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Alfonso I.

dramatist, born at Asrf, /n Piedmont; succeeded at fourteen to a large inheritance. From his nineteenth year he traveled widely in Europe. His first work was a tragedy on Cleopatra, staged at Turin in 1775. In 1777 Alfieri became deeply attached to Louise von Stolberg, Countess of Albany, wife of Prince Charles Edward, and settled with her first in Alsace, and later in Paris, whence he was driven by the revolution. He returned with Louise to Florence, where the last ten years of his life were spent. Alfieri's own Memoirs (Eng. trans. 1810) give an excellent picture of his character. His tragedies, inspired chiefly by political, and espe -ially by republican ideals, are severe and restrained in form. His dislike of French anarchy is recorded in his Misogallo; he also wrote many sonnets, and odes on American independence. Charles Lloyd (1815) and Bowring (Bohn) have f>oth translated the tragedies. Landor introduces Alfieri in the Imaginary Conversations. A new edition of his Opere, in 12 vols., was begun at Rome in 1902. See Ccntofanti's Vita di Alfieri (1842); Mazzantini's ed. of the Letters (1890); Vcrnon Lee's Countess of Albany (1884); Bertana's Vittorio Alfieri (1902); and Howells's Lije oj and Essays on Alfieri (1877).

Alfonso I. Of Portugal (111085), 'The Conqueror,' son of Henry of Burgundy, undertook (1128) the control of state affairs, till then directed by his mother, Theresa of Castile; waged successful warfare against the Moors, inflicting a decisive defeat on them at Ourique (1139), when he assumed the title of King of Portugal; and captured Lisbon in 1147.

Alfonso III., 'The Great' (848-910), King of Leon, Galicia. and the Asturias, an intrepid champion cf Christendom against the Moors in Spain, succeeded Ordofio I., his father, in 866. In a succession of hard-fought campaigns, he extended his rule over Ola Castile and part of Portugal. Popular discontent, represented b<r his son Garcias in 888, and later by his queen, forced him to abdicate in favor of his three sons; but a Moorish invasion recalled him to power.

Alfonso I. (d. 1134), King of Aragon and Navarre from 110534, surnamed 'The Victorious,' succeeded his brother Pedro I. The opposition of his wife, Urraca cf Castile, from whom he was separated, frustrated him in his attempt to annex Castile on the death of his father-in-law, Alfonso VI. In his successful warfare against the Moors he seized Saragassa and Tarragona, and inflicted a severe defeat upon them in the mountains of Valencia


(1126). The victor in twenty-nine engagements, he was mortally wounded during the siege of Fraga.

Alfonso V. Of Aragon and I. or Sicily And Sardinia (13851458), 'The Magnanimous, was the son of Ferdinand the Just, whom he succeeded in 1416. In 1420 Joanna I. of Naples made him her heir, but revoked the gift in 1423; and thereafter, until 1442, he was engaged in a struggle to secure possession of that kingdom. He was an enlightened ruler, and

§ave asylum to many scholars who ed from Constantinople when it was captured by the Turks.

.Alfonso I. Of Cashle and vr. Of Leon (1030-1109), son of Ferdinand of Castile and Leon, ascended the throne of Leon in 1065. He carried on, with varying fortunes, a long and sanguinary warfare with his brother Sancho, King of Castile: and on the assassination of the latter, in 1072, Alfonso obtained his kingdom. He imprisoned his younger brcther Garcia until the latter's death. He won New Castile from the Moors, but ultimately sustained a crushing defeat at their hands in 1108.

Alfonso X., King of Leon and Castile (1226-84), surnamed 'The Wise,' or 'The Astronomer,' succeeded Ferdinand in., his father (1252); was chosen king by some of the German princes (1257); his arms were successful against the Moors (1263); repressed the rebellion promoted by his son Philip (1271), but was driven from the throne by Sancho, his second son (1282). He was a patron of literature; completed the codification of the laws—Leyes de las Partidas —and was the author of poetical and scientific works. By his command the first complete history of Spain was written in the Castilian tongue, and the Old Testament was translated into Spanish. The astronomical tables known as Alfonsine were prepared under his direction.

Alfonso XII. (1857-85), King of Spain, son of the exiled Queen Isabella, was chosen by the provisional government to succeed Amadeus of Aosta in 1874. He put down the Carlist rebellion of 1876, and restored orderly government.

Alfonso Xin. (b. 1886), King of Spain, posthumous son of Alfonso XII., was proclaimed king on the day of his birth (May 17). His mother, Queen Maria Christina, acted as regent until he reached his majority, at the age of sixteen, in 1902. On May 31, 1908, Alfonso married the Princess Kna of Battcnberg.a niece of King Edward vn. of England. The match was opposed in certain English official circles because of its possible political consequences,

Alfred the Great

but King Edward considered such contingencies remote and refused to interfere. In Catholic Spain, on the other hand, there was much apprehension because of . the Protestant training of the Princess, nor was this feeling entirely removed when she abjured her faith and was formally admitted into the Catholic Church two days before her betrothal was publicly announced (March 9, 1906). As the wedding procession was returning from the church of San Geronimo, Madrid, an anarchist threw a bomb at the royal carriage. The explosion killed several soldiers and citizens, but the King and Queen were not injured. The King displayed preat courage and calmness, and the similar demeanor of the Queen at once made her a popular idol. A son and heir was Lorn on May 10, 1907, and christened Alfonso. A second son, Prince Jaim£, was born June 23, 1908. (See Spain 1

Alfi.nl, Henry (1810-71), English scholar and poet, was born in London; labored as clergyman in Ampton, Wymeswclcl, London, and (1»57) as dean cf Canter bury; was evangelical in sympa'.hv; is remembered chiefly for his Greek Testament (1849-61). First editor of the Contemporary Review (186670). Wrote Poems and Poetical Fragments (1831); The School of the Heart (1835); Chapters on the Greek Poets (1841); the Hulsean Lectures, On the Consistency of the Divine Conduct, etc. (1841-2); A Plea for the Queen's English (1863); also author of several hymns. See Life (1873) by his widow.

Alfred, vil., Allegany co., N. Y., on the Allegheny div. of the Erie R. R., 9 m. s.w. of Hornellsville. It is noted for Alfred University, non-sectarian, having a staff of 26 instructors and 3"0 students. Pop. of the town (1910) 1,590.

Alfred Krnest Albert, Duke cf Edinburgh and Duke of SaxeCoburg and Gotha (1844-1900), second son of Queen Victoria, was born at Windsor. In 1858 lie entered the navy, and became admiral of the fleet in 1893. In Aug., 1893, he succeeded his uncle, Ernest II., as reigning Duke of Snxe-Cobure and Gotha. He was succeeded by his nephew, the Duke of Albany.

Alfred the Great (849-901), king of the West Saxons in England, was born at Wantage m Berkshire. He was the youngest son of King Ethelwulf, but wnen his brother Ethelred died in 871 Alfred was declared king by universal consent. The young king fought eight or nine battles with the Danes in the first year of his rule, winning, among others, the battle of Ashdown. A period of rest followed; but in 878, Alfred the Great

Guthrum, king of the Danes in E. Anglia, invaded Wcssex, and Alfred retired for a time to Athclney, in Somersetshire, where tradition says that he burned the cakes. Shortly afterwards he gathered levies from three shires, and inflicted a severe defeat upon the Danes at Edington, in Wiltshire. The peace of \Vcdmore was concluded, under which Guthrum consented to become Christian and to withdraw from Wessex. while the supremacy of Alfred was acknowledged over the whole country south of the Thames ai,d over the greater part cf Mercia. From 878 to 893 the land enjoyed comparative peace. It was utilized by the enlightened king in the consolidation of England. lie practically founded the British navy; reorganized the national defences; raised public buildings, reclaimed waste lands; and revised all existing laws, combining those which he found good into a single code. He founded schorls, encouraged literature in the native tongue, and improved the services of the church. This work was again interrupted by war. A new Danish army appeared under Hastings, who for four years kept Alfred and his forces incessantly occupied. Having once more saved his country, the great kinr died, Oct. 27, 901, at the age cf fifty-two. The thousandth anniversary of his death was fittingly celebrated in 1901 in Winchester, the ancient capital of England.

Alfred's principal writings are as follows:—

(1.) A translation of the Universal History of Orosius contains three original insertions by the king: a brief description of North-Central Europe, and the account of two voyages cf discovery bv the explorers, Otherc and Wulfstan. (2.) A translation of Bede's Ecclesiastical History, which, on account of the Mercian peculiarities in the language, may be due to Alfred's instigation rather than to his own execution. (3.) A translation of the Dc Consolaiione Philosophic of Bocthius. (4.) A close translation of Gregory's Cura Pastoralis contains a priceless original preface bv the king. (5.) A translation of Gregory's Dialogues, not yet edited, and by some assigned away from Alfrecf. (G.) Blooms, a commoiplace-book of * sayings which King Alfred collected? (7.) Alfred's hand is not directly traceable in the Saxon Chronicle, but the finest writing it contains is the contemporary narrative of the Danish wars in his reign, and the Chronicle itself is certainly due to his fostering interest and care.

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is the best authority on Alfred. There are Lives bv Asser (ed.Wise, 1722), Powell (1634), Spelman

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ALGAE-(A) Pleurococcus vulgaris: details magnified; (B) Volvox globator: (C) Ulothrix parietina; (D) Vaucheria terrestris, show-

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Alfreton, mrkt. »., Derbyshire, on the Midland Ry., 14 m. N.N.E. of Derby. Pop. (1911) 19.049.

Alturas, or Harafuras, the original inhabitants of Celebes, but found also in Buru, Ceram, Jilolo, the Sula Is., and the N.w. of New Guinea. They are apparently of Malay descent, greatly modified by Papuan blood.

Algse, a large group of the simplest plants, including seaweeds, and the filamentous and microscopic forms which are found in stagnant pools and on moist surfaces exposed to the air, such as damp soils, stones, and the bark of trees. Though they vary greatly in complexity—from a single nucleated speck of protoplasm at one end of the scale, to the gigantic Macrocystis of southern seas with its fronds of 600 to SOO ft. in length, clothed with ribbon-like leaves of proportionate size, at the other end—algae never possess true roots, stems, or leaves, however closely these structures may be simulated. They are distinguished from the fungi by their power of building up their organic materials out of elementary inorganic substances. Algae are also distinguished from lichens, which consist of alga: and fungi living together in an intimate nutritive reFation—a high form of symbiosis. They always possess chlorophyll —the substance by means of which new material is assimilated under the influence of light—though its presence may be masked by other pigments. Alga; are usually classified in three orders: ChloroPhyce* (green); Ph«ophyce.b (brown); and Rhodophyce.s I reel); to which some authorities add a fourth, Cyanophyce^ (blue). The green algae occur in great variety in pools of fresh and salt water. One of the simplest forms is Pleurococcus.abundantondamp surfaces. It is a single round green cell, which multiplies by division into two or four cells, which then separate; in some allied aquatic forms the protoplasm may escape through its cellulose wall, develop a pair of cilia, and swim through the water. In more complex forms, the individuals resulting from fission may not wholly separate, but remain embedded in a common envelope. A very highly developed example of such a colony may be seen in Volvox, a constantly moving sphere of many hundreds of ciliated individuals, connected by threads of protoplasm througn the envelope, some of which are purely nutritive in function, while others become female reproductive cells, destined to form new colonies, and others again divide into numerous minute and active male elements, which are set free to fertilize the ova. The filamentous green algae are


higher forms, in which continued division results in single rows of cells separated from each other by transverse walls (Confervoidea;), as in Ulothrix, a long dark-green hairlike plant very common on stones in running water, which propagates by means of motile zoospores formed in certain cells, and set free to swim to a new site for a new plant, and also reproduces itself by means of the fusion of two free motile sexual cells (gametes). Or the filaments may consist each of a single continuous tube (Siphoneae), as in Vaucheria, common in moist soil in greenhouses, which has a highly developed form of sexual reproduction, as shown by the large quiescent female cell (oogonium) and the minute active male (anlherotoid). The so-called blue algae are inconspicuous and degenerate plants, found in fresh waters. A common example is Anabasna, which often makes the water of a pond opaque and dirty green in color, giving it a foul odor. It is among the brown and the red alga; or seaweeds that we find at once the largest and most differentiated forms, and the highest development of sexual reproduction. The common Laminaria, Fucus. and other seaweeds of the North Atlantic coasts, together with examples of simpler algae already mentioned, are illustrated in {he accompanying plate; but for a description of seaweeds, see that article. See also Diatom.

Algaroba. See Mesqutte.

Algarottl, Count Francesco (1712-64), Italian scholar and critic; born at Venice; his works popularized abstruse subjects. His Netttonianismo per le Donne (1732; trans, into several languages) was praised by Voltaire. He travelled through Europe, staying some time at Paris, Berlin. Dresden, and St. Petersburg, and was especially honored by Frederick the Great. His poetry was mediocre, but his Sag/ft (essays} on art, etc. (1769), were influential in Italian literature. His Optre (Venice, 1791-4) were accompanied by a Life by Michelessi.

Algarve, the southernmost province of Portugal; mountainous in the N., but with a fertile coast belt on the s. Figs, almonds, olives, oranges, and vines are grown in the lowlands; cereals on the higher ground. The Algarves are noted sailors and fishermen. Cap. Faro. Area l,879sq. m. Pop. (1900) 254,851.

Algebra (Arab, al jebr), the science of operations with quantities, where the quantities are usually represented by letters (a, b.c...,m,n...,p,<l,r..., x, y, f, etc.) and the operations by symbols (+, —, X. H-. °°, etc.); these symbols mav themselves be numbers. Algebra took its origin in


arithmetic, and both studies have the same fundamental laws. But many ideas are original in algebra. Certain quantities (e.g. imaginary quantities, such as the square root of a negative number v — 1) cannot be entertained by arithmetic. Every quantity, and every step in the working, of an arithmetical problem is capable of intelligible conception; but algebra admits of unthinkable quantities and operations. Vieta (16th century) first used letters lor all quantities, and shortly afterwards symbols were used for the operations. For a time the various 'powers' of a number were represented as xx, xxx, etc- but when Descartes indicated the power by a number (x*, x», etc.), the laws of indices were soon discovered, and it was by subjecting binomials to the latter that Newton discovered the binomial theorem. The whole field of algebra is covered by the investigation of identities (or the methods of presenting an algebraic expression in various ways) and of equations. Algebra, as commonly taught, is only one of many algebras. Hamilton, Grassmann, and others have conceived algebras with different fundamental laws, of which quaternions is an example. For the various algebraic operations, see the respective articles. See also Fink, History of Mathematics (1900); Merriman and Woodward, Higher Mathematics (1896).

Algcclras, tn., prov. Cadiz, Spain, the port on the bay opposite Gibraltar (5 m.). Industrial town, with busy export trade. Theport is open and undefended. The bay was the scene of a naval battle b"etwecn French and English fleets in 1801. The town was the meeting-place of the European conference on the Moroccan question in January, 1906. See MOROCCO. Pop. (1900) 13,302.

Alger, HpRATIO (1834-99), American Unitarian clergyman and author, was born at Revere, Mass. In 1864-66, he was pastor of a Unitarian church at Brewster, Mass., but afterwards removed to New York city. He wrote in juvenile fiction the books of the Ragged Dick, Tattered Tom, and l.iiik and Pluck series.

Alger, Russell Alexander (1836 - 1907), American soldier and lawyer, was born at Lafayette, O., and studied law. Serving in the Civil War, he was brevetted a major-general. He afterwards engaged in the lumber trade at Detroit, Mich., and in 1885-86 was Governor of the state. In 1888 he was an unsuccessful candidate for the Republican presidential nomination. In 1897-99 he was Secretary of War, and from 1902 till his death was U. S. Senator.



Algeria, or L'AtGERiE, a French colony in North Africa, occupies the central portion of the former States of Barbary. The area is about 184t(370 sq. m., which would be almost doubled if the Sahara hinterland were included. The country is divided by elevation and climatic conditions into three zones, parallel to the coast, but of different breadths: (1) The Tell, or region of forests and arable land; (2) the Steppe, or region of herbaceous vegetation ana of pastureland; (3) the Sahara, where agriculture is possible only by irrigation in certain oases. The coast, with an extent of almost 690 m.. is on the whole high and rocky, and presents little shelter. There are, however,


where snow and rainwater gather in winter.

Algeria belongs to the zone of Mediterranean climate, characterized by the division of the year into two seasons—the rainy or cold season (autumn, winter, spring), and the dry and not season (summer). The climate fluctuates between the humidity of the Mediterranean and the aridity of the Sahara, the influences of which vary according to latitude, altitude, exposure, etc. The result of this is a great variety of local climates. The temperature is very equable on the coast. (See Algiers.) On the other hand, the interior and Sahara are subject to great and sudden changes. The flora and the fauna, like the climate,


numbers 729,960, of whom 449,420 are French, 117,475 Spanish, 33,153 Italians, 0,217 Anglo-Maltese, and others 9,353.

Algeiia is essentially an agricultural country. The principal products are the vine anu cereals. Vineyards covered (1909) 309,095 acres, and produced 181,031,820 gallons of wine. By far the larger portion (304,328 acres) is cultivated by Europeans in the vicinity of Algiers and Oran. There are about 5,502,000 acres of cereals under cultivation, 4,293,000 acres being grown by natives, chiefly in the Department of Constantine. Efforts are being made (1911) to establish the culture of cotton, camphor, tobacco, and roses. The

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a few large semi-circular bays. The orographical structure is determined by two series of mountain chains, which form part of the Atlas range, and may be called the Tell Atlas and the Sahara Atlas. Neither of these forms a continuous ridge: they are cut up into a series of distinct massifs, separated bv rivers or plains. The height of tfiesc massijs is seldom more than 4,000 ft., and does not exceed 8,000 ft. in any part. The region between the two series of mountain chains is occupied by high plains, the altitude of which varies from 2,400 ft. to 3,900 ft. The rivers are nothing but torrents (wads or wadies), very frequently dried up. The waters of some of them are dammed up for irrigation. In the steppes the running waters have generally been unable to find an outJet to the sea; they form the s holts of the plains, shallow lakes Vol. I.—11

are Mediterranean. The trees and shrubs are for the most part evergreens, the olive being the characteristic tree. The forests are composed chiefly of cork trees, evergreen oaks, Aleppo pines, cedars, and cypresses; the stcpncs are covered with alfa or esparto grass and salt-loving plants; the datepalm is the characteristic tree of the Sahara.

Algeria has (census, 1906) 5,231.850 inhabitants, of whom 4,501,890 are natives (Berbers or Arabs). The Berbers are Mohammedans, but do not practise polygamy; they occupy principally the mountain ranges and the southern oases, and are either settled or semi-nomadic. The Arabs inhabit the plains and the steppes, are nomadic or seminomadic, and occupy principally the western part of Algeria. The Algerian Tews number 05,000 (1900). Tne European population

government is offering bounties to agricultural societies. The olive grows very well, but its culture, together \vith that of the date, fig, and other fruit trees, is capable of development. In 1907 there were 12,802,170 olive trcrs, yielding 7,990,250 hundredweight of olives and 12,098,200 gallons of oil. Market-gardening flourishes in the neighborhood of the seaports, and tobacco (a growing industry) is extensively cultivated. Forests cover 6,150.000 acres. Sheep breeding is especially important.

There are copper, zinc, lead, antimony, and mcrcurv mini's, and petroleum springs. The only minerals at present of real importance are iron ore at Ain Mokra and BeniSaf, and the extensive deposits of phosphate of lime, chiefly in the Tehessa district. The red marble of the ancients (giallo utiliro) was rediscovered near Kli-ber in Oran

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