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daughter of Ochus, to set his soldiers and officers an example in the fusion of the races, which was the great object of his policy. In the, spring of 324 he went to Ecbatana, and in that jear his bosom friend Hephaestion died. At the end of the year he returned to Babylon, where he met embassies from the Bruttians, Lucanians, and Etruscans in Italy, the Carthaginians, Celts, Scythians, 'Libyans, and Ethiopians—a wonderful testimony to his renown. His next purpose was to conquer Arabia, for which he began to make preparations (323 B.c.'). When all was in readiness for the expedition, after a banquet to Nearchus, followed by two nights of carousal,
ture of Hellenism, which was destroyed only by the Saracen conquests in the 7th and 8th centuries, \t is not the least of Alexander's claims to greatness that, truly Greek as he was, he was able to disregard the distinction of Greek and barbarian, and to attempt to unite all races in a cosmopolitan empire. As soldier and statesman, in brilliancy of strategy, rapidity of movement, grasp of detail, and breadth of organization, Napoleon alone among men can compare with him; and Napoleon's work perished almost entirely before he died. As a man. Alexander displayed a singularly lovable character; he was generous, warm-hearted, chivalrous, brave
ters whose wprks are lost. See Hogarth's Philip and Alexander of Macedon (1897): Droysens's Geschichle A. dcs Grossen (5th ed., 1898); B. I. Wheeler's Alexander the Great (1900); M'Crindle's The Invasion of India by Alexander the Great. Dr. Budge has edited Syriac (1889) and Ethiopic (1896) Lives of Alexander.
It is not surprising that this illustrious figure has given rise to many legends. After the death of Alexander, the Egyptians claimed him to be the son of their last native king, Nectanebus n. A later version, from the same country (c. A.d. 200), extant in Greek Ms., was falsely ascribed to Pseudo-Callisthenes.
he was attacked by a fever. The report spread among the Macedonians that he was dead, and they forced their way into the palace, and passed his couch in single file; he was able to greet them with a movement of his head and by signs. He died a few days later, in the thirtysecond year of his age and the thirteenth of his reign.
In twelve years Alexander made himself master of W. Asia, and left a mark upon it which centuries could not efface. That he spread Greek civilization even beyond the Euphrates was the most enduring monument of his fame: for though the remoter provinces soon relapsed into barbarism, yet when Mesopotamia was lost to the Seleucids by the establishment of the Parthian empire, even the Parthian conquerors retained some tine
even to a fault; certainly not naturally cruel, though capable of severity on occasion. For his age and position, his morality was remarkable. He never stooped to intrigue. His marriage with Roxana was one of affection, his others of pure policy. His great fault was excess in drinking, which more than once led him to acts, such as the murder of Clitus, quite inconsistent with his nature; and it was this vice, together with the labors he imposed upon himself, and the many wounds that he received, ever fighting among the first of his men, that caused his premature death. There are no contemporary authorities for the history of Alexander; we have to depend on Arrian (Anabasis of Alexander). Quintus Curtius. Plutarch, Justin, and Diodorus, who all make use of earlier wri
We meet with versions in Latin (3rd century), Armenian (5th century), and Syriac (7th century), the last of which, having originated in a Persian source, makes Alexander a Persian prince. The Ethiopic hero and his counsellor. Aristotle, are both trinitarian Christians; the Hebrew Alexander is a student of the Book of Daniel; he has been identified with 'the two-horned' of the Arabic Koran. The legendary Alexander has been found in Siam and Malay. A Turkish epic has this subject. A portion of a French poem by Alberic de Besanpon (12th century) is still extant, and the library of Venice holds the Ms. of a later French epic in decasyllabics. These were followed hv the most popular French version (pub. 1846). from the old romance composed (c. 1180) by
Lambert li Court and Alexandra de Bcrnay (Li Romans d'Alexandre). There are German versions (1130) by Lamprecht; by Rudolf von Ems, who took the story from Walter of Chatillon's Latin epic; and by Seifried (1352). A Norman-French metrical poem by Thomas of Kent is translated in the English King Alisaunder. Examples in several other languages might be cited. See Noldeke's Beitrdge sur Geschichte des Alexanderromans (1890); Spiegel's Alexandcrsage bei den Orientalen (1851); Meyer's Alexandre le Grand dans la Littcrature Francaise au Moyen Age (1886).
Alexandra, Queen, wife of King Edward vn., born at Copenhagen, Dec. 1, 1844, is the eldest daughter of King Christian ix. of Denmark and his wife, Princess Louise of Hesse-Cassel. To the careful upbringing by her wise and clever mother, as well as to the simplicity which characterized her early home life, may be traced many of the admirable qualities for which the Queen is C9nspicuous. The marriage of this ' sea-king's daughter from over the seas' to the Prince of Wales was solemnized in St. George's Chapel, Windsor, on March 10, 1863. The first break in the family circle was the death of the eldest son, the Duke of Clarence and Avondale, Jan. 14, 1892. For thirty-seven years, the Queen, as Princess of Wales, took part, along with her husband, in numerous public and state functions. An Eastern tour as far as Egypt and Constantinople was undertaken by the prince and princess in 1868-9, mainly for the sake of her health. Throughout her life, both as Princess of Wales and as Queen, she has displayed deep interest in philanthropic agencies, especially in the London hospitals, and participated actively in the efforts made to succor the wounded soldiers and to support the widows and orphans of those who fell in the South African war.
Alexandra, Aaron (?17661850), celebrated chess-player, native of Hohenfeld, Bavaria; lived some time in Paris; travelled in most European countries and Egypt, and died in London; author of Encvclofedie des Echecs (1837); Problcmcs d'Echccs (1S46).
Alexandrcscu, Grigorie (1812-86). Roumanian author and statesman, who won great popularity by his political satires, and was Minister of Education under Alexander Cuza. Collected works: Afedifatii. Elcgi. Epistole Satire si fabule (Bucharest, 1863).
Alexandretta, Iskanderun, or
Scanderoon, seapt. tn., N. Syria, on gulf of same name, 23 m. N. of Antioch, port of that city and of Aleppo, at N. end of low marshy plain (Europeans reside at Beilan). Safe anchorage, 5 to 6 fathoms, half a mile from shore. Pop. 7,000.
Alexandrl, Vasile (1821-90), Roumanian author and statesman; wrote numerous plays for the theatre at Jassy (1844-8); took part in the Roumanian rising of 1848; was Minister of Foreign Affairs (1859-60); founded, with Negruzzi, the review ConTorbiri Lilerare. In 1873 his famous drama. Boierii si Ciocoii, was written and acted. His martial songs, written during the Russo - Turkish war (1877-8), were received with enthusiasm, and his collection of Roumanian folk-songs is very meritorious. His Of ere appeared at Bucharest, 1873-6, in 7 vols.; his dramatic pieces in 1875, in 4 yols. In 1874 he won the prize given by the Society of Romance Languages at Montpellier for the best poem with his Cantecul Gintei Latine, in which he glorified the Latin race as the queen of humanity.
Alexandria. (1.) In Africa one of the most famous cities of antiquity, was founded B.c. 332 by command of Alexander the
called the Brucheion or Basileia, lay the royal buildings, and the Museum, containing the Great Library. Here also stood the two Cleopatra needles (16th century B.c.), one of which is now in London (since 1878), and the other in New York (since 1880); the temple of Poseidon; the palaces of the Ptolemies. To the s. of it were the gymnasium and the hippodrome. In the Egyptian quarter (Rhacotis) stood the Serapeum, or temple of Serapis, containing a second library and the Pillar of Pompey, and at the extreme w. lay the Necropolis. A special feature was the great system of underground tanks, holding more than a year's supply of water.
Under the Ptolemies, Alexandria rose to be a mighty trading centre, with a mixed population of about 750.000, consisting of Greeks, Egyptians, Jews, Romans, and a sprinkling of other nationalities. It was also famous for its glass, paper, and fine textiles — all manufactured there — but was even more famous as one of the chief intellectual centres of antiquity. Even when Egypt became a Roman province, after its conquest by Caesar (b.c. 48), Alexandria continued to be the greatest seaport of the empire. It survived the cruelties of Cara
John 1 : 1, as given in the Alexandrian Codex and in modern Creek characters: — 'In the beginning was the Word, and the Ward vaas with God, and the Word ivas God.'
Great. Situated about 14 m. w. of the Canopic mouth of the Nile, on the coast of Egypt, on the narrow strip of land separating Lake Mareotis from the Mediterranean, the city was admirably placed to liecome a great emporium. Nearly a mile off lay the little rocky island of Pharos, afterwards the scene of the labors of the translators of the Septuagint. By order of Alexander, a mole, the Heptastadium. 600 ft. broad—now twice that width—was run out from the mainland to the island, thus converting the open channel inside Pharos into two splendid harbors. the N.e. or Great Harbor, and the S.e. or Eunostos. from which a canal ran into Lake Mareotis. On the N.e. corner of Pharos. Ptolemy n. (Philadelphus) built (b.c. 283) a lighthouse, whence Pharos became synonymous with 'lighthouse' (Fr. f hare). At the E. end of the city, in the quarter
calla (a.d. 215), the internal struggles between Christian and pagan factions in the 3rd century, and the Jewish persecutions carried on by the patriarch Cyril in the 5th century; but it sustained a severe blow when captured by the fanatical Arabs under Amru (641). The misrule of the Turks (who took the city in 1517), the discovery of America and of the sea route to India and the East, completed the temporary ruin of Alexandria, until towards the end of the 18th century it had only about 6.000 inhabitants. But in 1806 it began to revive under Mehemet Ali: and, with the returning prosperity of Egypt in modern times, it has acquired fresh importance. In 1798 the city was taken by storm by Napoleon, but in 1801 it was wrested from him by the British. In 1882. during the rebellion of Arabi Pasha, the British fleet under Admiral Seymour
bombarded and destroyed the harbor forts.
Libraries.—There were two libraries—the ' Great' in the Museum, and the ' Daughter ' in the Serapeum. In the former were close upon 700,000 volumes. Und«r a succession of great librarians it became a famous centre of learning, to which also the observatories, the zoological and botanical gardens, and the collections of the Museum contributed. The Great Library and Museum were destroyed during Cesar's wars (b.c. 48-47). the 'Daughter' Library and Serapeum by command of Theodosius (a.d. 389). The story of the destruction of the Alexandrian Library by Amru is discredited by the best authorities, although to his caliph' Omar is ascribed the
treatment The one exception is found in the Idylls of Theocritus. But to Alexandrian scholars the world owes its possession of the texts of most of the ancient authors. In science also we are their debtors: Euclid the geometrician, Eratosthenes and Ptolemy the geographers, and Hipparchus the astronomer, here laid the foundations and extended the borders of their respective sciences. Alexandria was also the seat of Jewish learning, a school of thought which came under the influence of Greek ideas, and of which the most illustrious teacher was Philo. Alexandria, the last fortress of paganism, became in turn the stronghold of orthodox Christianity through its famous exponents, Clement and Origen,
saying that if the books in it agreed with the Koran they were useless, if they did not they were pernicious, and in either case should be destroyed. See Ritschl's Dif Alexandrinischen Bibliothcken (1866); Weniger's Das Alcxandriniscne Museum (1875).
School and Philosophy.—The thousand years over which the influence of the great Alexandrian School extended falls into two periods, the Grecian (b.c. 33230), and the Nco-Platonist, merging into the Christian (b.c. 30— A.ii. 641). The school was strong in erudition and criticism, but lacked originality. Imitative rather than creative, its leaders used the old epic, lyric, dramatic, and elegiac forms for treatises on astronomy, grammar, criticism, mythology, etc., rather than the subjects suitable for poetic
the great teachers, and Athanasius the steadfast patriarch of the city. It was in Alexandria, too, that the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament (from Hebrew into Greek) was made. See Bigg's Christian Platonists of Alexandria (Bampton Lectures, 1886).
Codex.—The Alexandrian Codex (Codex A), one of thf: authoritative Greek texts of the Holy Scriptures, dating probably from alraut 450, was presented to King Charles I. in 1628, through Sir Thomas Rowe, ambassador at Constantinople, by Cyrillus Lucaris, patriarch of that city, who had taken it thither on his removal from Alexandria. Since 1753 it has been in the British Museum. See Prolegomena of Woide (1786) and Baber (181628).
Modern Alexandria (Turk, Iskanderieh) is the chief port and second town of Egypt, and is the station of the Egyptian fleet. The old harbor, s.w. of the peninsula, is the only harbor for large craft; the new harbor, on the N.e. of it, is protected by a two-mile breakwater. There are three principal quarters — the Frank (European) in the E., the Arab in the w., and the Mohammedan between the two harbors. The chief features of the last named are the palace Ras et-Tin, the barracks and the arsenal. Alexandria is the seat of a Roman Catholic archbishop. In 1901, 2,882 vessels of over 2$ million tons entered the port, nearly half the tonnage being British. Alexandria is joined to the Rosetta branch of the Nile by canal. Imports about 15 millions in 1903; exports (threefourths cotton and cottonseed, the rest being sugar, beans, onions, gum-arabic, cigarettes, etc. ) about 18$ millions. Pop. (1902) 310,587.
Alexandria. (1.) City, Va., on the Potomac R., the Washington branch of the Ches. & O., the Main Line, and the Bluemont branch of the Southern, the Washington Southern, the B. & O., the Pa. and other R. Rs., 6 m. below Washington, with which it is connected oy a ferry. It is the port of call ot the Parhams Point Steamboat Line, the Norfolk & Rappahannock River Line, and the Mt. Vernon & Marshall Hall Steamboat Co. The river is a mile wide and deep enough to accommodate large ships. The town has an extensive commerce both by land and water. It has active manufactures, including shoe shops, grist mills, glass manufactories, chemical laboratories, machine shops, and breweries. The manufactures amount to about $20,000,000 yearly. Here are Mt. Vernon & St. Mary's Academy, and a Protestant Episcopal Theological Seminary. Among the prominent buildings are the Masonic Lodge, the house where the Congress of governors met (April 13, 1755} before the departure of Braddock's expedition, and Christ Church, of which Washington was a vestryman. In colonial times Alexandria was called Belhaven. Here Braddock established his headquarters (1755). In 1861, Colonel Ellsworth was shot here, after he had lowered a Confederate flag upon the Marshall House. In the Civil War, Alexandria was the capital of the section of Virpinia which held allegiance to the Federal government. Pop. (1910) 15.329. (2.) City Madison co., Ind., on Pipe Creek, and the New Castle & Rushville branch of the Alexandria Bay
Lake Erie & Western, and the C. C C. & St. L. R. Rs., 48 m. N.e. of Indianapolis. It has natural gas and manufactures glass, paper, and iron products. Pop. (1910) 5.096. (3.) City, La., CO. seat of Rapides Parish, on the Red River, and the St. L.. Watkins & Gulf, the Monroe District branch of the Mo. Pac., the La. Railway & Navigation Co., the Alexandria branch of the So. Pac., and the La. Div. of the Texas & Pac. R. Rs., and has steamboat communication with New Orleans and other river ports. Cotton is raised in the surrounding country and exported from here. The town has cotton compresses and manufactures cottonseed oil, as well as sugar, molasses, etc. Pop. (1910) 11,213. (4.) Vil., Minn., co. seat of Douglass co. on the Winnipeg Line of the Minneap., St. P. & Sault Ste. Marie, and the St. Cloud & Fergus Falls div. of the Great Northern R. Rs., 45 m. S.e. of Fergus Falls. The surrounding country is exceedingly fertile, and contains many lakes, and the town is a summer resort. The chief crop is wheat, and there are flour mills, breweries, and manufactures of furniture, machinery, iron implements, knives, etc. Pop. (1910) 3.001. (5.) Tn., Glengarry co., Ontario, on the Canada Atlantic R. R., 70 m. E. of Ottawa. There are manufactures of boxes, iron goods, flour, etc. Pop. (1901) 1,911.
Alexandria Bay, vil. of Alexandria township, Jefferson co., N. Y., on the St. Lawrence R., opposite the Thousand Islands, reached by the Clayton & Alexandria Bay, the Toronto & Montreal, the Ogdensburg & Alexandria Bay, and other steamship lines. It is the chief popular resort of the Thousand Islands region. Pop. (1910) t.899.
Alexandrine Liturgy, railed also the Liturgy Of St. Mark, who is said to have composed it for the use of Egyptian Christians; still extant in substance.
Alexandrine Verse is an iambic metre consisting of twelve syllables. The name is derived from the olcl French romance of Alexandra Ir Grand, composed about 1180 by Lambert li Court and Alexandrc de _ Bernay, in which the measure is first used. It is the standard measure in French poetry. According to the rules of scansion in French, the cjcsura must always fall after the sixth syllable; but this rule has been neglected by most English poets who have employed the metre. English poets "use the Alexandrine occasionally for the sake of variety. The Spenserian stanza regularly ends in one, and Drvden and Cowley use it pretty freely among their dcca
syll.iliK s. But the only long English poem in which this metre is exclusively employed is Dravton's Polyolbion (1612-22), and the result shows how little it is adapted to the genius of our language. This metre has been employed in Germany by Opitz. Riickert, Frciligrath, Geibel, and others.
Alexandropol, in., gov. Erivan, Transcaucasia, Russia. The railway to Tabriz in Persia branches off from the Tiflis-Kars line near Alexandropol, which is 137 m. by rail from Tiflis. Pop. (1897) 32,018.
Alrxandrov, tn., gov. Vladimir, Russia, 70 m. w. of Vladimir city. Iron and steel foundries. Pop. (1897) 6,848.
Alexandrovsk. (1.)Town, gov. St. Petersburg, Russia, 6i m. E. of the capital. Imperial residence; manufacture of porcelain; refineries, tanneries. (2.) Town, gov. Ekaterinoslav, Russia, 62 m. s. of Ekaterinoslav city, on the 1. bk. of the Dnieper. Grain trade: three annual fairs. Pop. (1897) 28.434. (3.) Tn., Siberia, opposite Sakhalin, of the Russian part of which it is the centre of government; capital of the Alexandrovsk dist.,theN.w. of the island. Flour and saw mills.
Alexandrovsk - Grushevskl, tn. prov. Don Cossacks, Russia, 15 m. N.n.e. of Novochcrkask. Pop. (1897) 16,250.
Alexel, Michailovitch (162976), Czar of Russia. Succeeding his father, Michael Feodorovitch, in 1645, he extended his dominions after a successful war against Poland (1654-67). He also waged war with Sweden, extended nis power to the east of Siberia, and put down (1672) a revolt of the Don Cossacks. His most important works, however, were the codification of the laws, and the opening up of communication with W. Europe.
Alexel, Petrovitch (16901718), eldest son of Peter the Great, was excluded from the succession liecausc of his opposition to his father's reforms. He fled to Vienna, and thence to Naples. Having returned to Russia, he was imprisoned, condemned to death, and then pardoned, but died (or was executed) in prison a few days later. His son became Peter if. See Barrow's (1883) and Schuyler's (1884) Life of Pcler the Great.
Alexeleff (1843) EnCHENYl Ivanovitch, Russian naval officer, born of Armenian father and Russian mother. Commanded the Pacific squadron in 1809; afterwards governor of prov. of Kwantung; adjutant-general (1901); and viceroy of the Far East (1903), but was recalled in OctolnT, 1904. His strong character and obstinate policy nelped to precipitate the war with Japan.
Alexis, Willibald. See HaRino, Georg.
Alexius I., Comnenus (10481118), nephew of the Emperor Isaac Comnenus, and one of the ablest of the Byzantine emperors, supplanted (1081) the Emperor Nicephorus. From the north and east his empire was assailed by the Pechnegs and the Turks, from the west by the Normans; and in lore the warriors of the first Crusade encamped before Constantinople. But by wisdom and courage he contrived, during thirty-seven years, to organize his empire—to put in order the finances, and reform the army. His career is fullv recorded in the Alexiad.
Alfalfa, the Spanish name fcr the Medicago saliva, or lucerne, a leguminous plant highly valued
for pasture and forage. From Europe it has spread through the temperate zone of the New World, being grown in great quartities in S. California and the southern and western states of the U. S. generally, into which it was introduced by early Spanish settlers. It produces several crops a year, and improves the soiK although it requires rich ground in order to succeed; it is especially adapted to dry climates, but is not so hardy as red clover. Also known as Spanish trefoil, French. Brazilian, and Chilean clover, and in Britain, medic or purple medic.
Alfarabl (d. c. 950), Arabian philosopher, born at Farab, beyond the Oxus. In his encyclopedia he recognized six orders of sciences—language, logic, mathematics, natural sciences, civil science, divine science. Lived at Bagdad and Damascus. He popularized among the Arabs the theories of Aristotle, and was the master of Avkenna. For his par tially published works, see Munk's Melanges, pp. 341-352 (1S59), and Steinschneiuer's Memoires d* T.\rademie dr St. Pelersbourg, 7th series, vol. xiii. (18691.
\llli-rl, VlTTORlO, COUNT (1749-1803), Italian poet and