صور الصفحة
النشر الإلكتروني


Chaldees (in Mesopotamia, or, less likely, Uru, now Mugheir, in Babylonia), married to his halfsister Sarai .he migrates to Haran in Upper Mesopotamia; thence, in obedience to a divine command, to Canaan, which land is thereupon promised to his seed (Gen. 12:176). Thenceforward he lives the life of a nomad chief, wandering mainly in the districts around Shechem, Beth-el, and Hebron. While sojourning in Egypt, he imperils Sarai's honor by misrepresenting her as only his sister (cj. the similar action in Gerar, Gen. 20:1-11); but he shows true sdf-denial in giving the choice of pasture land to his nephew Lot. and true courage in his successful attack upon the victorious Chedorlaomer, while the tenderness of his nature is evinced in his unwillingness to expel Hagar and Ishmacl from his tent at Sarai's instigation, and in his pathetic intercession on behalf of Sodom. The promises grow ever in splendor; Jehovah makes a covenant with him, ordaining the rite of circumcision, and changing his name from Abram to. Abraham (and Sarai's to Sarah), as the credentials thereof; heavenly messengers are commissioned to visit him, and his prayers have power on high (Gen. 17, 18). At length Isaac is born, and the crowning expression of Abraham's faith is given in his willingness to obey God even to the extent of offering up the son of promise as a sacrifice (Gen. 21,22). After Sarah's death Abraham marries Keturah, and has six sons by her; and at last, at the age of 175. he i laid to rest beside Sarah in the cave of Machpelah (Gen. 25: 1-10). No quite satisfactory explanation has been given of the names Abram, Abraham, or Sarai, Sarah. The patriarch plays a great role in later Judaism as also in the New Testament; many remarkable legends have gathered round his name; and to the Arabs he is, as Ibrahim, the first and greatest Moslem. On the more debatable or extra-biblical points, the cornmental ics (e.g. Dillmann's Genesis, trans, by Stevenson, 1807) and the recent Bible dictionaries (e.g. Hastings's; and Cheyne's Kncy. Bib.) may be consulted with advantage. For Assyrian r, lations, see Tomkins's Studies on the Times of Abraham, and Saycc's Patriarchal Palestine^ (1805); for Abraham's place in Biblical history and theology, see Schultz's O. T. Theology (trans.by Paterson, 1N!»2), and Kittcl's llistorv oj tltc Hrhn~.cs. i. (trans, by Taylor, 1X05). There is a late apocryphal book, The Testament oj Abraham (published in Texts and Studies (1892) and by Bonwetsch in Studirn zur Gcsfkichte der Thcologic, Leipzig, 1897).


Abraham, Heights Of, or Plains Of, s.w. of Quebec, alone the St. Lawrence, the scene of the battle between Wolfe and Montcalm (Sept. 13, 1759), which added Canada to the British empire. Wolfe ascended the heights at Anse du Foulon (Wolfe's Cove), It m. above Quebec.

Abraham - a - Santa - Clara — family name, Ulhich Mecerle— (1644-1709, a great pulpit orator of the Roman Catholic Church; born near Messkirch in Baden; joined the Barefooted Augustinians(1662); court preacher (1677); from 1682-9 worked at Graz, but spent the rest of his life at Vienna. His style was fearless, humorous, and racy. The sermon, Up, up, ye Christians.' (1683), against the Turkish menace, was used by Schiller in \\'allensttin's Lager. His most typical book is Judas der Em-Schclm (1686-95). See also Sdmmllic/te Werke (21 vols. 18.35-50): also Sexto's Abrahama-Santa-Clara(l896).

Abrahamltes, a Syrian sect in the -9th century who denied the divinity of Christ. Also applied to a deistic sect in Bohemia in the 18th century, who professed to be followers of Hussj they were expelled from Bohemia in 1783.

Abraham-men, a cant term, current 1573-1824, signifying halfnaked vagabonds. One of the wards in Bedlam was named after Abraham, in allusion probably to Luke 16:22, and was devoted to mendicant lunatics, who wore a special badge, and were permitted to wander about the country begging. Hence the term 'Abram cove,' and the phrase 4to sham Abraham'; though the latter is also used in reference to forging bank notes, in allusion to Abraham Newland (d. 1807), cashier of the Bank of England. See King Lear, ii. 3, and Dckker's Bellman of London (1608; ed. Grosart, 1885).

Abraham's Bosom, a term applied bv the Jews to the abode of the rigTiteous after death. As a metaphor, it is borrowed from the custom of reclining at meals, the head of each guest leaning towards the breast of his lefthand neighbor; to be next the host was to lie in his bosom—-i.e. to occupy the place of distinction. By some it is supposed that Abraham's bosom—otherwise the Garden of Eden and Paradise—• denoted one of the compartments of the intermediate state in which all must sojourn for a time l>cfore entering the abode of final weal or woe. It is certain that the Jews of our Lord's time believed in an intermediate state with two localities; but it is Questionable whether the term Abraham's bosom' was then used of the intermediate resting-place of the righteous, and not rather of the

gr P


higher paradise or heaven itself. The latter seems the more probable, from the fact that in the only scriptural passage in which the phrase occurs (Luke 16:22 /.) its correlative Hades is plainly the place of torment. See Salmond's Chris. Doctrine of Immortality (1895).

Abrantes, tn., prov. Estremadura, Portugal, at the head of navigation on the r. bk. of the Tagus, 88 m. N.e. of Lisbon. Strongly fortified. Trade in rain, olive oil, wine, and fruit.

op. about 8,000.

Abrasives, minerals used to put an edge on culling instruments, or to polish metallic or other surfaces. They include burr-stones, millstones, corundum, emery, garnet, grindstones, pulp - stone, infusorial earth, tripoli, rouge, oilstones and whetstones, quartz, carborundum, and crushed steel. See Mineral Resources of the United Stales (Annual), U. S. Geological Survey, for statistics of occurrence and production.

Abravanel, or Abarbanel, a family of Spanish Jews tracing iu descent from the royal house of David. (1.) Isaac Benjehuda (1437-1508), minister of state to King Alfonso v. of Portugal, and from 1483 to 1492 chancellor to Ferdinand the Catholic, king of Castile; subsequently lived at Naples, in Corfu, and at V'enice. He was distinguished for his high intellectual and moral qualities; author of a number of philosophical and exegetical treatises, his chej-d'auvre oeing probably his exposition of the Messianic belief among the Jews in his Spring of Salvation, Salvation cf his Anointed, and Herald of Salvation. Sec Carmoly's Biographic d'Isaac Abravanel (1857). (2.) Lko HKUR.tt's. physician at the court of Gonsalvo de Cordova, and friend of Pico de Mirandola. His principal work is the Dialoghi di A marc (written 1502; published 1535). In philosophy he was an eclectic, trying to combine Plato, Aristotle, and the Arabic philosophy into a harmonious system. See Zimmcte'sLeoHebrasus (1886).

Abraxas, a mystic word of Eastern origin, thought by the Basilidian Gnostics to signify the 365 spiritual orders of the divine manifestation, because in Greek notatiw the equivalents of its lettcrsTMield that number. This sect, and later thcosophists, cut the word on gems (abraxas stones), together with monstrous figures — e.g. a man with a cock's head and serpentine limbs. For account of Gnostic gems see Kopp's PaJttograprtio Critica, vols. 3, 4 (1827-29) and King's Gnostics and their Remains (2d ed., 1887).

Abrogation. The nullification Abrolhos Islands

of a rule of law through the adoption by the courts or enactment by the legislature of a rule inconsistent therewith. The abrogation of the previous law is thus the indirect, though it may be the intended, effect of the law subsequently adopted. An express nullification of a statute by a subsequent enactment is denominated a 'repeal' of the former, and the abrogation by later decisions of a rule established by the courts is a 'reversal' thereof.

Abrolhos Islands, E. of Brazil (lat. 17° 58' S.; long. 38° 42' w.) beloigto the state of Bahia. They are low rocks. On Santa Barbara Is. is a lighthouse.

Abrus Precatorlus (Gr. habros, 'elegant'), wild liquorice, a leguminous plant having seeds like small peas, of a scarlet color, with a black patch on one side. These are usea in India as weights (ratf), and are strung together to form rosaries, whence their name 'prayer-beads.' Thev are said to have given origin to the carat, the jeweller's unit of weight.


Abrus precatorius and Fruit.

Abruxzl, Prince Luigi AmaDeo, Duke Of The (1873), Italian arctic explorer and geographer, third son of Amadeo, Duke of Aosta, and cousin of the king of Italy, was born in Madrid. He ascended Mount St. Elias, Alaska, in 1897, when he determined its altitude and geological origin. From his Arctic expedition (18991900) a sledge party, commanded by Capt. Umberto Cagni, reached the highest recorded latitude, 86° 33' N. He established the N. limits of Franz-Josef Land, and proved the geographical non-existence of Petermann's Land. In 1906 Abruzzi made the ascent of Ruwenzori in Africa, and in 1909 ascended Mount Godwin-Austen to a height of 24,600 feet. See Filippi's Ascent of Ml. SI. Elias (1900; Eng. trans.); On the 'Polar


Star' in the Arctic Sea (1903; Eng. trans.).

Abruzzi and Mollse, territorial div. (compartimento) of Central Italy, occupies the half of the peninsula on the Adriatic side, to the E. of the province of Rome. It is traversed by the two main ranges of the Central Apennines, between which lie the high valley of the Aterno (2,300 ft.) and the plateau basin of the now drained L. Fucino (2,165 ft.). On the Adriatic side the eastern range goes down abruptly to the sea, and its flanks are seamed with numerous short, swift streams. In the higher parts the climate is severe. Forestry and pasturage are the chief occupations: cereals and wine are produced in the fertile lower valleys: saffron in Aquila. Asphalt is found in Chieti. Area, 6,565 sq. m. Pop. (1901) 1,442,365. The territory embraces the provinces of Aquila, Chieti, Teramo, and Campobasso —the last-named corresponding to Molise, and the first three to the Abruzzi.

Absalom, King David's third son, born at Hebron. Because of his personal charms, Absalom became a universal favorite, and his ambition made him a danger to the realm. Though forgiven by his father for the murder of his half-brother Amnon, he stirred up sedition, and raised a formidable insurgent force. His army was routed by the royal troops in the weod of Ephraim, and Absalom, fleeing upon a mule, was caught by his hair in a tree, and killed by Joab, to the great sorrow of the king. See 2 Sam. 13-18.

Absalom and Achltophrl, Dryden's greatest political satire, published (first part, 1681) on introduction of the Exclusion Bill. It is an allegory of the history of King David, thinly veiling the real theme—the attempt by the court party, led by Snaftesbury (Achitophcl), to secure the succession of the Duke of Monmouth (Absalom), Charles's illegitimate son. For a full criticism, see Ward's English Poets (1881-2).

Absalon, or Axel, archbishop of Lund (1128-1201), born in Sjzlland, Denmark. From 1157 onwards he energetically assisted King Valdemar to reconstruct the Danish state; took an active part in the struggle with the heathen Wends; ana became successively bishop of Rocskilde and archbishop of Lund (1178). After Valdemar's death (1182) Absalon's influence became still stronger, and he was of essential service to young King Canute in his successful struggle with Bogislav of Pomerania (1184). Absalon was of the best type of the mediaeval warrior-priests, one of the greatest of Danish statesmen, yet pious and conscientious, A scholar


himself, he supplied his clerk, Saxo Grammaticus, with the materials for his great history. See Estrup's Absalon somHeft, Slatsmand og Biskop (1826).

Abscess, a collection of pus covered by the skin or other tissue, resulting from inflammation. It is often recognized by the feeling of 'fluctuation ' as of asaccontaining liquid, when the fingers are pressed over it. Treatment requires rest, poulticing, and attention to general health, until the abscess is sufficiently liquefied to be cut open; the abscess is then emptied; the wound is dressed antiseptically until healed, and, if deep, is drained by a tube.

Absciss Layer, a layer of cork formed in autumn between the base of the leaf and the stem in many deciduous trees. It divides across the middle, and causes the fall of the leaf, half of the cork remaining to cover the leaf-scar.

Absconding- The act of going beyond the jurisdiction of the courts in order to avoid service of legal process. The term is usually confined to the act of a debtor in hiding or leaving the country or state Tor the purpose of hindering, delaying or defrauding his creditors. Absconding is an act of bankruptcy and gives statutory remedies against the estate left by the debtor and in many jurisdictions subjects him to arrest if found in the jurisdiction.

Absinthe, a liquor made by distillation, containing alcohol and a number of essential oils, the chief among the latter being the oil of wormwood, to which the deleterious properties of the liquid are in great measure due. The green color of absinthe should be due to chlorophyll, which is usually introduced by the maceration of the liquor with spinach or parsley; but various artificial coloring matters — e.g. indigo, turmeric, or copper sulphate—are frequently employed. The average composition of absinthe is as follows:—Alcohol, 50.00; oil of wormwood, 0.33; other essential oils, 2.52; sugar, 1.5; chlorophyll, traces: water, 45.65. The essential oil—derived from the wormwood—combined with the spirit, produces rapid intoxication. Absinthe is principally made and consumed in France and Switzerland (especially in Neuchatel), and in some parts of the United States. It was first introduced as a febrifuge in the Algerian army (1844), but is now prohibited in the French service. Absinthism, caused by excess in absinthe, is common in France. The symptoms are distinct from those of alcoholic poisoning. Absinthe seems to act directly through the higher nerve - centres, nervous symptoms being the most prominent throughout, appearing first Absolute

in the forms 01 excitation, hallucinations, and terrifying dreams, and ending in delirium or idiocy. See Alcoholism.

Absolute, that which is freed from relation, limitation, or dependence. As an adjective it is therefore applied (1) to the essence of a thing apart from its relations or appearances, and (2) to the complete or perfect state of being. Hence comes its substantival meaning of 'The Absolute' as the self-existent, self-sufficient Being, that which is free from all limitation, the all-inclusive Reality. The absolute in one form or another forms a central feature in the philosophical systems of Spinoza, Schelling, and Hegel. The absolute was made a theme of discussion in British philosophy by Sir Wm. Hamilton, whose denial of the possibility of knowing the absolute gave rise to much controversy. For a view of the discussions which centre round the conception at the present time, see I*. H. Bradley's Appearance and Reality (1S93), with the criticism of it in A. S. Pringle-Pattison's Man's Place in the Cosmos.

In its general sense, absolute is opposed to relative: thus, in physic -, in speaking of the motion of one body through space, we refer to its absolute velocity; in comparing the motion of two or more bodies, we speak of their relative velocity. In music, absolute is used to denote the definite pitch of a musical note, which docs not vary with the pitch to which an instrument may have been tuned, but depends on a definite number of sound vibrations per second. For absolute monarchy, see ABSOLUTISM. For absolute alcohol, see Alcohol. For absolute zero of temperature, see Temperature.

Absolution, originally a legal term, was adopted by the prelatical churches to express the remission of sin, or of certain consequences of sin, in virtue of power committed by Christ to His church. The claim to this power is usually based on Matt. 18:18 and John 20:19-23. In the former of these passages Christ empowers the church to enact conditions of fellowship—what it binds (i.e. forbids) or looses (i.e. pronounces lawful) on earth shall be bound or loosed in heaven. The second passge goes further. There the risen Chri ;t confers, not mi rely on His apostles, but upon all His disciples (r/. Luke 24:47), the Holy Ghost; and then, having thus endowed them with spiritual discernment, he gives them authority to remit or retain sin (;'.<•. to declare the true conditions of forgiveness). From the latter part of the 2nd century the church specially exercised "the power in the case of persons excluded from


its communion because of notorious and enormous sins—vit. murder, adultery, robbery, and apostasy from the Christian faith. Such persons wt re subjected to long and severe penance, but might be absolved by the bishop, who restored them to the church by imposition of hands and prayer. Great changes occurred in the custom of confession. The list of mortal or capital sins was extended; secret sins were secretly confessed; the penitent confessed sins of thought to the priest, after the example of the monks, who confessed such sins to their superior, though he, as a rule, was not a priest. But down to the 13th century absolution was simply a petition for the forgiveness of the penitent. Such is at this day the only form used in the Eastern churches. The doctors of the church regarded the priestly absolution as declaratory, like the absolution in the daily service; or precatory, like that in the Anglican communion office. Largely under the influence of a treatise fabdy a:cribcd to St. Augustire, the view obtained that God forgives through the priest, and the modern form, 'I absolve thee from thy sins,' was introduced. Absolution was then regarded as the one appointed means for remission of mortal sin after baptism. In the Roman Catholic Church absolution from sin can be given only by a priest empowered to do so by his bishop or by the Pope. Absolution from the censures of the church may be given by any cleric authorized duly. The word absolution is also used of certain prayers said over a corpse before it is taken from the church to the cemetery. See Freiburg's Kirchen-Ltxi'kon,s.v. 'Absolution.'

Absolution, Day Of. In the early church public absolutions were pronounced on Good Friday, or on the previous day, Thursday, on which our Lord was betrayed. So St. Ambrose (£/>. xxxiii., Ad Marcellin Sororem) says that 'the day on which the Lord gave Himself for us was that on which penances are remitted in the church.' In the Roman Catholic Church, in the time of Pope Innocent (Innocent, Ep. i., Ad Decent, c. vii.), penitents were absolved only on the Thursday before Good Friday, unless great urgency, such as imminent death, required otherwise. The Emperor Valentinian introduced the practice of civil absolution at the Paschal festival, granting pardon to criminals. Mention is made of this in the Theodosian Code (lib. ix., tit. xxxviii., De Indu/Kent Us Crimiiium, leg. iii. iv. et «'</.). The monks who pleaded for Kutyches at the second Council of F.phesus evidently refer to both the ecclesiastical and civil customs in the granting of absolutions.


Absolutism, the term applied to that type of rule wherein the sovereign is not under constitutional check. Vet even the 'absolute' monarch or autocrat—a Czar —has checks: the instruments of his rule may be inefficient, and there arc limits to the endurance and obedience of subjects. The 'enlightened despotisms' of the 18th century in Europe—those of Frederick II., of Josepn n., and of Catherine II.—were rooted in the maxims of benevolent monarchy, and had for their object strength and contentment at home, so that there might be national power and success abroad. The absolutism of rulers, with active officials, in the middle ages and in modern history, has its analogy to-day in the demand for the concentration of the agencies and efforts of the state, and for the extension of its sphere: the conditions have changed, but the end is the same—efficiency. See Government; Sovereignty.

Absolutists, a name given to a Spanish political party which in 1819 wished to abrogate the constitution of 1812, and to restore the absolute power of the throne. Their opponents—the Exaltados —favortd the constitution which was afterwards abrogated (in 1814).

Absorbents. Anything which absorbs is literally an absorbent, but the term is usually restricted to medical, chemical, physiological, and botanical processes. In medicine, the term is applied to such substances as magnesia, chalk, etc., which absorb or neutralize acid fluids in the stomach; in chemistry, to anything that takes up into itself a pas or a liquid (e.g. to such a drying agent as caustic soda, which withdraws moisture from the air); and in physiology (animal and vegetable), to the vessels by which the processes of absorption are carried on, such as the lymphatics in animals and the extremities of the roots in plants.

Absorption in plants can cnly take place when the substance to be absorbed has been changed into the liquid form of solution; for all food has to pass through the actual cell-walls by a process of csmcsis. In the case of the higher plants, the greater part of the water and dissolved substances which enter the plant do so bv wav of the roots, the root-hairs and the uncuticularized epidermal cells of the yc vnger roots being the actual absorbing parts. In the case of ordinary terrestrial plants, the rcots penetrate among the minute air space* between the small particles of solid earth. Each of these particles is covered with a layer of water adherent by attraction. This water is absorbed by the root-hairs, as also are any salts Absorption

which it has in solution. Moreover, by force of capillary attraction, the water covering the neighboring particles is continuously sucked in, as oil is sucked up by the wick of a lamp. In the case of plants with aerial roots, moisture drops or is deposited on the roots, and is absorbed together with the dissolved dust previously deposited on the roots* external surface. Parasitic plants, again, send their roots into the substance of another plant, and thence derive both their water and dissolved food. But plants do not absorb all the soluble matter brought into contact with their roots. They exercise a selective power; and plants of a given species absorb definite foods approximately in a definite proportion only. The principal elements required by plants are carbon (see Aeration) mtroEen (in the form of nitrates), hydrogen and oxygen (in the form of water): oxygen also in the form ot mineral salts (also in aeration), sulphur (as sulphates), phosphorus (as phosphates), silicon (as silica), chlorine (as chlorides), potassium, calcium, magnesium, and iron. , ,. .,

Absorption of gases by liquids depends on the pressure, the temperature, and the nature of the particular gas and liquid. If the temperature remains constant, and the pressure is altered, the amount of gas absorbed is directly proportional to the pressure (Henry's Law): thus, on? volume of water at 15.5° c., and under ordinary atmospheric pressure, takes up one volume of carbon dioxide; whilst under a pressure of two atmospheres it absorbs an equal volume at that pressure, but, in accordance with Boyle's Law, twice as great a mass of the gas. In the case of mixed gases, Dalton discovered that the quantity of each gas dissolved was such as if the others were absent, the pressure of each component being that which would obtain if it were spread over the whole volume. The volume of a gas dissolved diminishes with the temperature. Thus at 0° c. one volume of water absorbs 1.8 volumes carbon dioxide, at 20° c. half that amount; whilst, on boiling, this gas is entirely expelled. The coefficients of absorption of some common gases are as follows: one volume of water at 15.5° c. absorbs .015 volume of nitogen, .03 of oxygen, 3.25 of hydrogen sulphide, 450 of hydrogen chloride, and 727 of ammonia. Many solid bodies also absorb gases: thus, iron and platinum take up hydrogen, palladium absorbs 936 times its volume of the same gas, and wood charcoal will condense 90 volumes of ammonia. In such cases the gas


may be 'occluded,' and form a solid solution; or 'absorbed,' when it is likely held by an effect of surface tension; or it may even enter into chemical union.

Absorption of light occurs whenever light falls upon a material surface and suffers refraction and reflection. Neither of these phenomena could be produced unless the light penetrated some distance into the substance. The vibrations in ether which constitute light act upon the particles of the substance and set them in motion, which is partlv irregular, and produces heat. This involves an expenditure of energy, and hence the light loses part of its original energy: and this we call absorption. Opaque bodies absorb more light than transparent bodies; and yet it is the very opaque bodies like metals, which absorb a great proportion of the light falling upon their surface, which also behave as good reflectors. That great absorptive power should, in certain cases, be accompanied by great reflective power is not so paradoxical as it might seem at first glance to be. Forabsorption implies a taking in of vibratory energy from the disturbed ether; and the molecules being then set into vibratun, may well become centres from which energy, in the form of light, may pass 'back again into th: ether. Most substances exert a general absorption, so that all kinds of radiation suffer diminution in passing through them; but they also exert a selective absorption, certain rays being more freely absorbed than others. It is this selective absorption which gives rise to the varied tints and colors of bodies, the color of any body being determined by the excess of the corresponding kind of light in the radiations sent back from it or transmitted through it. A great law, first recognized in some of its applications by Prevost, and established independently by Balfour Stewart in Great Britain, and by Kirchhoff and Bunsen in Germany, asserts that a substance absorbs what it radiates, and the emissive and absorptive powers of any substance for each kind of ray are equal. The phenomena of fluorescence form an exception to this so-called law of exchanges. Some of the most striking instances of the law will be found discussed under SpecTrum. See also Dispersion.

"bsorption T,lncs and Bands, dark lines or bands in an otherwise continuous spectrum, produced when the lignt so examined passes through a vapor or other transparent body of lower temperature than tfiat of the incandescent body. Ever}' vapor, under these conditions, absorbs those rays which it would emit if it were

Abstract ot Title

the source instead of the absorber of light.

Abstemll, a name formerly given to those who refused to partake of the cup of the eucharist because of their aversion to wine. Calvinists considered that such persons might be permitted merely to touch the cup; this the Lutherans strenuously opposed. The controversy has recently been revived in regard to the use of unfermented wine.

Abstinence, Total. See TemPerance and Fasting.

Abstract and Abstraction. An abstract term or idea, in the logical sense, is one which expresses a quality or essence regarded apart from the individuals or particular objects of which it may be predicated—e.g. color, man, wisdom. (See Nominalism.) Abstraction is the selective process by which such ideas are formed: for example, in forming the abstract idea of Man, the particular differences which distinguish one man from another are disregarded, and only the qualities common to all men, or those that belong to man as such, are retained. Abstraction in this sense is one aspect of generalization. The terms abstract and abstraction are also used in a depreciatory sense to signify a partial or limited view of a thing, in which the thing, being more or less isolated from its proper context or surroundings, is therefore imperfectly understood. But thinking may involve abstraction in the former sense, without being abstract in the latter-^-i.e. it may abstract from what is trivial, to fasten upon what is real and essential.

Abstract of Title. A brief statement in chronological order of the conveyances and other transactions on which the title to land is based. It may be a bare enumeration of the instruments, etc., constituting the chain of title but it should in all cases contain a sufficient description of the items set forth, with dates, parties, parcel of property conveyed, conditions and covenants, etc., to present a clear picture of the devolution of the title. In this country the abstract is usually compiled from the public records of deeds, wills, etc., though original instruments of title, where available, should also be consulted. In England, where the practice of recording deeds, etc.. has not bfcome common, the title-deeds, which are there carefully preserved, are the usual source" of information in the preparation of the abstract. In both countries the abstract of title is usually furnished by the vender or mortgagor to the purchaser or mortgagee, and becomes in the latter's hands the basis (ot an examination of the title tendered.


Absurdum, Reductio AD. See Reductio.

Abt, Franz (1819-85), musical composer, born at Eilenburg, Prussia; was Kapellmeister at Zurich (from 1841) and at the Hof Theater, Brunswick (from 1852). He visited the U. S. in 1872. He wrote many popular songs, such as 'When the Swallows Homeward Fly,' 'Good Night, My Child' and 'Sleep Well, Sweet Angel.'

Abu is much used in Arabic in the formation of personal and topographical names. The common view is that 'paternity' is -the primary meaning; but see W. Robertson Smith's Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia (1885) for a discussion which assigns possession' as the primary and 'paternity' as the secondary meaning.

Abu/MouNT, in s.w. of Rajputana, India; highest peak, 5,650 ft. Mount Abu possesses a beautiful lake, the Nakhi Talao ('Gem Lake'), also temples of white marble and the most elegant and striking specimens of Jam religious architecture. It is a sanatorium for Europeans. See Fergusson's Hist, of Ind. Architecture (1876), for the temples; Ind. Antiquary, ii (1873); Adams's W. Rajputana Slates (1899).

Abu-Abdallah. See AlBattani and Boabdil.

Abu-Befcr ('father of the maiden') (573-B34) received this name in allusion to his daughter Aycsha, the onlv maiden among the wives whom Mohammed married. A man of wealth and position among the Koreish, as well as a native of Mecca, he was one of the first to believe in the prophet, and was his sole companion in the Hejira; and on the death of Mohammed (June 8, 632) was elected head of the Moslems, with the title of Caliph (khalija, 'successor'). He reigned two years.

Abu-IIamld, or Asu-HAMMED, tn., Egyptian Sudan, on the Nile, 199 m. by rail S. of Wady Haifa, where the caravan highway from Berber crosses the Bishari Desert (240 m.) to Korosko. It was taken from the Mahdists (Aug. 7, 1897).

Abu-Klea, wills on the caravan highway across the Bayuda Desert, between Korti and Metammah, from which it is 25 m. distant. Here Sir H. Stewart defeated the Mahdists (Jan. 17, 1SS5).

A bill fa raj (Lat. Abulfaragius), Mar Gregory John (1226-86), called by the Syrians Bar 'Ebhraya, 'the son of the Hebrew,' but commonly known by his Latinized surname Rar - Hebk/eus, was born at Malatia, in Armenia. After studying Greek, Arabic, and Syriac, he devoted himself to philosophy, divinity, and medicine, completing his studies at


Antioch, where he began his monastic life. Ordained bishop of Gubos, near Malatia, Sept. 4, 1246, he was successively bishop of Lakabhin and of Aleppo, and was maphrian or primate, of Taghrith and the East from 1264 until his death at Maragha. He was 'one of the most learned and versatile men that Syria ever produced' (Wright). Of his many works, the most celebrated is the Chronicum Syriacum, or Universal History. See Assemani's Bibl. Orientalis (1719-25); Gibbon's Decline and Fall; Badger's The Neslorians (1852)—i., p. 97, for epitaph; Renan's De Philos. Peripat. apud Syros (1852); Noeldeke's Sketches jrom E. Hist. (1892); Wright's Syriac Lit. (1894); and Budge s Laughable Stories of Bar-Hebraus (1896).

Abulfeda (1273-1331), born at Damascus; early achieved distinction in the field (against Crusaders and Mongols) and by his pen. He was sultan of Hamah, but a vassal of the Mameluke sultan of Egypt, from 1310 till his death. Of his many works the most celebrated are: a Universal History down to his own day, and a Geography. The History has been edited (with Lat. trans.) by Reiskc, Annales Moslemici (5 vols. 1789-94), and bv Fleischer, Hist. Anteislamica (1831). The Geography has been edited by Reinaud and Dc Slane (1840), and trans, into French by Reinaud and Guyard (1848-83).

Abul Ghazl Bahadur (160563) gave up the khanate of Khiva in favor 01 his son, and devoted himself to writing a history of the dynasty of Jenghiz Khan, since translated into German and French (by Dcsmaisons, 2 vols. 1871-4).

Abulug, pueblo, Cagayan prov., Luzon, Philippine Is., on r. bk. of Abulay R., 14m. N.W. of Aparri. There is a fishing trade, and tobacco, rice and corn are raised. The surrounding country is fertile. Civilized pop. (1903) 8,329.

Abu-Xuyas (7G2-810), lyric and Bacchic poet, born at AlAhwaz. in Susiana. His mother was a Persian washerwoman cmployed in a fuller's yard. Educated at Bassora by the poet Waliba and by Abu-'Ubaida; spent a year in the desert to acquire the Bedouin tongue; at Bagdad was a favorite of the Caliphs Haroun and Amin. Composed elegies, humorous verse, satires, etc., and, in later life, religious poems.

Aburl, tn., W. Africa, in the British colony of Gold Coast, 20 m. N.E. of Accra; botanical station; sanatorium; alt. 1,400 ft.

Abuse of Process. An improper exercise by a litigant of the power to institute and prosecute actions at law or in equity. Every


court of justice has an inherent power to protect itself from the abuse of its own procedure, and to stop an action or to strike out a defence which is frivolous or vexatious. Where any person habitually and persistently institutes legal proceedings without any reasonable grounds, the court in England has power, on the application of the attorney-general, to make an order that no legal proceedings be instituted by that person without the leave of the court. If legal proceedings be taken against any one maliciously and without reasonable cause, he has by the common law a right of action for damages. See MaliCious Prosecution.

Aim-siiniM'l. See Ipsambdl.

Abu-Thubl. tn., Arabia, on an isl. in the Persian G., w. of Oman, principal town of the Banu Yas. It sends 600 boats to the pearl banks. Pop. 20,000.


a. Flower, one sepal removed.

Abuttlon i.-- a genus of ?hrubs, belonging to the order Malvaceae, with maple-like leaves and bellshaped flowers, usually drooping. Thev are desirable garden- and window-plants, although tender. Also called flowering - maple. The velvet - leaf, or Indian mallow, has become naturalized from Asia, in the warmer portions of the United States. It is a bad pest in meadow lands, but contains a fibre which is exported from China as 'China jute,' and which resembles jute. It can be used for cordage, and takes dyes readily. The plant has been experimented uprn in America, in the hrne of making the fibre commercially valuable.

A by ad, or Abiad (Ar.), white, the feminine of which is baida, bcida, or beda: Bahr-el-Abiad, White Nile. See Nile.

Abydos, ancient city, Upper Egypt, near the modern Arabat

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