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Anatomy

men is first taken. After this has been thoroughly dried by slow heat, hot glycero-gelatin is poured into it, the mould meanwhile being gently rocked to get rid of air bubbles. The fluid runs into the concavities, and must be ladled up over the higher parts, to which it gradually adheres as it cools, so that the whole surface is almost evenly coated over. While still in the mould it should be covered with lint or cotton-wool, and plaster of Paris is then spread over the lint. The plaster must fit the hollows and elevations of the back of the cast, and must be smoothed down on the surface which is uppermost during the casting. When it has set it is temporarily removed, and the glycero-gelatin is stripped gently out of the mould. This is now an elastic cast of the original, and when fitted to its plaster backing is ready for paint. When it is desired to represent a moist surface, oil-colors should be used; when a dry appearance is wished, several coats of water-color must be applied. Finally, an edging of velveteen or similar material hides the ragged edges, and throws the cast into relief. With a little practice and but slight artistic skill this method produces accurate results. Brains may be impregnated with paraffin and, as but little shrinking follows, the results are satisfactory.

Anatomy (Gr. 'cutting up"), the knowledge of animal structure obtained by dissection. The science of structure, both in the animal and in the vegetable kingdom, is properly called morphology, and the word anatomy is usually restricted to the more special investigations, particularly of the human subject. Comparative anatomy is the morphological comparison of different classes of animals or plants, revealing points of difference in structure, homologies of apparently different organs, and the supposed phylogenetic relationships of the various groups. Descriptive anatomy is the minute account, for purposes of surgical and medical practice, of the organs of the body and their physical relations. Morbid anatomy is the study of the structural changes consequent on disease. Teratology is the investigation of monstrosities and lesser abnormalities in the individual. Physiological anatomy relates to the structure of organs as explaining their several functions. Regional or surgical anatomy refers to the relative positions of parts from the operative point of view. Microscopic anatomy is an inconvenient name for histology, or the science of the minute structure of tissues. Surface

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anatomy is the location of internal parts by means of external landmarks.

The study of human anatomy has been greatly impeded by prejudices with regard to the desecration of the dead. Though Hippocrates (460-360 B.C.) and his disciples had knowledge of the skeleton, Aristotle (384-323 B.c.) was the founder of morphology, but neglected the human subject. The first dissections of the human subject are believed to have been made by Herophilus (300 B.c.) and Erasistratus, of the school of Alexandria. Celsus, and to a greater degree Galen (131-201 A.d.), advanced anatomy. _ The study did not enter upon its modern career until the time of Vesalius (1514-1564).

Sylvius, a contemporary, Eustacio (c. 1520-74), Fallopio (c. 1523-62), Fabricius (1537-1619), added much to the knowledge of Gross Anatomy. It was reserved for William Harvey (q.v.) to discover and demonstrate (16151628) the circulation of the blood. Willis (1622-75) gave the first systematic description of the brain and its ventricles. Malpighi (1628-94) contributed many of the most important facts concerning many structures to the sum of anatomical knowledge. Bichat, Wolff, Leydig, Kolliker, Virchow, Ranvier, Sappey, Cohnheim and many others contributed markedly. Of American anatomists probably the following are the most noted discoverers: Wallace, Reid, Horner, Bigelow. Ayres, Leidy, Harrison Allen, Marsh and Cope. See Morris's Treatise on Anatomy (London, 1902); Gray's Anatomy (Phila., 1900); and for a resume of the history of anatomy. Vol. I. of The Reference Hand-book of Medical Sciences (2nd ed., New York, 1900).

Anaxairoras (500-428 B.C.), one of the greatest early Greek philosophers; was born at Clazomens, went to Athens in 480, where he became intimate with Pericles; was fined five talents and banished for impiety (c. 430)—he asserted that ' the sun was a red-hot mass larger than the Peloponnesus'; and retiredtoLampsacuswhere he died. His predecessors had sought to derive all the world from some one material substance; but Anaxagoras postulated a creative Intelligence (;Voi(s). before whose operation the world was chaos. See Zeller's Prcsocratic Philos. (Eng. trans.): I-ange's History of Materialism (Eng. trans., 1886); Burnet's Early Greek Philos. (1892).

Anaxarchus (4th century B.C.), a Greek philosopher of the Eleatic school; born in Alxlera; was the favorite of Alexander the

Ancestor-WorihIo

Great, whom he accompanied on his Asiatic expedition.

Anaximandcr Of ATn F.tds (610-547 B.c.), successor of Thales. the earliest Greek philosopher. He described the original element (arche) from which the phenomenal world developed as 'the infinite' (apeiron). His theories were materialistic in form. He introduced the gnomon, and was the first map-maker among the Greeks. See Zeller's Presocratic Philos. (Eng. trans.); Burnet's Early Greek Philos. (1892).

Anaxlmcnes (c. 670-480 B.C.), third of the Ionic school of Greek philosophy, pupil of Anaximander and master of Anaxagoras: found the arche, or eternal ana original element of the world, in air, of which all substances were formed by compression or expansion—even the soul, he said, was composed of air. See Zeller's Presocratic Philos.; Burnet's Early Greek Philos. (1892).

Anaxlmencs Of Lampsacds, Greek historian and rhetorician, tutor of Alexander the Great; wrote a history of Philip and of Alexander, and a history of Greece.

Ancachs, a Peruvian dep. on the Pacific slope. Valuable mineral deposits. Cap. Huaraz. Area, 16,562 sq. m. Pop. (1896) 428,703.

A n c c 1 o t, Jacques Arsf.ne Polycarpe Francois (1794 1854), French dramatist and academician; wrote Louis IX. (1819), for which he was pensioned by Louis xvni.; Fiesque (1824), adapted from Schiller's Fiesco; Elisabeth d'Anglcterre (1829); and Maria Padilla (1838). His non-dramatic works include Les Familieres: Epitrcs (1842) and Poesies (1853).

Ancestor-Worship, which is still the basis of the Chinese and Annamese religions, and with which totemism is in some measure allied, is of very ancient origin, and so widespread that it may be traced throughout the world. 'The most special representatives of ancestor-worship in Europe,' observes Professor Tylor, 'were perhaps the ancient Romans, whose word manes has become the recognized name for ancestral deities in modern civilized language. They embodied them as images, set them up as household patrons, gratified them with offerings and solemn homage, and, counting them as or among the infernal gods, inscribed on tombs P.m., Diis Matiibits.' The 'ancestral tablets' which are found in the family room in modern Chinese houses are also supposed to contain the spirits of the family ancestors; and on every solemn occasion incense and candles are

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Iraperia! Tahlet, which rooda, Ftuano H wan ant, Hmij ««*. trrui, imn uni— Emperor 10,000 yeai-* 10,000 ye*in* 10,000 10,000 years.

guish between the worship of a long-dead ancestor and the reverence paid to a supernatural deity is sometimes a difficvilt matter; and, indeed, according to the school of Euhemerus. all the gods of the classic Pantheon are nothing more than deified ancestors. Herbert Spencer regards ancestor - worship as the most primitive form of religion. See his Principles of Sociology (1877-96).

Anchlses, king of Dardanus on Mount Ida, to whom Aphrodite bore the illustrious .-Eneas. He was blinded by Zeus for revealing the child's maternity. After the fall of Troy his son took him on his wanderings, until the old man died in Sicily. A shrine was built to him at Egcsta. Homer's Iliad, the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite, and Virgil's sEtieid give his story.

Ancliltherlum, a small extinct ungulate, which inhabited Europe and North America during Upper Eocene and Miocer.e time. It is regarded as the ancestor of the horse and in size was as large as a small pony. On each foot it had three toes reaching to the ground. Its jaws were provided with a full set of fortyfour teeth.

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Anchor, the iron or steel instrument by which ships hold fast to the bottom of the sea. A common anchor has a 'shank.' 'stock," 'ring,' and two ' arms," at the extremities of which are ' flukes ' or * palms.' A ship 'rides' at anchor when it is secured at its moorings. To ' weigh ' anchor is to heave it up, in order to get the ship under way. To 'cat' the anchor is to hoist it up to the cathead. To 'fish' an anchor means to draw up its flukes to the top of the bows by a 'fishtackle.' in order to stow it after it has been 'catted.' All large ships carry several anchors. When an anchor of ordinary type is holding properly, one of the flukes is imbedded in the mud and the other sticks up. As the ship swings around, the chain may catch on the upper fluke, pulling the anchor out of the mud and letting the ship drag — perhaps into danger or disaster. To avoid this difficulty many 'patent' anchors have been invented in the past fifty years. These are so constructed as to lie close to the bottom and allow the chain to sweep over them. They have movable arms and flukes and nearly all are stockless. The stockless anchors are ouite generally stowed on board ship by being hauled directly into the hawse pipe as far as the arms will permit, thus doing away with the necessity for catting and fishing. Anchors of various forms are also used for keeping buoys

Anchovy Pear

Also applied to the terminal structure (natural rock or heavy masonry) to which the cables or supports of a suspension bridge or similar structure are made fast.

Anchor Ice, or Ground Ice, ice formed (rarely) at the bottom of rivers. The current is too great for the formation of ice at the surface, but the water, retarded in the bed of the river, is congealed. When miich ice has been formed round a stone, it lifts it to the surface; in some instances even iron chains and anchors have floated in this way.

Ancliorltr, a recluse or hermit; one who seeks to live in solitude, and with as little intercourse as possible with his fellowmen. The term is specifically applied to the Christian ascetics of the 3rd century, who established themselves in caves and lonely places in Egypt and in the adjacent deserts. St. Antony was the most illustrious.

Anchovy, a small silvery fish (Engraiilis cncrasiclwhis), related to and resembling the herring, found in abundance in the Mediterranean, in summer, and also near Holland. It is there the object of an important fishery, and. after preservation in salt, is exported to all parts of the world. The species is widely distributed, and numerous other anchovies occur in different parts of the world, and are utilized in food preparations on both coasts of the United States. Anchovies are

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largest of all dicotyledonous leaves. The fruit is edible, with a flavor like that of mango; it is often pickled.

Ancient Demesne. Lands which formed a part of the royal estates of the English crown under William the Conqueror and are enumerated as terra regis in Domesday Book. The tenure of these lands was free from many of the burdens of ordinary feudal tenure and was attended with certain extraordinary privileges. Most of the lands have long since passed into private hands, but they retain some of the characteristics which attached to them while still the demesne lands of the crown. The tenure by which they are held is still known as tenure in ancient demesne. See Customary Freehold.

Ancient Lights. See Light and Ant.

Ancient Mariner, poem by S. T. Coleridge, published in Lyrical Ballads (1798). The idea appears to have been taken from Captain G. Shelvocke's Voyage Round the World (1757).

Am ill.m, JOHANN PETER

Friedrich (1767-1837), Prussian statesman and author; born at Berlin; filled (1792) the chair of history in the military academy at Berlin; was elected (1803) a member of the Academy of Sciences, and appointed historiographer royal; rose to be (1832) Minister of Foreign Affairs. In 1810 the education of the Crown Prince (afterwards King Friedrich Wilhelm iv.) was entrusted to him. He wrote on philosophy, history, and politics—e. g. Revolutions du Systems Politiaue de I'Eurofe depuis le XV. Siecle (4 vols., 1803).

Ancona. (1.) Province, Italy, in the Marches, between the Central Apennines and the Adriatic, with an area of 756 sq. m.; pop. (1901) 302,460. The people grow grain and fruit, breed silkworms, manufacture silk, paper, iron, sugar, flour, lime, bricks, and leather, and mine sulphur. Chief towns, Ancona, Jesi, and Senigallia. The railway from Bologna to Brindisi skirts the shore. (2.) Town and episc. see, cap. of above province, situated on the Adriatic, is the only good port between Venice and Brindisi. The harbor is enclosed by two fine piers, one of which was built by Trajan in 115 A.d. Extensions to the moles were agreed upon in 1903. The town is strongly fortified, and has a naval arsenal. Sulphur, silk, and eggs are exported. Iron and ship building works, and factories of sugar, soap, and tallow, represent the chief industries. There is a U. S. consular agency here. Pop. (1901) 55,408. Founded by Greeks from Syracuse (380 B.c.), Ancona was destroyed succes

sively by the Goths and the Longobards; later, it asserted its position as an independent republic, until it fell into the hands of Pope Clement vn. in 1532. In 1849 the Austrians captured it; and again in 1860 its papal defender, General Lamoriciere, was compelled to capitulate to the Piedmontese.

Ancona, Alessandro D' (1835), Italian man of letters and philologist; born at Pisa. He became one of the chief intermediaries between the Tuscan Liberals and Cavour. In 1859 he edited the newly founded journal, La Nazione; but having in the following year been elected to the chair of Italian literature in the University of Pisa, he devoted himself until 1900 to academic teaching and literary work. He has edited a number of early and rare Italian texts, written studies on the Italian drama — Sacre Rapfresentazioni del Secoli XIV,, XV., et XVI. (1872); Origini del Teatro in Italia (2nd ed., 1891); and has treated of several subjects connected with Italian literature—/ Precursors di Dante (1874); La Poesia Popolare Ilaliana (1878). Two collections of Sludii appeared in 1880 and 1884.

Ancre, Barou De Lussigny, Marquis D' (d. 1617), whose real name was Concino Concini, a Florentine adventurer, accompanied Maria de' Medici to France in 1600, and rose to be marshal and chief minister of state, and acquired vast wealth. He was assassinated in April, 1617, at the instigation of Louis xni. His corpse was treated with great indignity, and his wife was afterwards burned at the stake as a sorceress.

Ancren Rlwle, or The Rule Of Nuns, a manual of religious instruction and observance written about 1210 for a small society of three pious ladies and their lay sisters, established at Tarente (Tarrant - Kaines or Kingston) in Dfsetshire. The ;niilhii -Inn has Teen attributed to Richard Poor, a native of Tarente, who was successively bishop of Chichester, Salisbury, and Durham. See Ancren Riu'le, ed. Morton (Camden Society, 1853).

Ancrum, vil. and par., Roxburgshire, Scotland, 3j m. N.n.w. of Jedburgh; 2 m. from Ancrum Moor, where (Feb. 17. 1545) 5.000 English under Sir Ralph Evers and Sir Brian Latour were defeated by the Scots under the Earl of Angus and Scott of Buccleuch. The exploits of the Scottish maiden Lilliard (Lillyard) in this_ battle are commemorated by an inscribed monument.

Ancus Marclus, fourth king of Rome, said to have reigned 640-616 B.c.. and to have con

quered many Latin towns and transplanted their inhabitants to Rome. He is also the reputed founder of Ostia.

Ancylopoda, a suborder of primitive ungulate mammals, of large size and clumsy build, whose remains are found widely spread in the Miocene and earlier formations. Not much is known of their character or relationships; but they were shaped somewhat like hyenas, and had curiously clawed feet, uoon the side of which they walked like an anteater, and teeth resembling those of the rhinoceros. See Osborn, Am. Naturalist, 1893.

Ancyra, anc. city of Galatia, Asia Minor; remembered chiefly for the fact that, when ^Augustus set up a record of the chief events of his life at Rome, its citizens had a copy of the inscription made, which still exists. The inscription (Monumentutn Ancyranum) is in Greek and Latin, and has been edited by Mommsen (1883). See (modern) Angora.

Andalusia, or Andalucia (corruption of Vandalusia, so called from the Vandal invasion), the largest of the ancient divisions of the s. of Spain, comprises the provinces of Almeria, Cadiz, Cordova, Granada, Huelva, Jaen, Malaga, and Seville, and is physically divided into Upper and Lower Andalusia. Its chief towns are Cordova, Seville, and Cadiz. It is one of the most fertile portions of Spain. It is drained by the Guadalquivir. Some of the highest mountains are above the snow-line, and from these to the low-lying valleys, which are extremely hot in summer, all varieties of climate are found. There are numerous gypsies (gitanos) scattered throughout the province, and a few descendants of the Moors still survive. The attire of the people is very picturesque, and the women are renowned for their grace and beauty. This province was visited in antiquity by the Phoenicians, who founded the colonies of Hispalis (Seville), Gades (Cadiz), etc.; afterwards by the Carthaginians; and after the second Punic war it became a Roman province. Here were born the poet Lucan, the emperor Trajan, the philosopher Seneca. In the 5th century it was invaded by the Alans, Vandals, and Visigoths, who conquered the whole of Spain. In 711 it was subdued by the Moors, after the battle of Xeres de la Frontera. Here they founded the caliphate of Cordova, which reached the height of its power under the Ommiades. During this period Andalusia was a flourishing and thickly-populated Province. Cordova was one of the chief centres in Europe for the arts and sciences. But after Andalusltr

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Andersen

the extinction of the Ommiades (1031) it was divided between Seville, Cordova, and Jac'n, which were conquered (1238-48) by Ferdinand in. of Castile. Area, 33,663 sq. m. Pop. (1900) 3,562,606. See Spain.

Andaluslte, a mineral consisting of silicate of alumina, crystallizing in gray or pink rhombic prisms, usually coarse and nearly square in form. A variety known as chiastrolite is characterized by carbonaceous inclusions arranged along the axis of the crystal in structural lines, exhibiting a colored cross or tesselated-shaped figure in section. Some of the colored varieties show strong

Only a small proportiu.i of the aborigines are civilized, and on manv of the islands, especially the Nicobars, the inhabitants are still hostile to strangers. The natives of these two groups are quite distinct. Andamanese are typical ncgritocs; Nicobarese are mongoloid. The average height of the Andamanese men is 4 ft. 11 in.; of the women, 4 ft. 1\ in. The Nicobarese men have an average height of 5 ft. 4 in.; the women, 5 ft. See E. Horace Man's Aborigines oj the Andaman Is. (1885); A. de Quatrefagcs' Lcs Pygmies (Prof. Starr's Em;, trans. 1895); t>r. Mouatt's Andaman Islanders (1863); C. Boden Kloss's In the

ought to indicate a slower degree of tempo; but the term is sometimes used to signify a degree of movement less slow than andante.

Andaqul, an Indian tribe in S. Colombia, almost extinct.

Anderlecht, tn., Belgium, prov. Brabant, 2 m. s.w. of Brussels. Large cotton mills. Pop. (1900) 47,929.

Andcrmatt, vil. in upper valley of the Reuss, canton Uri, Switzerland; alt. 4,738 ft.; at the junction of the roads over Furka, Oberalp, and St. Gothard passes; 3i m. from Goeschcnen. Pop. (1900) 818.

Andernach (anc. Antunnacum),

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pleochroism. It is a characteristic ingredient of metamorphic rocks, and is often found in argillaceous slates into which a granite has been injected in a greatly-heated condition, altering the surrounding masses, and developing new minerals in them. Andalusite is rarely transparent and well colored, but fine specimens come from Brazil, and are polished and used as gems. It is also found at Standish, Maine, and at Litchflcld, Conn.

\ inl.i in :i i! - and Nleobars, two Kroups of British islands in the Bay of Bengal, about 400 m. E. of ImT.n. Tile area is estimated at 3,1(10 sq. ill. Total pop. (1901) of Andamans, IS,00(1; of Nicobars, ahout 0,500. The capital, Port lilair, on S. Andaman, has a fine, well-sheltered harbor.

Andamans and Nicobars (1903); and The Indian Antiquary (vols. xxviii. and xxx.). In 1789 the East India Co. established a penal settlement for 'life' convicts at Port Blair. In 1901 these numbered, 11,947. Tea, colTee, cocoa, sugar-cane, rice, and oil seeds are grown, and a trade in timber is being developed. Lord Mayo, viceroy of India, was assassinated at Hopetown, on the main island, by a Punjabi fanatic, in 1872, while on an official tour of inspection.

Andante (It. 'going'), in musical score, the name of an individual composition or of a niovurncnt; also used as a time indication signifying a slow dcgri-e of tempo, hut not so slow as laralirttu. Andantino, being a diminutive of andante,

tn., prov. Rhineland, Prussia, on 1. ok. of the Rhine, 11 m. N.w. of Coblenz; has Roman and mediaeval remains. Cigars and malt manufactured; trade in emery and lava. Pop. (1900) 7,889.

Andersen, Hans Christian (1S05-75), Danish author, son of a shoemaker at Odense, was sent to school and university by generous patrons. He then undertook, at the expense of the state, several continental tours, resulting in his brilliant travel-books—viz., Skyggcbildtr (1831); En Digters Hnznr (1842), after a tour to Greeccj / Sverrig (1849), after his visit to Sweden; / Spanirn (1X03), a book about Spain. His lirst novels, all of which have been translated into English, were Improvisaloren (1835), O- T.

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Hans Christian Andersen.

came out in 1835, the second series appeared in 1838-42, the third in 1845; and so they continued to appear, at irregular intervals, until the last Eventyr were published in 1871-2, by which time they had won a worldwide reputation. Andersen's numerous plays and poems are inferior to his Tales. The 100th anniversary (1905) of his birth was celebrated by several American and European literary societies, and his career was made the subject of many magazine articles of that time. His autobiography, Mil Livs Eventyr (1855-77), is of great interest, and perhaps the most naive and subjective biography ever written. Other works are Billedbog uden Billeder (1840); Ahasuerus (1847) ; De to Baronesser (1847); At vaere eller ikke vaere (1857). Several English editions of the Fairy Talcs have been published. See R. N. Bain's H. C. Andersen: a Biography (1895).

Anderson. (1.) City and co. seat of Madison co., Ind., on west fork of White R.. about 40 m. N.e. of Indiananolis, and on the Chicago and Southeastern, the Cleveland, Cincinnati. Chicago, and St. Louis and other R. Rs. Its chief industries are manufactures of iron, steel, brass, paper, machinery, glass, lumber, and wire nails. Besides the important railway connections above mentioned, it has a system of interurban electric railways. The city owns and operates its electric light, gas and water-works plants. There are also a free library and parks. The historic mounds of the 'mound builders' are near the city. Pop. (1910) 22,476. (2.) Tn. and co. seat ot Anderson co., S. C., 120 miles N.w. of Columbia, the state capital, on the Southern, the Blue Ridge, and the Charleston and W. Carolina

R. Rs. The town was first settled in 1827, and it has many industries, including cotton mills, flour mills, machine shops! and factories for the manufacture of spring beds, mattresses, and articles of wearing apparel. It contains some fine civic buildings,

father, he graduated from the Medical School of Columbia University; but soon gave up this profession for engraving. He was self-taught and the earliest American wood engraver. He acquired technique in copying Holbein's Dance of Death and

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the Patrick Military Institute and Anderson Female College. The surrounding district is fertile in cotton and numerous other agricultural products. Pop. (1910) 9,fi54.

Anderson, Alexander (177.51870), American wood engraver. Following the wishes pf hjs

Bewick's British Quadrupeds. Adopting the manner of the latter artist, he did the l>est work of his day outside of his master's immediate circle. At first he also practised line engraving, but later confined himself to wood-cuts. His best-known works are the illustrations tp Bell's Anatomy (70

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