general in 1865 and two years afterward became a member of the Pacific board of engineers for fortifications.
Alexander, Edward Porter (1835), American soldier and engineer, was born at Washington, Ga., and in 1857 graduated at West Point. He entered the Confederate army in 1861; was chief of ordnance and chief signal officer in the army of No. Virginia (1861-62), and in 1864 was made a brigadier-general. He served in the battles of the Wilderness and Spottsylvania as Gen. Longstreet's chief of artillery. After the war, he was professor of engineering in the Univ. of So. Carolina, retiring from that to devote himself to railroad management and the presidency of several Southern roads. He was engineer arbitrator in charge of the boundary survey between Nicaragua and Costa Rica in 1901.
Alexander, George (1858), English actor, born at Reading, made his debut at Nottingham in 1879 in Sydney Grund/s The Snowball. In 1881 he made his first appearance at the Lyceum in The Two Roses, and in 1884 he accompanied Irving on his American tour. In 1890 he made his first venture as a manager, opening the Avenue Theatre with Dr. Bill, which ran for seven months. In 1891 he transferred his company to the St. James's, where his career has been one series of successes, beginning with Sunlight and Shadow, The Idler, and Lady Windermere's Fan, which, after a long run, was succeeded by R. C. Carton's Liberty Hall. Then came Mr. Pinero's Alexander
much - discussed Second Mrs. Tanqueray, in which Mrs. Patrick Campbell scored her first great hit, and Guy Domville, by Henry James. Among subsequent productions may be mentioned The Afasquerader's, The Prisoner of Zenda, Rupert of Hentzau, The Princess and the Butterfly, The Tree of Knowledge, and The Ambassador, by Mrs. Craigie (John Oliver Hoboes). // / were Ring, Old Heidelberg.
Alexander, James (1630-1756), American colonial lawyer, born in Scotland. He was a lawyer in N. J. after 1815, and for defending John Peter Zenger (q.v.) was temporarily disbarred from practice. He was one of the founders cf the Am. Philosophical Society, and was the father of the Revolutionary soldier, 'Lord Stirling' (William Alexander).
Alexander, James Waddell (1804—59), American clergyman, was born near Gordonsville, Va.. a son of Archibald Alexander, ana was educated at Princeton. In 1833-44 he was professor of Latin and belles lettres at Princeton; and in 1849-;51 professor of rhetoric, ecclesiastical history, and church government in the seminary there. In 1844-49 he was pastor of the Duane street church, N. Y. city, and he was also pastor of Fifth avenue Pnsbyterian church (N. Y. City) from the time of its organization (1851) until his death. His works include Thoughts on Preaching (1864); The American Mechanic and Workingman (1847), and a biography of his father (1854).
Alexander, Jann^eus (d. 78 B.C.), succeeded his brother Aristobulus as king of the Jews in 104 B.C. With the help of Cleopatra, he ultimately repelled Ptolemy Lathyrus from Palestine; but throughout his reign he was engaged; in constant strife with the surrounding tribes. In the civil conflicts of the Pharisees and the Sadducees, with the latter of whom he sided, Alexander exhibited unusual cruelty. An account of him is given by Josephus.
Alexander, John Henry (1812-67), American physicist, was born at Annapolis, Md., ana educated at St. John's College there. He served with the geological survey of Md., interesting himself in the development of its coal fields. He was subsequently professor of physics at his alma mater and at the Univ. of Penn. He published a History of the Metallurgy of Iron (1840), a Universal Dictionary of Weights anil Measures (1850), and took part in the efforts to establish an international coinage between this country and Great Britain. See Hilgard's Biographical Memoir (1877).
Alexander, John White
(1856), American portrait and figure painter, was born in Allegheny, Pa., studied at Paris and Munich, and was influenced by Whistler. He possesses a special sense of feminine grace, chooses daring color schemes, unusual postures, unconventional backgrounds. He first exhibited at the Champ de Mars in 1893, and was made associate of the Societf Nationalc (1894). His portrait of Walt Whitman is in the Metropolitan Gallery, New York; and he painted The History of the Bookin the Congressional Library, Washington (1897). His characteristics are well shown in his portrait of Rodin (1900). See the Studio, vol. xx., 1900.
Alexander, Joseph AddiSon (1809-60), American Biblical scholar, a son of Rev. Dr. Archibald Alexander, was born in Philadelphia, and graduated at Princeton, where he was assistant professor of ancient languages (1830-33), associate professor of Oriental and Biblical literature (1833-50), and afterwards professor of church history and government, and of New Testament literature and Biblical Greek (1851-60). He was a fine Semitic scholar and a frequent contributor to the Princeton Review, as well as an impressive preacher. He published several well-known commentaries, such as those on Isaiah (in 2 vols. 1846); on Psalms (3 vols. 1850); on Acts (1857): on Mark (1858); and on Matthew (1860). See Alexander's Life (1869).
Alexander, Stephen (180683), American scientist and astronomer, was born at Schenectady, N. Y., and educated at Union College and at Princeton, at which latter institution he was for a long time professor of mathematics (1834—45), of astronomy (1840-78). Among his published works are: Physical Phenomena Attendant upon Solar Eclipses (1843); Harmonies in the Arrangement of the Solar System; and Present Condition of Some of the Clusters of the Stars.
Alexander, Sir William (c. 1567-1640), a Scottish poet and colonizer, created Earl of Stirling and Viscount of Canada in 1633 and Earl of Dovan in 1639. He became Interested in the colonizing of America, was a member of the Council of New England, and in September, 1621, received from James I. a grant to the peninsula now known as Nova Scotia, together with a vast and ill-defined tract of adjacent territory—the whole to be known as Nova Scotia, cr New Scotland, and to be held as a fief of the crown of Scotland. In 1629 this was supplemented by a grant of 'The River and Gulf of Canada.' embracing a belt of land, 300 miles in width.
extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The French Jeaders in Arcadia, Charles St. Etienne de la Tour and his father Claude de la Tour were made baronets of Nova Scotia. Alexander planted a Scottish colony at Port Royal, and in 1629, Admiral David Kirke, sent out under Alexander's auspices, dispossessed the French in Canada; but in 1632 Canada and Acadia were restored by England to France and Alexanders grants were thus abrogated. Alexander was made secretary of state for Scotland in 1626. His writings, long forgotten, include Monarchicte Tragedies (1603-7), Paraenesis to the Prince (1604), and Doomesday (1614). See his Poetical Works (1870-3), with a memoir, and Slafter, Sir William Alexander and American Colonization (1873).
Alexander, William (1824), archbishop of Armagh and Primate of all Ireland since 1896, was born at Londonderry. He was appointed bishop of Derry and Raphoe (1867). Publications: Witness of the Psalms (Bampton Lectures, 1874) (1876); St. Augustine's Holiday, and other Poems (1887). He wrote the Thanksgiving Hymn (1897), set to music by Sir Arthur Sullivan. In 1896 he published the collected poems and hymns of his wife, Cecil Frances Alexander.
Alexander, William (172683), American revolutionary soldier, frequently called 'Lord Stirling,' from a lapsed Scotch earldom, the title to which he claimed, though his claim was disallowed (1762) by the Committee on Privileges of the British House of Lords. He was born in New York City, served in the French and Indian War, was surveyorgeneral of New York and a member of the Provincial Council, and in October, 1775, entered the Continental Army as colonel of a New Jersey regiment. He captured a British transport ship at Sandy Hook in January, 1776, was immediately made a brigadier-general, and in the battle of Long Island (Aug. 27. 1776) met the first British attack, by Gen. Grant.his troops thus being the first Americans to meet British troops in open field and in regular line of battle. His division, ultimately attacked in the rear by Lord Cornwallis, was almost cut to pieces, and he himself was captured. Subsequently exchanged, he became a major-general in February, 1777. and afterwards took part in the battles of Brandywine, Germantown, and Monmouth. It was he who gave to Washington the first hint of the existence of the scncallecl 'Conway Cabal.' See Life of William Alexander, Earl of Stirling (1847), by his grandson, W. A. Buer.
Alexander I. (?1078-1124). King of Scotland, fourth son of Malcolm Canmore, succeeded (1107) his brother Edgar to the northern kingdom, while his younger brother David I. ruled the country south of the Clyde and Forth. Alexander promoted important ecclesiastical reforms, introducing a diocesan episcopacy on the Roman model, establishing the see of St. Andrews and defending it against the claims of the English Church, and founding abbeys at Inchcolm and Scone. He died childless, and was succeeded by David.
Alexander II. (1198-1249), King of Scotland, son of William the Lion, succeeded to the throne in 1214. After continuous disputes with regard to the Northumbrian and Cumbrian provinces, he concluded a treaty with Henry in. (1217), and married Joan, sister of the English king. Henry, however, attempted to force Alexander to give homage (1244), but the matterwas peacefully settled by the treaty of Newcastle. Alexander protected the church, reformed the laws, and by his wisdom and courage brought prosperity to Scotland.
Alexander III. (1241-86), King of Scotland, succeeded his father Alexander n. when eight years old, and till 1261 was sore beset by regencies of English and Scottish nobles. Alexander is renowned for his splendid architecture, his pure coinage, hi= wise administration of justice, and for the defeat of Haco of Norway at Largs in 1263, which united the Hebrides to Scotland. Externally, the disputes with England about homage began to take a form ominous of the fast - approaching struggles for independence. On March 12, 1286. he perished by falling over a cliff between Burntisland and Kinghorn. A monument (1887) now marks the spot.
Alexander I., Paulovitch (1777-1825), Emperor of Russia, eldest son and successor of Paul Paulovitch. was educated by Laharpe, a Swiss of high character and liberal ideas. The assassination of the Emperor Paul in March, 1801, placed Alexander on the throne. The reign of Alexander began well. It synchronizes with the stormy period of Napoleonic conquest, aggrandizement, and decay. Yet, although Russia inevitably found herself arrayed against France. Alexander himself was full of admiration for Napoleon's lofty genius. The chief incidents of the struggle between the two nations were Russia's alliance with Prussia and the treaty of Tilsit (1807), and Napoleon's disastrous invasion of Russia (1812). Under the influence of
Mme. de Kriidener, Alexander was instrumental in forming the Holy Alliance. More purely Russian events were the definite annexations of Georgia and Finland (1809), and the tightening of the Russian grip on Poland. This enlightened ruler founded universities and schools; fostered trade; abolished torture, the secret tribunal, and the transference of peasants as mere chattels, whether by sale or by gift; and reconciled church and people. Nevertheless, the closing years of his life were marked by reactionary measures. Disappointed and broken in spirit, he took refuge in dissipation, alternating with fits of religious mysticism. He died at Taganrog, on the Sea of Azov. See Countess ChoiseulGouffier's Memoires (Eng. trans., by Patterson, 1900); and Joyneville's Alexander I. (1875).
Alexander II., Nicolaevttch (1818-81),Crar of Russia, known as the Czar Liberator, was the eldest son of Czar Nicholas, whom he succeeded on March 2, 18B_5. The reign of Alexander II. is marked by two great wars —the Crimean war, which was going on at the time of his accession, and the war with Turkey in 1877. Into this last he was in great part forced by the Panslavist party. Moreover, from 1868 to 1881 his troops were engaged in intermittent and successful warfare with the Turcoman tribes of Central Asia, and the Russian frontier was ever pushed farther and farther to the southeast. The subjugation of the peoples of the Caucasus was likewise completed; and he acted with great severity in suppressing the Polish insurrection of 1863. On the other hand, the emancipation of the serfs in 1861 was due to the initiative of the Czar; and he also took a keen interest in advancing internal reforms in Russia, especially the reorganization of the judiciary and the army. The emancipation of the serfs involved radical changes in the prevailing system of land holding. About 100,000 noble families held ninetenths of the arable land of Russia, and these great estates were cultivated by serfs who worked under conditions which made them virtually the slaves of the actual land owners. In 1858 Alexander freed the serfs attached to the royal family, and on March 3 (February 19, Old Style). 1861, he issued a ukase extending this emancipation to all of the serfs of the Empire. The landed nobility naturally opposed this policy vigorously, but the Czar could not be shaken in his purpose. By means of a Governmentloan.thesometimeserfscould buy from the former landlords a
Alexander John I.
given share of the land which was held in trust by the village communities. These changes resulted in the freeing of 23,000,000 people. In 1872 the Triple Alliance was concluded between Alexander and the emperors of Austria and Germany. But the many attempts on his life by the Nihilists drove him to adoot methods of the most severe repression, with no result; and at length, on March 13, 1881, he was fatally injured by the explosion of dynamite bombs thrown at his carriage in the streets of St. Petersburg. See Cardonne's L'Empereur Alexandre II. (1883).
Alexander III., AlexandroVitch (1845-94), Czar of Russia, second son of Alexander n., succeeded to the throne on the death of his father on March 13, 1881, his elder brother Nicholas having died in 1865. Plain and blunt in manner ('the Peasant Czar'), and of great personal strength, Alexander in. evinced also a dogged determination to continue the hereditary policy of his house. In matters of foreign policy he consistently followed the idea of Russian expansion, and strengthened the army and navy. See Andrews's Historical Development of Modern Europe. voL ii. (1898). and Lowe's Alexander III. (1895).
Alexander I., Obrenovttch, King of Servia (1876-1903). succeeded his father, ex-King Milan, in 1889, but was under the guardianship of two regents till 1893. In 1900 he married Mme. Draga, nee Lunyevica, against the wishes of his advisers and the people; this led, in 1903, to the assassination of both king and queen at Belgrade.
Alexander I. OF Bulgaria (1857-93), titular Prince of Battenberg, second son of Prince Alexander of Hesse and his morganatic wife. Countess Hauke. He was elected first Prince of Bulgaria (1879) under the treaty of San Stefano (1878). and became Prince of E. Roumelia (1885), without the consent of Russia and against the wishes of Servia. In a campaign of a fortnight he repelled the Servian invasion (Nov.. 1885), but was abducted from Sofia (Aug., 1886) by Russian intrigue, carried to Reni, handed over to the Russians, and compelled to abdicate. Restored to freedom after a few days by a counter-revolution, he returned to the throne, only to abdicate in a month because of the difficulties thrown in his way by Germany, Russia, and Austria, when he retired to Graz. See Draudor's Prince Alexander of Battenberg (1884).
Alexander John I. (CusA), Prince of Roumania (1820-73), Alexander Nevskl
born at Husshi; joined the patriotic party in 1848; and in 1859 was elected Hospodar of Moldavia and Wallachia, but was not recognized by the Porte till 1861. Though justly popular, his absolutist tendencies and inability to cope with the financial difficulties of the country united all parties against him. On Feb. 22. 1866, he was forced to abdicate.
Alexander Nevskl (1219-63), second son of Grand Duke Jaroslav II., became Prince of Novgorod (1239). The Tartars having raided the south of Russia, the Swedes, Danes, and Livonians invaded the north, but were routed (1240) by Alexander near the Neva, whence the name Nevski. He succeeded his father (1247); opposed Pope Innocent iv.'s attempt to reunite the Eastern and Western Churches. Reverenced in life, he was canonized after death. In his honor Peter the Great founded (1710) .a monastery near the scene of his famous victory, and created (1722) the Order of Alexander Nevski. The monastery includes a dozen churches, the residence of the metropolitan of St. Petersburg, a theological academy, and the tombs of several distinguished Russians — e. g. Suwarov.
Alexander Severus, Roman emperor (208-235),born at Area, Syria; adopted by his cousin, Heliogabalus; on the murder of HelioBabalus proclaimed emperor by the Pnetorians (222); was a wise and studious man and a just prince. He was killed near Mainz by mutinous Praetorians.
Alexander the Great (356-323 B.c.), son of Philip n. of Macedon, was born at Pella. He was educated in the best culture of the day; from about 343 B.c. for several years, possibly until 335, Aristotle was his tutor. It was at the battle of Chaeronea, in 338 B.c.. that Alexander obtained his first military distinction, the cavalry under his command being the main factor in Philip's victory. In the last year of Philip s life Alexander was estranged from his father, owing to the latter's divorce of Olympias and marriage with Cleopatra, niece of his general Attalus; even Alexander's legitimacy was suspected. When Cleopatra bore a son, an assassin was found—probably by Olympias—who murdered Philip. Alexander was the gainer by the crime; and though there is no evidence against him, it cannot be asserted that his innocence is incontestable. It was in 336 B.c. that Alexander ascended the throne, and found himself surrounded by enemies—the Greeks, the Thracians, the Illynans, and Attalus — who supported the claims of Cleopatra's infant son.
With marvellous rapidity, he met and conquered his foes in turn; the Greeks, overawed by his energy, gave in without striking a blow, and he was elected commander-in-chief of the Greek forces, for the expedition against Persia. Meanwhile Cleopatra and her son had been murdered by Olympias's command, and Attalus by that of the king. Next year he crushed the Thracians, advancing as far north as the Danube. In his absence, a report of his death reached Greece. Several states became restless, and Thebes took up arms, blockading the Macedonian garrison in the citadel. But in a fortnight Alexander marched from Thrace to Boeotia, outstripping even the news that he was alive; and as the city would not surrender, he took it and razed it to the ground, sparing only the house of Pindar the poet. Nearly all the inhabitants were enslaved. The other disaffected states, particularly Athens, submitted, and were pardoned (335 B.c.). Alexander then prepared for his conquest of Asia, and in the spring of 334 set out with but 30,000 foot and 5,000 horse. Only the outline of his campaigns can be given. In May he utterly defeated the Persians on the banks of the river Granicus in Mysia. He then advanced along the coast, through Lycia and Pamphylia, to Gordium in Phrygia, where he cut the famous Gordian knot, and thence into Cappadocia, and through the pass called the Cilician Gates, which the Persians did not defend, to Tarsus in Cilicia. There he fell ill of a fever, and while ill received a letter from Parmenio warning him that his doctor was bribed by Darius to poison him. He drank the doctor's medicine, and then save him the letter; his confidence was rewarded bv a speedy recovery. In October he defeated the Persian forces under Darius at Issus in Cilicia. Next year (332) he subdued the cities of Phoenicia—Tyre only after a seven months' siege. The fall of Ga/.a opened the road to Egypt, which he entered November. 332. The country at once submitted, and Alexander was crowned king, for which purpose—as the Pharaolis were held to be sons of the god Ammon—he visited the oracle Ammon in the Libyan desert, and was acknowledged son of the (zod. The conquest of Syria and Egypt destroyed the sea-power of Darius, and left Alexander free to advance against Persia. He did so in 331, and in September of that year gained the decisive victory of Gaugamela (generally known as Arbela, which place is many miles distant). His foes are
Alexander the Great
said to have numbered a million of men. As a result of the victory, Babylon and Susa submitted. At once he pressed on, forcing the pass known as the Persian Gates, to Persepolis, the old capital of the Persian kingdom, which he took, with, it is said, $150.900,000 of treasure. His next object was to secure the person of Darius, whom he pursued through Media into Parthia. Bessus. satrap of Bactria, seized the king and murdered him; Alexander found him breathing and no more (?May, 330 B.c.). He then subdued Hyrcania Tabaristan). A revolt in Areia called him back; he put it down, founded a city, Alexandria Areia (on the site of which is probably the modern Herat), and conquered Drangiana (E. Afghanistan). There he discovered that Philotas, son of his general Parmenio, was conspiring against him. Philotas was condemned and slain by the Macedonians, and Parmenio was executed by Alexander's orders as an act of precaution. He then advanced southwards through Gedrosia (Seistan and S.W. Baluchistan), and in the spring of 329 reached Kandahar — probably a corruption of Alexandria. Then he crossed the Paropamisus (HinduRush) into Bactria; thence, in pursuit of Bessus, into Sogdiana, the country between the rivers Oxus and Jaxartes. He seized Maracanda (Samarkand), captured Bessus, and founded Alexandria Eschata ('farthest'), where he fixed the frontier of his empire at the pass over the Tian-Shan Mountains. The year 328 was spent in securing the recent conquests. It was at Samarcand that, in a drunken bout, he killed, to his great remorse, his foster-brother Clitus. In the same year he married Roxana, daughter of a Sogdian prince. In 327 he returned to Afghanistan, and prepared to invade India, which he reached through the Khyber Pass. In 326 he crossed the Indus, and advanced to the Hydaspes (Sutlej), where Porus, an Indian king, resisted stoutly, but was finally defeated after the third of Alexander's three great battles. Porus received his kingdom back from Alexander. He then reached the Hyphasis (Beas), which was the limit of his advance; his soldiers absolutely refused to go further, and the king had to yield (326). After nearly losing his life at the siege of Multan, he made his way to the mouth of the Indus. Thence he marched across Baluchistan (Aug., 325 B.c.) to Pura, losing, it is said, more than half his force. Upon getting back to Susa, he married Statira, daughter of Darius, and Parysatis,