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light. (See /ether.) A similar but much smaller effect, depending upon the earth's axial movement, is known as 'diurnal aberration.' A third variety, called 'planetary aberration, r rises from the delay in the visibility of a moving luminous body caused by the progressive transmission of light.
Aberration, Spherical And Chkokatic, in optical instruments, means the deviation of part of a pencil of rays from the point through which every component ray of the pencil MumM pass, if the theoretical conditions for distinct vision are to be rigorously fulfilled. It is of two kinds, spherical and chromatic. Spherical aberration results from the sphericity of the lens surfaces, or of the mirror used to produce the image of the object, distant or near according as the instrument is a telescope, camera, or microscope. Consider in particular the case of a convex lens. (See Lens.) Parallel rays passing through the lens are Brought very nearly to a focus: but no •ens with spherical surfaces will bring all rays exactly to this focus, even though these rays are of the same color and refrangibility. The amount of deviation of any particular ray from the focus will depend upon which part of the lens it passes through. Lenses might be ground with suitable forms of surface to produce perfect focussing for a particular kind of light from a source at a definite distance; but these would not have the same accurate focussing effect upon other kinds of light, or upon rays coming from sources at different distances. For ordinary use of telescopes and microscopes this imperfection is not of great significance, and in high-class types of instruments other causes operate which are as effective as spherical aberration in diminishing definition. Chromatic aberration is due to quite a different cause—viz. the different refrangibilities of the colored components of white light. When a single lens is used, the different colored rays from a given source are brought to different foci, thereby producing an image fringed with color. (See DisperSion".) This defect—a much more serious one than any that practically arises from spherical aberration—is almost entirely removed by means of achromatic combinations of lenses. These are compound lenses formed of lenses of different kinds of glass; and their action depends upon the fact that there is no necessary relation be-Ween refraction and dispersion. See Telescope.
Abert, John James (1788-1863), American military engineer, was born at Shepherdstown,
Va., graduated at West Point (1811), and served in the War of 1812. Entering the U. S. corps of topographical engineers, in 1829 he was placed in charge of the bureau, gaining subsequently the rank of colonel. For many years he was actively engaged in national works of an engineering character. He retired from active service in 1861.
Aberystwyth, port and wat.pl., Cardiganshire, Wales. It has a university college (1872), with about 500 students, which forms part of the University of Wales. Exports lead and copper ore, bark, and timber. Pop. (1901) 8.005.
Abeyance. In English law the suspension of the title to real property, a dignity or an office, in consequence of the lack of a qualified person to take the same. A peerage is said to be in abeyance when, the inheritance of a deceased peer passing to his daughters as coparceners, it is as yet undetermined which of them shall take the title. It was a maxim of the common law that a freehold could never be in abeyance. There is no interval of time between the death of an ancestor and the acquisition of the estate by his heir, nor between the grant or devise of lands and their acquisition by the grantee or devisee. For this reason a conveyance to take effect in future* was formerly held to be void. Modern methods of conveyancing have, however, made it possible to create future interests in land without putting the title in abeyance. The rule never applied to incorporeal interests in land, such as remainders, which, the freehold being vested in the present tenant, might be conferred on an indeterminate or unascertained person. See Freehold, Remainder.
Abgar, the titular name of twenty-eight kings of Osrhoene (in Mesopotamia, of which Edessa was the capital), one of whom was said to have sent a letter to Jesus, asking Him to share his kingdom and cure his disease, and to have received a reply from Christ. The letters were translated by Eusebius (Hist. Ecd. I. xiii.), but were discredited by Pope Gelasius in 494. The alleged correspondence and the traditions are translated from Syriac sources in Anle-Niccne Fathers (Am. ed., (1886, vol. viii. pp. 648 ff, 702 fl). Sec Phillips' Doctrine of Adaai the Apostle (1876); see Lipsius Die Rdcsscnische. Abgarsage (1880) Tixeront, Les Origines dc I Kglise d'Kdcsse (1888).
Abhorrers, a name given (167980) to the Court or Prerogative party, who signed addresses to the English crown 'abhorring* the petitions presented by certain of Shaftesbury's followers. The latter (named 'Petitioners,' 'Ex
cluders,' 'Protestants,' 'Country Party') besought the crown not to prorogue Parliament further, in order that the Exclusion Bill against the Duke of York, afterwards James H., might be proceeded with, and that measures might be taken, in the Protestant interest, 'to smite the king through the duke's side.' The Abhorrers (known also as 'Tantivies,' 'Masqueraders,' and 'Papists in Masquerade') received the nickname of 'Tories,' and the Petitioners that of 'Whigs'; and these terms superseded the names 'Abhorrers' and 'Petitioners,' 'Court Party' and 'Country Party.'
Abiathar ('Father of Plenty'), son of Ahimelech or Ahijah (cf. 1 Sam. 14:3 with 22:9) the chief priest, escaped when Doeg slaughtered the priests at Saul's command (1 Sam. 22:20), and joined David at Keilah. Appointed high priest with Zadok (1 Chron. 15:11), he became David'i counsellor (1 Chron. 27:34), and remained faithful to him during Absalom's rebellion (2 Sam. 15: 24), but later joined Adoniiah in his revolt (1 Kings 1:7, 19), and was therefore deposed by Solomon (1 Kings 2:26). See H. P. Smith's Samuel (1899).
Ablb, in the Jewish calendar, the first month of the ecclesiastical year, on the 14th of which the feast of the Passover is celebrated; later named Nisan, and corresponding nearly to our April.
Ablch, Wilhelm Hermann (1806-86), German geologist, born in Berlin; professor of mineralogy at Dorpat (1842); went to Vienna (1877). He explored the Caucasus, Russian Armenia, N. Persia, and Daghestan, and published Geologische Forschungen in den Kaukasischen Landern (3 vols. 187888), Veber die geolagische Natur des armenischen Hocluandcs (1893), etc.
Abies. See Fir.
Ahiirail ('Father has rejoiced'), (1.) wife of Nabal the Carmelite, who, by her tactful speech and gifts, dissuaded David from taking revenge upon her churlish husband (1 Sam. 25:18-35). After Nabal's death she became the wife of David (ver. 39-42), and, after a short period of captivity among the Amalekites, resided at Hebron, where she bore David a son, named Chileab or Daniel (2 Sam. 3:3; 1 Chron. 3:1). In speaking to David she called herself 'thine handmaid,' and her name has thus come to be colloquially used for 'waiting maid.' 'servant.' (2.) a sister ot Zeruiah (and of David, 1 Chron. 2:16), L> Sam. 17:25. See H. P. Smith's
Abljah, the name of several individuals mentioned in the Bible, of whom the most notable Abilene
are the following:—(1.) A king of Judah (c. 920-918), also called Abijam, the son and successor of Rehpboam. The meagre account of him given in 1 Kings 14:31 to 15:8 is supplemented by 2 Chron. 13, according to which he gained an overwhelming victory over Jeroboam, of whose army no fewer than half a million were slain, near Mount Zemaraim, in the hill country of Ephraim. He was succeeded^ by his son Asa. (2.) A son of Jeroboam I., who died in childhood (1 Kings 14). (3.) One of the descendants of Eleazar, son of Aaron, who was chief of the eighth of the twentyfour courses of David's priests (1 Cl-rpn. 24:10; cj. Luke 1:5, 'Abia'). (4.) Second son of Samuel (1 Sam. 8: 2, R. V.), whose corrupt administration of justice gave the elders of Israel a colorable plea for their demand for a king. For other bearers of the name, see
2 Chron. 29:1 (mother of Hezekiah).
Abilene. (1.) City, Kan., co. seat of Dickinson co., on the Kansas R. and the Union Pac., the Chi. Rock Is. & Pac. and other R. Rs., 160 m. w. of Kansas City. The city has flour mills, machine shops, manufactories of carrousels, etc., and is a shipping point for live stock. Here is the Mt. Saint Joseph Academy. Pop. (19104,118. (2.) City, Tex., co. seat of Taylor co., on the Texas and Pacific R. R., 161 m. w. of Fort Worth. It is in a grain and cattleraising district, and has grist, flour, and planing-mills. Pop. (1910) 9.804.
Ablmelech ('Mv father is king' or 'isMolcch'), (l.)a king of Gerar, who, owing to Abraham's misrepresentation, took Sarah into his harem; but being warned in a dream, restored her to her husband (Gen. 20). What is regarded as a variant of the same story is told in connection with Isaac and Rebckah (Gen. 26). See W. R. Smith's Old Testament in Jewish Church, p. 416 (2d ed. 1892). (3.) Son of Gideon and a Shcchemite woman, who persuaded the Shcchemites to make him their king, and by assassination got rid of his seventy half-brothers except Jotham (Judg. 9). In a general revolt against his authority, while assaulting Thebcz he was struck by a piece of a millstone cast from the wall by a woman, and, to save himself from the disgrace of having died by female hands, he ordered his armor-bearer to kill him. See G. F. Moore's J ltdtfr.T, 237 If. (1895).
Ablnndnn. (1.) A mimic, bor. and mrkt. tn., Berkshire. England, 6 m. s. of Oxford. It dates from about 675, when a Benedictine monastery was founded. The manufacture of ready-made cloth
ing employs about 2,000 persons. Down to 1885 it returned one member to the House of Commons. Pop. (1901) 6,480. (2.) city, Knox co.. 111., on the Galesburg Div. of the Chi., Burl. & Q. and other R.Rs., 10 m. s. of Galesburg. It is situated in a rich agricultural district. Here are Hedding College (M. E.) and Abingdon Normal College. The largest animal trap manufactory in the world is here; also a brickyard and a manufactory of wagons. Pop. (1910) 2,464. (3.) tn., Va., co. seat of Washington co.. on the North Fork branch of tne Norfolk & Western, and the Virginia-Carolina R. Rs., 205 m. W.S.W. of Lynchburg. It is the seat of a Roman Catholic academy and convent, of the Stonewall Jackson Inst., and the Martha Washington College for Girls. Deposits of iron ore, gypsum, and salt are in the neighborhood; the region during the Civil War supplied stores of salt to the Confederacy. Pop. (1910) 1,757.
Ablngton, town, Mass., co. seat of Plymouth co., on the Plymouth Div. of the N. Y., New Haven & Hartford R. R., 17 m. s. by E. of Boston. Boots and shoes are manufactured, and there are machine shops. Pop. (1910) 6,466.
Ablneton. Mrs. Fanxy (17371815), English actress, born in London; was a flower-girl and domestic servant. During her career on the stage (1755-99) she created thirty original characters, her most famous being Lady Teazle. She made her last appearance in 1799.
Ablogenesls, the production of living from non-living matter, was generally believed in until recent times, but was disproved by Pasteur, Tyndall, and others. The present attitude of biologists is a reserved scepticism, which allows the possibility but denies the probability of spontaneous generation. See Huxley in Brit. Assoc. Report (1870).
Ablpones. one of the chief peoples of Gran Chaco, Argentina, between the Bermejo and Rio Grande; a fine tall race, with black eves, aquiline nose, and long black hair. See DobrizholTer's Account o) the Abipones (1822).
Ablshal. nephew of King David, and one of his most daring and faithful followers (1 Sam. 26: 6). He assisted in the nipht expedition to the camp of Saul (1 Sam. 26:6-9). After David's accession he took part with Joab in numerous wars (2 Sam. 2:18, 24; 3:30). was faithful to the king in Absalom's rebellion, and became one of the captains of the kingdom (-2 Sam. 23:18).
Abltlbl, lake, Canada, a body of water in New Ontario, near the boundary between the Provinces
of Ontario and Quebec, lat. 49° N., long. 80° w. It is drained to the west and north by the Abitibi River, which after flowing northward towards Hudson Bay, forms a junction with the Moose River and together they find outlet at Moose Factory at the foot of James Bay. Abitibi is, with Ashuanipi and Mistassini, an unorganized district of the Canadian Province of Quebec.
Abjad is the first of eight mnemonic words which give the numerical order of the Arabic alphabet from 1 to 1,000. It is also the name for the alphabet, as in the phrase huruju-'l-abjad, 'the letters of the alphabet.' The word is derived from the first four characteristic letters of the Arabic alphabet, a, b, j, and d.
Abjuration. (l.) Or The Realm. In old English law a means of avoiding the death penalty for felony by voluntary expatriation. It was open to any person accused of cnme (except in cases of treason or sacrilegewho took sanctuary and thereaftei confessed his guilt and took oath abjuring the realm. The oath pledged the criminal to leave the kingdom forthwith and not to return until pardoned by the king. The usual penalties of attainder, corruption of blood and forfeiture of land and goods, followed as in case of conviction for felony. See Sanctuary. (2.) Oath Of. The oath prescribed by act of Parliament in England renouncing allegiance to the house of Stuart. In its first form, as enacted in the last year of the reign of William Hi. (13 Wm. in. c. 6), it was specifically aimed at the Young Pretender, son of James II. and was exacted of all office-holders under the crown, including lawyers and the clergy. It has by subsequent enactments been merged in a general oath of allegiance to the person of the reigning sovereign.
Abkhasla, or Abasia, dist., Kutais, Caucasia, along the Black Sea littoral; produces wheat and wine. Chief town, Sukhum Kale. It became Russian in 1809-10, but was not pacified till 1864. Pop. 13,000.
Ablaut. The vse of the term ablaut in philology is due to Jace)b Grimm (Deutsche Grammalik). The word gradation is frequently employed as its equivalent in English. It finds special application in the comparative grammar of the Inelp-Germanic languages, especially in the Germanic strong verbs, where, as in Anglo Saxon, for example, there are six distinct classes, differentiateel by varying but regular ablaut-rows (compare English sing, sang, sung; write, wrote, written). Ablaut is an inheritance from the hypothetical IndoAblution
Germanic parent-speech, and is connected there with the influence of the accent (compare Greek wanjp, tuirdmup). The differentiation at first was phonetic only; afterwards it was utilized in the expression of differences of meaning, as in strong, or 'irregular' verbs of the Germa.iic languages, where the ablaut serves to mark difference of tense. The regularity of sequence has been obliterated in many verbs by phonetic changes. See Hirt's D er indogermanische Ablaut (Strassburg, 1900), Skeat's English Etymology (1889), Brugmann's Grundrtss, vol. i. (1886).
Ablution, a rite symbolizing the purification of the soul by the cleansing of the body.
Abnakl, confederation of Algonquin tribes, formerly occupying present state of Maine and S. New
Brunswick, the Passan
Among these were samaquoddies, Penobscots, and Norndgewocks. They now number about 1,900 persons located in New Brunswick, Quebec, and Maine.
Abner ('Father is Ner'), a Hebrew warrior, son of Ner (1 Sam. 14:51), cousin of Saul, and captain of the army. He proclaimed Ish-bosheth king (2 Sam. 2:8), abandoned him for David (2 Sam. 3:12), and was killed by Joab (2 Sam. 3:27).
Abner, SlR William De WiveLeslie (1844), English chemist and physicist, was born at Derby, and educated at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich; became instructor in chemistry to the Royal Engineers, Chatham j adviser to the Board of Education (Science Dept.) in 1903; was a member of Council for Education to the War Office. His researches in light, including stellar photometry, in photography, and in spectroscopy are of great value. His writings include Instruction in Photography (1870); Treatise on Photogra~phy(1875); Color Vision, Color Measurement and Mixture (1893); and many papers in thcPhilosophical Trans, and the Proc. Royal Society. In 1900 Captain Abney was made a K.c.b. in recognition of his scientific attainments. Among his works in other fields are Thebes and its Five Great Temples (1876). and The Pi. enters of the Alps, in collaboration with C. D. Cunningham (18SS)
Abo, I>ort, Finland, Russia, 51 m. from the open sea, 124 m. from Helsingfors. Coaling station; exports of timber ami iron. Here was signed the peare of Abo between Sweden and Russia in 1743. Pop. (1897) 34,964.
Abo-HJftrni-borg, gov., Finland. Area, 9,332 sq. m. Pop. 395,000.
Abolitionists, a term applied, broadly, in the United States to
those who, before the Civil War, advocated the abolition of slavery; but more generally applied only to those who were especially radical in their views, who advocated immediate abolition, without compensation to the slave owners, and who, disavowing the Federal Constitution as a pro-slavery document, endeavored to attain their object by moral agitation rather than by political action. Even during the colonial period, there were men such as Samuel Sewall of Massachusetts and, later, Samuel Hopkins of Rhode Island, who publicly protested against slavery; and in the North where the- economic value of the slave was not sufficient greatly to neutralize the effect of humanitarian appeals, an anti-slavery, and essentially though not always avowedly an abolition sentiment gradually developed, becoming particularly manifest after the Revolutionary War, though as early as 1774 an anti-slavery society with Benjamin Franklin as president had been organized in Philadelphia. In this early movement the Quakers were especially conspicuous. Even in parts of the South, however, there were many opponents of slavery, both Washington and Jefferson, for instance, in Virginia, declaring vigorously against it. Gradually the Northern States freed their slaves, leaving the institution confined to the South. Though Benjamin Lundy and others early contended for abolition—generally for gradual rather than for immediate abolition—before 1831, wrhat is known in American history distinctively as the abolition movement began in that year with the establishment (Jan. 1) by William Lloyd Garrison of an intensely anti-slavery journal, the Liberator, devoted to agitation for the immediate and unconditional emancipation of all slaves in the United States. This movement, in essence a vigorous outburst of humanitarianism, rapidly gained in strength, being fostered partly, at least, by persecution, and continued — always under the leadership of Garrison —until slavery no longer existed in the United States. It found expression not only through the press and from the platform— various anti-slavery journals cooperating with the Liberator and innumerable anti-slavery lectures and addresses being delivered — but also through effective antisluvury organizations such as the Now England Anti-Slavery Society (formed in Jan. 1X32) and especially the American Antislavery Society (formed in Dec. 1S33, and not dissolved until 1870), numerous branches of which were established. These societies and the movement generally, gained the sympathy even
of many conservatives, when Congress in effect denied to Abolitionists the right of petition and when Pres. Jackson denied to them the right to use the United States mails in furthering their propaganda. The radical Abolitionists, to whom the term is often restricted, followed Garrison in rejecting and heaping scorn upon the Federal Constitution, which, quoting Isaiah (28:18), Garrison called 'a covenant with death and an agreement with hell'; in refusing to take any part in politics; in adopting the shibboleth 'no union with slaveholders'; and therefore in favoring a disruption, though a peaceable disruption, of the Union. Radicalism such as this, accentuated by the religious, social, and economic radicalism of many of the Abolitionists, met with opposition from a large element, previously associated with them, which was more conservative by conviction and temperament; and the representatives of this element—the so-called 'Constitutional Abolitionists'—under the leadership of Tames G. Birney and other equally nigh-minded men,believing that their erid could best be attained through the use of the
governmental machinery provided y the Constitution, organized in 1840 the Liberty Party, of which James G. Birney was the candidate for the presidency in 1840 and 1844. In 1848, the Liberty Party was virtually absorbed by the Free-Soil Party, which in turn was one of the political elements which were fused into the Republican Party in 1854-6. This party included large numbers of earnest anti-slavery men, represented by such political leaders as Lincoln and Scward, Charles Sumner, Henry Wilson, and John P. Hale, who had long hated slavery and who greatly desired its abolition, but who were never technically Abolitionists, who recognized that each State had a right under the Constitution to decide for itself whether it should or should not have slavery, who preferred to make use of practicable means for the attainment of practicable ends, and who therefore strove, not directly for the abolition so much as for the restriction of slavery—its exclusion from the Territories and from the District of Columbia and the rigid suppression of the illegal slave trade.
The radical abolitionists were a stern, unyielding, uncompromising, and high-minded group of idealists, who devoted themselves, with remarkable fervor and singleness of purpose, to their cause, but who, having focusscd their thoughts on the iniquity of slavery, were unable to see that a Southerner was essentially a product of Abomcy
his peculiar history and environment, and that a man could, in other respects, be an estimable and high-minded gentleman and citizen, and yet be a slave-holder. In language they were rancorous, vituperative, and unrestrained, so that by many even of those who opposed slavery they were regarded as fanatics and incendiaries. In the South they were naturally regarded with intense and bitter hatred. The practical effects of their agitation were the arousing of the conscience of a large part of the North, the antagonizing of numerous conservatives, ana the solidifying of the South, which became more and more sensitive to any outside interference. See William Lloyd Garrison (4 vols. 1885-9), by his sons; Wilson's Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in A merica (1872); Wm. Birney's Life and Times o) James G. Birney (1890); Samuel J. May's Some Recollections of Our Anti-slavery Conflict (1869); W. H. Smith's The Political History of Slavery (2 vols. 1903); and Hume's, The Abolitionists (1905).
Aborney. tn., French Sudan, G5 m. N. of Whydah; former capital of Dahomey, now capital of the division of Abomey; occupied by the French, Nov. 17, 1892. Trade in ivory, palm oil. and gold. Pop. 20,000.
AborlKlnes. This word was first used of the original inhabitants of Italy; it was afterwards extended to" the inhabitants of other countries when first known; now it generally means the natives found in a country by European colonists, as, for example, the North American Indians. The word is also used of plants and animals, to denote the flora and fauna indigenous to a place. The abolition of slavery in the British dominions (1833) led to the formation of the Alioiigines Protection Society, and various acts were passed for the protection of the natives of the Pacific islands, and for R-guIuting the importation of them into the Australasian colonies, including Fiji. The General Act of the Brussels Conference, signed July 2, 1890 (Hcrtslet's Treaties, vol. xix. p. 278), sets out what the powers declare to be the most effective means of counteracting the slave trade in the interior of Africa, and contains in ch. vi. restrictive measures concerning the drink traffic, intended to protect the native population from the abuse of it. For Australian aborigines, see Australia.
Abortion denoks the expulsion of a frctus incapable of life, and medically the trrm is apnlii d to those cases occurring before the sixth month of pregnancy. Later, the term used is miscarriage.
The causes of abortion may de
pend upon the health of the fcetus, or on that of the mother. Illness of the mother during pregnancy may, either by lowering the general health, or by a more direct action, induce abortion or miscarriage. Certain drugs mental or physical shock, overexertion, or a muscular strain or a fall, may have the same effect, the danger of abortion being much greater with some constitutions and temperaments than with others.
Preventive treatment means in the average case merely the living of a sane life, not inactive, but quiet, regular, and healthy, with special care to avoid exhaustion, excitement, and crowded rooms, and the pressure of tight clothes. Should abortion be threatened (suggested by bleeding and pain), the patient must at once go to bed, and send for medical assistance. Cold compresses, changed before they grow warm, will help to check the haemorrhage temporarily; but for this purpose it is of the greatest importance to lie quiet. Should abortion take place, and skilled assistance be unobtainable, absolute quiet, complete rest, and cleanliness are the most important points. Unless a woman treat herself as carefully after an abortion or a miscarriage as she would after a confinement, she runs not only grave immediate danger, but also risks chronic invalidism later. Intentional abortion, except when judged necessary by medical men in consultation, and performed by them with the care necessary for any surgical operation, is not only always criminal, but often proves suicidal. In law, procuring, or attempting to procure, abortion, whether by the woman herself or bv another, is a felony in most of the several States of the United States, unless the act be necessarv to preserve the mother's life. The mere solicitation or advice given to a pregnant woman that she attempt to produce a miscarriage is a misdemeanor, if the woman follows the advice. In England procuring or attempting to procure an abortion is a felony, and in Scotland a crime, punishable by penal servitude for life, or by imprisonment. If the woman dies, or if the child is born alive but dies' because of premature birth or the means used, it is murder. In England, to supply any poison or instrument, knowing that it is intended to be used to procure abortion, is a misdemeanor punishable by penal servitude not exceeding hvc years, or by imprisonment.
•Imiii.ir, or AnrKiR (.-inc. Kanakas), vil., Aboukir Bay, Egypt, 13 m. N.e. of Alexandria. Aboukir Bay, 16 m. wide, was the scene of the battle of the
Nile (Aug. 1, 1798) in which Nelson defeated the French. At Aboukir, Bonaparte, with 6,000 men, defeated an army of 18,000 Turks (July 25, 1799); and there Sir Ralph Abcrcromby landed in face 01 me hrench, whom lie Defeated (March 21.1801). and compelled them to quit Egypt. In the yicinitv are many ancient remains. The Lake of Aboukir, a salt marsh of 31,000 ac., is in process of reclamation.
Abousambul. See Ipsambul.
About, Edmond Francois VaLentin (1828-85), French novelist and dramatist, born at Dieuze, Lorraine; devoted himself tor fiction and journalism, and produced La Grece contemporaine (1854), the first of a long list of works. In the Franco-German war he accompanied Macmahon's army as special correspondent of the Soir; he was editor of the XIX' Siecle from 1875, which he founded with Sarcey; and was elected a member of the Academy (1884), but died (in Paris) before his reception. His fame rests principally upon his novels, such as Roman dun Brave Homme (1880; Lond. 1880); Le Nez d'un Notaire (li-62; Lond. 1882); Le Roi des Montagnes (1856); Madelon (1863); L'Homme a rOreille Cassee (\ 862); Trentc el Quaranle (1865), all of which have been translated into English.
Abra, rugged, volcanic prov., Luzon, Philippine Is. (area, 1,484 sq. m.; pop. 49,000); watered by river of same name, large and navigable for boats, which rises in Caballeros Cordillera, and enters the sea_ on W. coast. Tobacco is the chief crop. Rice, corn, cotton, and sugar-cane also are grown, as well as pineapples, oranges, lemons, strawberries, etc. There are veins of copper, indications of coal, iron, etc. The resources are undeveloped, but the inhabitants are1 now well disposed, and inclined to welcome instruction in better methods. Industrial schools have been established, with both American and native teachers.
Abracadabra, a cabalistic word used by Basilidian Gnostics of the second century and later as a spell to secure the assistance of good spirits against evil; supposed, when written in the form of a triangle and worn round the neck for nine days, to act as a charm against fevers, etc. First occurs in a poem bv Sammonicus, second century. See Abraxas.
Abraham. The account of Abraham given in Gen. 11:31; 25:18 is less a connected biography than a scries of tableaux. As Abram, the son of Terah, he comes before us a noble figure, great in moral and religious character, as also in material possessions. A native of Ur of the