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The Can and Us Development (1881; 7th ed. 1899): Bartlett's Some Weapons of War (1883): Bond's Treatise on Military Small Arms (1884); Burton's Book of the Sword (1884); Button's Cold Steel: Treatise on the Sabre (1889); and Maindron's Les Armes (1900); also Gerrare's Bibliog. of Guns and Shooting (1896).

Arms, Coat Of, the bearings on an individual shield. Originally embroidered on the surcoat; hence the name. See Heraldry.

Armstcad, Henry Hugh (1828-1906), Eng. sculptor; educated at the Royal Academy, became R.a. in 1879; modelled several of the allegorical groups on the south and east sides of the base of the Albert Memorial, Kensington Gardens, London; carved oak panels in H.M. robins-room in the New Palace, Westminster, illustrating the history of King Arthur and Sir Galahad; and executed many portrait-busts and statues, as that of Lord John Thynne in Westminster Abbey.

Armstrong, port, Baranoff Island, Alaska, is a good harbor.

Armstrong, 'archie' (d.1672), a Scottish sheep-stealer, who became official court jester, and was notorious for his freedom of speech, an example of which was the grace he said in Archbishop Laud's presence: 'Great praise be given to God, and little laud to the devil.' But having ridiculed Laud once too often, he was banished from court, and spent his closing years in luxury in London and in Cumberland. He is introduced by Sir W. Scott into The Fortunes of Nigel. See Doran's Hist, of Court Fools (1858); Chambers's Book of Days, vol. i., pp. 180-5.

Armstrong, David Maitland (1836), American painter and decorative artist, was born at Newburgh, N. Y., and educated at Trinity College, Hartford. He studied art in Paris and Rome, and for four years served as U. S. consul-general for Italy. He had charge of the American Art Department at the Paris Exposition of 1878, and received the decoration of the Legion of Honor. His best known paintings are Twilight on the Tiber and The Column of St. Mark's, Venice.

Armstrong. ]OHN(1758-1843), American soldier and diplomat, was born at Carlisle, Pa., and for a time was a student at Princeton. In the Revolutionary War he was successively aide-de-camp to Generals Mercer and Gates, and fc r a time served against Burgoync. He was afterward Sec. of State. and later Attorney-general of Pennsylvania, and was a U. S. senator from N. Y. in 1801-2, and again in 1803-4. From 1804 to 1810 he was U. S. min


ister to France, and in 1806-10 was minister to Spain. He was Sec. of War in 1813-14, but resigned as the result of the illfeeling aroused by the capture of Washington and the failure of the Canadian expedition. He wrote Notices of the War of 1812 (1836).

Armstrong, Samuel ChapMan (1839-93), American educator and soldier, was born in the Hawaiian Islands. After graduating at Williams College he entered the U. S. army, and in 1863-65 was colonel of the Eighth U. S. Colored regiment, retiring after the close of the Civil War with the brevet rank of brig.-general. He founded and became principal of the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in 1866, and did much there to improve the educational status of the negro and Indian students. For two years after the war he was superintendent of the Freedmen's Bureau for several counties in Virginia.

Armstrong, William (fl. 1596), or Kinmont Willie (from the name of his castle), 'the starkest man in Teviptdale," and the dread of the English border, is known to fame through the ballad of Kinmont Willie, which records his rescue by Scott of Buccleuch, the Scottish warden, from Carlisle Castle (1596), in which he had been imprisoned by the irritated English borderers. Sec Scott's Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, ed. T. F. Henderson (1902).

Armstrong, William George, first Baron Armstrong (1810-1900) was the son of a Newcastle merchant. After leaving school he studied law but after a few years of practice forsook it for scientific pursuits. In 1845 he invented the hydraulic crane and soon afterwards the hydraulic accumulator, besides making many other applications of hydraulic power. The Elswick Engine Works, near Newcastle, were founded for the manufacture of the rifled ordnance gun that bears his name. It was adopted by the government, and in 1859 he was appointed government chief engineer of rifled ordnance. In 1S63, however, it ceased to use the gun, and practically returned to the simpler muzzle-loading type, which it retained until 1HSO. Armstrong, resigning his appointment, returned to Elswick, where he developed his works, which were nov, free to supply heavy ordnance to foreign countries. Besides the Eliwick gun factory, he also founded the Elswick shipyards for the construction of steel warships. He was created a peer in 1887. See his Electric Movement in Air and Water (1897).

Army. An army, in its broadest sense, signifies a body of armed and trained men organized


for warfare. The term is applied to three different things—viz. national, regular or permanent, and field armies. A national army is the total available force of men trained (or partially trained) in the use of arms which a nation can call upon to fight in time of war. A regular or permanent army is that portion of the national army which is actually serving with the colors. Field armies are those portions of the national army which are engaged in a campaign, and arc chiefly composed of regulars and volunteers. In all ages the maintenance of a force of armed men has been a paramount factor of national existence. A large and well-organized standing army is the main element in the composition of a first-class power, though notable exceptions to this rule are furnished by the United States, whose geographical position ana foreign policy render superfluous any great military strength, and Great Britain, whose national defence lies primarily in her navy. The continental military nations of Europe raise their armies on the principle of universal military service—viz. compulsory enlistment, short service in the regular army, and a long period in the reserve. Consequently the armies of the chief continental powers far exceed those of the United States and Great Britain, who follow a system of voluntary enlistment.

The strength of a field army chiefly depends on the nature of the operations to be undertaken, and the character and numbers of the enemy's forces. For example, the four German armies which invaded France in 1870 consisted of 45,000, 136,000, 118,000, and 70,000 men, respectively. Gen. Kuropatkin had in round numbers 700,000 men in his army in Manchuria in January, 1905, and the Japanese army was even stronger. On the other hand, the United States army which captured Santiago de Cuba in 1898 numbered less than 15,000 men, and the British-Egyptian army which completed the conquest of the Sudan in the same year was only 22,000 strong. In the first case the enemy consisted of a well-organized modern army; in the last they were merely savage tribesmen. Though a field army varies in numbers, it is divided into certain parts—companies, batteries, regiments, brigades, divisions, and corps—each of fixed strength. It chiefly consists of infantry, cavalry, artillery, engineers, and commissariat and n^K ical corps. The whole is under the command of one man, who. with the aid of various staffs, feeds, transports, and manoeuvres his troops.


To illustrate—an army in the U. S. service consists of two or more army corps, each of which is composed of the following: three divisions, each having three brigades (9 regiments) of infantry, one regiment of cavalry, one regiment (9 batteries) of field artillery, one battalion of engineers, one company signal corps, four field hospitals, one ammunition column, one supply column and »ne pack train; a total of 58,182 officers and men to an army corps.

Infantry forms the bulk of a field army; the proportions of the other arms depend on circumstances, the chief of which are the nature of the country in which the campaign takes place, and the special character of the operations. In a mountainous country, or a low swampy country without roads, horse and field artillery and cavalry are at a disadvantage, and their proportion to infantry is smaller than if the ground were flat and open. In the Former case the engineers are increased for improving communications. In a country devoid of railways, the quartermaster's department is increased for the extra transport required; where railway lines exist, the engineers are increased for their repair and maintenance, and for operating the roads. For the operations of siege warfare, the heavy artillery and engineers are increased for carrying out bombardments and constructing siepe vorks respectively, ana the mounted troops are decreased. When fighting an unusually mobile enemy, the mounted branches are increased, and the reverse.

Historical Sketch.—1. Ancient armies. The military forces of the earliest times were little better than armed multitudes, possessed of a certain amount of rough organization, but unable to travel great distances, or carry out any very serious operations. In the 16th century B.C., the Egyptian forces under Scsostris, numbering, according to tradition, over half a million men, conquered and laid waste all the country as far cast as India. Chariots and horsemen were important factors in the Egyptian method of lighting; but victory still depended on the infantry, which formed the bulk of the army. The reverse was the case with the well-organized Persian armies which existed about a thousand years later, the horsemen now far exceeding the foot-soldiers. The Spartans, Athenians, and Macedonians were the tirst European nations to possess good armies. The general Greek military organization was on a militia basis, and no standing army \vas maintained. Every freeman was boiind to take up arms at the age of eigh


teen. For the first two years he served at home, but after that, until he was forty, in any foreign country where the state was at war. The most important element in the army was infantry, which was divided into two mam branches, the hoplitai and psiloi. The former were heavy troops, and in action were arranged in the favorite Greek fighting formation, the phalanx—a body of 4;000 men drawn up in lines from eight to sixteen deep generally, although the column was fifty deep at the battle of Leuctra in 371 B.C. The psiloi. were lightlyarmed troops, who carried out the skirmishing duties of the army, harassed the enemy, and hung round the flanks ana rear of the phalanx with the cavalry in time of battle. The Greek army reached the zenith of its efficiency under Alexander. The recruiting, transport, and provisioning branches were all well organized.

The Roman armies which ruled the world from about the 3rd century B.C. to the 8th A.D. were probably the finest, comparatively, that have ever existed, more because of their perfect discipline and organization than because of individual prowess, which had previously been the main features of hostile armies. They were at first formed entirely of militia. Every one between the ages of seventeen and forty-six —except the very lowest and poorest class—could be called on to bear arms in the service of the state. Consular armies were raised every year for some expedition or campaign, at the end of which they returned home and were disbanded. This course was found impracticable for some armies which were employed in very distant lands, and so they were often kept under arms for several years, a fact that eventually led to the formation of a standing army distinct from the militia, by which it was augmented for the prosecution of great foreign wars. The legion, which was the chief unit of Roman armies, was composed, on service, of about 3,OCO infantry and a squadron of cavalry, and was lighter and more extended in formation than the Greek phalanx. It was consequently superior in mobility, and better adapted for offensive operations. The infantry of the legion was divided into four classes—liastati, young men lightly armed, forming the first line; principes, heavily-armed men of great strength, forming the second line; triarii, the oldest men, heavily armed and armored, in the third line; and velites. or light troops, corresponding to the Greek psiloi. The first three classes were each divided into ten manipuli.


commanded by centurions. After the adoption of standing armies the legion was increasecf to over 6,000 men, and was divided into ten cohorts.

Infantry was still the main element in an army throughout the long period during which the Frank and German armies ruled Europe, after they had overthrown the Roman power. All freemen bore arms, and in war were obliged to follow and obey the rulers of their respective tribes. No standing army was kept up, but the warlike spirit of the nation was so strong that it was considered the highest honor to bear arms, and every man was practically a trained soldier.

2. Medieval armies. About the 9th centurv, the 'feudal system,' a form of which prevailed in Egypt about 1900 B.c., and which had been slowly developing for some time past, finally established itself as the basis of European army organization. It arose originally through the young men of a nation gathering round the nobles, serving under their banners in war time and garrisoning their castles during peace. Each of these bands practically formed a small standing army, being paid for their services by gifts of booty or land. The profession of arms came to be regarded in time as an honorable and profitable calling, and the bands grew stronger and more numerous. The nobles owed allegiance to the king, and when the latter required an army it was formed of these feudal bands, supplemented by a levy of militia from the free men of the nation. The Crusades first showed the advantage of co-operation of this kind, although the different armies participating were practically independent ofeach other. The chief branch of the feudal armies was cavalry. It was divided into two classes— the knights and their retainers, the men-at-arms; and the hobelers, or light horsemen. Among the former the horses were protected by armor. The riders were armed with lance, sword, and mace, and were covered from head to foot with very heavy armor, which rendered them quite helpless when unhorsed. Individual skill and bravery counted more than organization and discipline, the decision of a battle being often left to the result of a combat between two knights. The foot-soldiers were also divided into two classes—archers, with bucklc-s and steel caps, ana armed with longbows, swords. battle-a>es, and brownbills; and the li^ht infantry, with iron gloves and long knives. The infantry branch of the army was greatly neglected, its training uncared

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