« السابقةمتابعة »
ed-Din, Shah of Persia, May I, 1896; Empress Elizabeth of Austria, by Lucchcni (anarchist), Sept. 10, 189S; King Humbert of Italy, by Bresci (anarchist), July 28, 1 900; President McKinley, by Czolsgosz (anarchist), Sept. 6, 1901; King Alexander and Queen Draga, of Servia, June 11, 1903; Grand Duke Sergius, Feb. 17, 1905; King Carlos I. and Prince Luiz, of Portugal, Feb. 1, 1908; Prince Ito, of Japan, Oct. 26,1909. Assassins, a fanatical sect which flourished in Persia and Syria from the llth to the 13th century. It was founded by Hassan-ibn-Sabbah, who seized, in 1090, the fortress of Alamut in Persia, where he established his society, consisting of a supreme ruler, the Sheikh el-Jebel, or 'Old Man of the Mountain' of European historians, besides three grand priors, priors, refiks or associates, and the fcdavis, the assassins proper, who, when selected for the commission of a murder, were first intoxicated with hashish (hemp), the origin of the name assassin, from hashishin (hempeaters). This society soon made its power felt, and the reign of its rulers, during and after Hassan's death in 1124, was marked by a long series of assassinations of famous men. The last of their rulers was Rukhn ed-Din, who murdered his father, Mohammed m., in 1255. In 1266 their power in Persia was completely broken by the Mongols under Hulaku, 12,000 of the Assassins being massacred. A Syrian section, which had asserted its political independence in 1169, was subjugated by the Mameluk Sultan Bibars in 1270-3. The crusading chiefs Raymond of Tripoli and Conrad of Montserrat both fell under their daggers. Certain analogies of their doctrine still exist among the Druses and the small Syrian race Ansarii. See Von HammerPurgstall, Geschichte der Assassinen (1818); F. Walpole. The Ansayrii, or Assassins (1851); Guyard, Fragments relatifs a la Doctrine des Ismacliens (1874), and Un Grand Maitre des Assassins au Temps de Saladin (1877). Assateague Island is off coast of Accomac co., Va., s. of Assateague Bay. It has a light-house. Assault. An offer of personal violence to another. Thus, to threaten to strike a person within striking distance, or to shake one's fist in his face, or to present a gun at him when within range, to pull a rosette off his coat, or to incite a dog to attack him, or to attempt to kiss a woman, or to do any act accompanied by circumstances which denote both intention and ability at the time to molest or do violence to the person, is an assault. If a blow is struck or Vol.. I.—28
violence actually used, it is a battery; but the word assault is frequently used in the sense of a battery. Verbal abuse does not amount to an assault. A person actually struck is justified in striking back in self-defence, but not in revenge. His retaliation must, therefore, not be greater than is necessary to put an end to the assault. A person assaulted may either bring an action for damages, or prosecute the assailant criminally, or both. For the purposes of criminal proceedings, assaults may be divided into (1) common assaults, and (2) aggravated assaults. Illustrations of the latter are assaults causing actual bodily harm; indecent assaults; malicious wounding; wounding or shooting at a person with intent to maim, disfigure, or disable, or to resist apprehension; assaults with intent to rob, or to commit any felony; attempting to choke, suffocate, or strangle, or to render any person insensible, with intent to commit an indictable offence; poisoning so as to endanger life, or with intent to injure; using or sending explosives with intent to injure, and the like. These are indictable offences and are usually punishable by imprisonment at hard labor.
Assaye (Asdi), vil.,Haidarabad (Deccan), India. 46 m. N.E. of Aurungabad. Here the British under Wellesley defeated the Mahrattas(Sept. 23, 1803).
Assaying. The term 'assaying' in its widest sense, comprises that section of analytical chemistry which has for its object the estimation of the value of ores and metallic products. In general, two classes of methods are followed: one, the 'dry' or 'fire' assay, and the other the 'wet' or more strictly scientific methods of gravimetric and volumetric analysis, the latter including colorimetric determinations. The chemical reactions in the dry assay are accomplished by the aid of high temperatures obtained in a furnace, while in the wet assay these reactions take place in cold, or only slightly heated solutions. In its limited sense the term assaying is restricted to the determination of the precious metals in coins, jewelry, silver and gold plate and other commercial alloys. The standard assays to determine the purity of these alloys are made at the Goldsmith's Hall, Great Britain, and at the varous government mints and assay offices in the United States and other countries.
It is impossible to present in a limited space a detailed description of all methods of chemical analysis. The reactions vary in each class of work and frequently the manipulation differs according
to the individual practice of the assayer or chemist. The following examples of assaying are selected to illustrate the principal methods of determination.
The first step in assaying an ore or furnace product is to select, by hand or machine, a proper representative sample. Various methods of sampling ore are used, the simplest, called'quartering,' consists in taking every tenth shovelful of ore as it is discharged from the ore cars until about 10 tons have been obtained. This is shovelled into a conical heap, which is then flattened put into a circular cake and divided diametrically into quarters. Two opposite quarters are taken for a second conical heap, which is likewise flattened and quartered, and the operation repeated until the sample has been reduced to a few pounds. This small quantity is then ground until it will pass through a very fine sieve, and constitutes the final sample for assay. Solid metallic products are drilled or punched, the drillings or puncnings forming the sample. Molten products are sampled by ladling out a small portion of the fluid material.
Dry Or Fire Assay Methods. —Copper.—The determination of copper by the fire assay is unsatisfactory for the reason that the results are only approximate. However, it may stifl be of value to prospectors who are in outlying districts, far from laboratories or assay offices.
The fire assay method is modified according to the character of the ore. If an impure sulphide, the ore 15 first roasted to remove sulphur, arsenic, etc.; it is then mixecf with a reducing agent, charcoal or other carbonaceous material, and a flux, borax-glass, the mixture placed in a suitably lined crucible, and submitted to the heat of a furnace, whereby the copper compounds become reduced, and the metal collected in the form of a button at the bottom of the crucible, while the flux combines with the gangue of the ore and forms a fluid slag. When cold, the button is detached from the brittle slag and refined in a muffle furnace by placing it on a clay dish with an equal weight of borax-glass and a little pure lead and heating it until fumes cease to form. The refined button is then weighed.
Lead.—The fire assay for lead ores, though not accurate, is used for the determination of lead by ore-purchasers on account of the rapidity and ease of the operation; as a rule the results are too low. In the Western United States the general practice is to charge in a clay crucible 5 grams of pulverized ore, 15 to 20 grams of lead flux (one or two nails or pieces of iron wire if the ore is a sulphide or is 'base'), place the crucible in a muffle and heat from 15 to 20 minutes. The resultant metallic button is weighed, from which the percentage of metal in the original ore is calculated.
Stiver.—The fire assay for silver in bullion, coin or plate is made by wrapping a half-gram sample in from 5 to 10 grams of pure sheet lead, placing on a bone-ash cupel, and heating in a muffle until the base metals have been oxidized and absorbed, leaving a small button of silver, which is detached, cleaned, and weighed. Silver ores and other compounds are assayed by mixing from 15 to 30 grams each of ore, litharge, and sodium carbonate (depending on the character of the material), and 2 grams of argols; fusing the mixture in a clay crucible until all action ceases. If sulphides be present, a little metallic iron, or nitre, must be added. The molten contents of the crucible are poured into a mould; when cold, the lead button, containing all the silver, is detached from the slag, cleaned, cupelled, and the remaining button of silver weighed.
Gold.—The fire assay for gold bullion, coin or plate is made the same as for silver, except that twice as large quantities are generally used. After fusion, the resultant lead button is cupelled, and the remaining gold is cleaned and weighed. Any base metal present in the bullion must first be removed by sporification. If silver be present, the button of gold and silver, after the removal of the lead by cupellation, must be made to contain two and a half times as much silver as gold; the silver is then readily dissolved by nitric acid, leaving the gold unaltered, which is ignited and weighed.
Tin.—The fire assay for tin is made by taking 5 grams of the ore. 1 gram of charcoal, 15 grams of sodium carbonate, and flour, and 1 gram of borax-glass; cover with a layer of salt; fuse in a clay crucible for an hour or more: when cold, the metallic buttons of tin are detached from the slag and weighed. Or the ore may be reduced in a clay crucible with about five times its weight of potassium cyanide which will yield the tin in a metallic button. The fire assay for tin is not closely accurate.
Antimony.—Stibnite, antimony sulphide, the chief ore of antimony, is reduced by metallic iron in a crucible; or it may be n-duccd by fusing with an excess of potassium cyanide Owing to loss of metal by volatilization, the results are always too low, and gravimetric methods are preferably used.
Mercury. — The fire assay of
cinnabar, mercury sulphide, the chief ore of mercury, is made by heating 1 or 2 grams of ore mixed with iron filings in a porcelain crucible, the distilled mercury being condensed on a weighed gold plate or spiral with which it forms an amalgam. From the increase of weight, the quantity of mercury in the original ore is estimated.
Wet Oh Solution Assays.— Iron.—The percentage of iron in ores is generally estimated by a volumetric method, and in alloys by a gravimetric method. There are two chief volumetric methods: —(1) the permanganate method and (2) the bichromate method. (1) The Permanganate Method is based on the fact that the purple color of a solution of potassium permanganate will be decolorized as long as any ferrous salt remains undecomposed; but the instant the latter is all oxidized to the ferric form, the addition of a single drop of permanganate will impart a pink tint to the solution. A standard solution of permanganate is prepared by standardizing it against a known weight of iron dissolved in hydrochloric acid. In making the assay, from 1 to 2 grams of iron ore, crushed very fine, is dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and as the iron, in whole or in part, is in the ferric form it is reduced to the required ferrous form by means of metallic zinc or sodium sulphite. The standard solution of permanganate is then added until the pink color of the solution becomes permanent. From the number of cubic centimeters of standard permanganate solution used can be calculated the amount of iron present in the original sample. (2) The Bichromate Method requires a standard solution of potassium bichromate which has been standardized against a known weight of iron dissolved in hydrochloric acid, using potassium ferricyanide as an indicator for the'end' reaction. The procedure is similar to that of the permanganate method, the dissolved ore is reduced by metallic zinc or sodium sulphite, and from the quantity of solution required for complete oxidation the percentage of iron can be calculated.
In alloys iron is generally determined by dissolving the alloy in acid, precipitating by means of ammonium hydrate; wash, dry. and ignite the precipitate; and weigh as ferric oxide, from which is computed the percentage of iron in the sample. The presence of manganese, chromium, or aluminium interferes with this method.
Copper.—(l)The Potassium Cyanide Method.—In ores and products free from manganese, nickel, cobalt, silver, mercury and zinc,
copper may be determined by th? potassium cyanide volumetric method. The reaction is based on the fact that potassium cyanide will decolorize a blue ammoniated solution of copper. A standard solution of potassium cyanide is standardized against a known weight of copper dissolved in nitric acid. To make the assay, 1 gram of ore is dissolved in 7 c.c. or nitric and 6 c.c. of sulphuric acid. The solution is cooled, reduced by metallic zinc, the remaining zinc is dissolved by sulphuric acid, and ammonia is added until a permanent blue color is imparted to the solution, the standard solution is run in, and from the quantity required to decolorize, the percentage of copper in the sample is calculated. Should much iron be present, it is first precipitated by ammonia and filtered off.
<£) The Sodium Thio-Sulphate ('Hypo-Sulphite') Process is used for alloys free from large quantities of lead and iron. This process is based on the reaction between iodine and thio sulphuric ncid, the completion being determined by the bleaching effect that is produced upon a solution of starch that is added during the operation. A standard solution of sodium thio-sulphate is standardized against a known quantity of copper dissolved in nitric acid, the end reaction being few drops of starch sol
the end reaction being shown by olution actin as an indicator.
(3) The Colorimetric Method.— Copper in slags and products containing less than 2 per cent, of the metal may be approximately estimated by comparing the color of a known weight in a solution with a series of copper solutions containing 0.01, 0.02, etc., per cent. of copper, kept for comparison. This method yields only approximate results, but can be quickly done.
(4) The Electrolytic Method. — (Gravimetric) Copper in ores. alloys and in other products may be accurately determined by dissolving from half to 3 grams of the sample in nitric acid, evaporating almost to dryncss, adding 1 c.c. sulphuric acid, and diluting with water to 200 c.c. in a beaker in which are placed a platinum wire anode and a platinum sheet cathode connected with a current of electricity. The increased weight of the cathode after the test gives the amount of copper present.
Lead.-^) The Gravimetric Method is used for the determination of lead in alloys and for analyses in which very accurate results are required. By this method the lead is precipitated as lead sulphate containing 68.3 per cent, of the metal. On account of Assaying
the great care and long time required, the gravimetric method has been largely replaced by volumetric ones.
(2) The Volumetric Method is used for rapid and fairly accurate results; the lead is determined by using a standard solution of potassium ferro-cyanide, or of potassium permanganate, or of ammonium molybdate properly standardized against solutions containing given quantities of lead.
Silver.—(1) The Volumetric (Gay-Lussac) Method is based on the affinity of silver for chlorine, by which an insoluble chloride is precipitated. A standard normal solution is prepared by dissolving pure sodium chloride (salt) in water so that 100 cubic centimetres will precipitate exactly 1 gram of silver, a 'dcci-normal' solution also is prepared by diluting a given quantity of the normal solution to one tenth strength. Half a gram of the alloy or bullion is dissolved in nitric acid, 50 c.c. of the normal solution run in, and the liquid well shaken; when the solution is practically clear, add the deci-normal solution until the silver ceases to yield a precipitate. The amounts of normal and dccinormal solutions added, having definite and known values, indicate the amount of silver in the alloy.
(2) The Volhard Volumetric Method.—In the absence of copper, silver may be estimated volumetrically by means of a standard solution of potassium sulphocyanide, using ferric ammonium sulphate as an indicator.
Tin.—Fuse 1 gram of ore with 3 grams each of sulphur and sodium carbonate in a porcelain crucible, cool, dissolve in water, precipitate stannic sulphide by sulphuric acid and ignite to stannic oxide, from the weight of which the percentage of metal in the original sample is calculated.
Zinc.—(1) The Gravimetric Method is a tedious and lengthy method in which the zinc is precipitated as zinc sulphide and later transformed into zinc oxide containing 80.26 per cent, of zinc, or into ammonium zinc phosphate containing 36.49 per cent, of zinc; from the weight of these salts the percentage of zinc in the original ore is calculated.
(2) The Volumetric (Von Schultz and Low) Method is rapid and fairly accurate. In this method a standard solution of potassium ferrocyanidc is used, of which 1 c.c. is equal to 0.01 gram of zinc. The method is carried on in a manner similar to the volumetric methods for other metals.
Antimony.—The percentage of antimony in an ore or alloy is determined gravimetrically by precipitation from the acid solatium
as antimony sulphide which is converted into antimony tetroxide, Sb,O,, from the weight of which the quantity of antimony originally present in the ore or alloy is calculated. A second gravimetric method, which is more rapid but less accurate, precipitates metallic antimony from a hydrochloric acid solution by means of metallic tin.
Sulphur.—Many methods are used for the determination of sulphur, depending upon the character of the sample. Of these methods the following are of importance: (1) Organic compounds: fuse with caustic alkali, dissolve mass in water, oxidize the sulphide to sulphate, add barium chloride which forms barium sulphate, wash dry, ignite and weigh, and from the weight of the barium sulphate thus obtained calculate the quantity of sulphur present in the original sample. (2) Coal: mix 3 grams of coal with 6 grams of pure lime, and heat strongly in a porcelain crucible for an hour. Digest with hydrochloric acid, filter, and add barium chloride to the filtrateto precipitate barium sulphate. (3) Furnace products: oxidize 3 grams of the sample with 4 grams of potassium chlorate and 7 c.c. of nitric acid, evaporate acid, dilute, add sodium carbonate, boil, filter, dissolve the precipitate in hydrochloratc acid, add barium chloride and weigh
Erccipitate of barium sulphate as efore.
See Crookes's Select Methods of Chemical Analysis (3rd ed. 1894); Button's Volumetric Analysis (8th ed. 1900); Furman's Manual of Practical Assaying (1903); Rhead and Sexton's Assaying and Metallurgical Analysis (1902); Derringer's Textbook of Assaying (1902); Rickett's Notes on Assaying (1893); Lodge, Notes on Assaying (1905).
Assegai, the Zulu spear, of which there are two varieties— the long javelin, or throwingspcar; and the shorter 'stabbing' assegai, for use at close quarters.
Assembly. See General AsSembly.
Assembly, National. See France—History.
Assembly, Unlawful. An assembly of three or more persons with intent to commit a crime, or with intent to carry out in common any purpose, lawful or unlawful, win h is likely to lead to a breach of the peace. An unlawful assembly may be dispersed by force, and all parties to it are guilty of a common law misdemeanor punishable by fine and imprisonment. See Riot.
Assembly of Dlvlnrs at Westminster. See Westminster.
Asser, John (d. 909?), bishop of Shcrbornc, was reader to King Alfred from about 885. He is
author of De Reous Gestis Mlfredi Magni, first published in 1572. Best edition by Wise (1722).
Assessment. See Taxation; Rating.
Assessors. Persons associated with a court for the purposes of consultation and advice. The practice of employing assessors in the administration of justice originated with the Roman law and is still extensively employed in the judicial systems of Europe and America. The English Judicature Act of 1873 authorizes the judges of the High Court of Justice to employ them in their discretion, and they are regularly employed in certain classes of cases by the House of Lords and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. In the United States many of the minor courts, as county courts in certain states, sit with assessors, and American consuls acting in a judicial capacity in foreign lands regularly employ them. The function of an assessor is limited to the giving of advice. He does not participate in the judgment. The term assessor is also employed in the United States to describe officers charged with the duty of appraising or assessing property for purposes of taxation.
Assets. Property of a decedent or an insolvent debtor which is available for distribution among creditors. Formerly in administering assets, 'specialty' creditors, or those whose debts arose by virtue of a bond or other instrument under seal, were entitled to payment in priority to simple contract creditors; out now both classes of debts are payable part ptissu out of the assets. In distributing assets of a deceased person, funeral and estamentary expenses are always payable before anything else; then the order of payment out of 'legal' assets is generally as follows: (1) Obligations due to the State; (2) recorded judgments against the deceased; (3) specialty and simple contract debts, and unregistered judgments against the deceased; (4) voluntary obligations. The courts of equity have never recognized the validity of these preferences, and accordingly 'equitable assets'—i.e. property which can be reached only by chancery process-^-are distributed equally to all creditors irrespective of the nature of their claims. The right of an executor to prefer one creditor to another, ana to retain a debt due to himself in preference to other creditors of equal degrees, exists only with regard to legal assets.
In applying assets in payment of debts, the rule is that the general personal estate is to be first exhausted then the real estate; and if both these are insufficient, recourse must be had to the legaAsslento
cies, and to property appointed under a. general power of appointment.
If assets are distributed before the debts are paid, creditors may follow them into the hands of the persons who have taken them. As to administration of assets of a bankrupt or deceased insolvent, see Bankruptcy.
Assicnto (Span, 'treaty'), a contract made between Spam and other powers, by which the monopoly of importing slaves into Spanish America was conferred upon the latter. It was first held by a Flemish company from 1517; then by the Genoese, from 1580; by the French Guinea Company, from 1702; but the treaty of Utrecht (1713) gave it to Great Britain, along with the right of sending yearly a ship carrying 500 tons merchandise to the Spanish colonies — a privilege exercised for twenty-six years by the South Sea Company. Great Britain relinquished that right in 1750 for £100,000 and certain other concessions.
Assignation. Sec Assignment.
Asslitiuits. During the period immediately preceding the French. Revolution, the National Assembly declared the church lands to be national property, and offered them for sale to the various mxmicipalities throughout the country; accepting, in lieu of cash payment, paper notes or bonds of equivalent value, consequently stylca assignats. Later, assignats were issued against the property of the Emigres and the crown. But the simplicity of the system led to a continued issue of assignats (to a total face value of 45,500 million livres), which ultimately became so depreciated as to be almost valueless. Assignats were in circulation in France from 1790 to 1796, being exchangeable in the latter year for mandals, which were called in in 1707, at the value of uAni of the original assignats.
tical in meaning with conveyance or alienation. In practice, however, the two latter terms have generally been confined to the transfer of real property, while assignment is commonly used to denote the transfer of personal property and more particularly of incorporeal rights in personal property, such as stocks, bonds, notes and bills of exchange, debts and other choses in action. In this more restricted sense an assignment is usually effected by a written transfer. The common law imposed restrictions upon the transfer of interests of this character, deeming them contrary to public policy as promoting litigation. They are now, however, generally permitted by statute. In equity they were always recognized. See Chose In Action. The term is used in the more general sense noted above in the expression assignment jar the benefit of creditors, which denotes a conveyance by an insolvent debtor of all his property, real and personal, to trustees for distribution among his creditors. See Insolvency. The Scotch equivalent for assignment is Assignation.
Assimilation, the process by which organisms take up and transform foreign substances into their own tissues, as in digestion and respiration.
Asslnlbola.formcrlyone of the N. \V. Territories of the Dominion of Canada, situated between the 49th and 52d parallels of N. lat., with an area of 90,340 sq. m., but now included in the provs. of Alberta and Saskatchewan. See Alberta and Saskatchewan.
Asslnlboln, Mount, in the Canadian Rocky Mountain system, about 2,1 m. s. of Banff," a station on the C. P. Ry., and near the boundary between the province of Alberta and British Columbia. The first to ascend it was James Outram, in 1901.
Asslnlbolnc ('River of the Stony Sioux1), a river of Brit. N. Amerira, rising in S.K. of Saskatchewan prov., flows S.E. through the former territory of Assinibnia. *o which it gave its name, then through a large part of Manitoba to the Ked R., which it joins at Winnipeg, after a course of about four hundred or five hundred miles.
Asstnlbolncs ('stone boilers'), a division of the Sioux Indians that separated from the Dakotas a short time before the discovery of North America. They formerly ranged from Minnesota to Montana and over the adjacent parts of Canada, living in tents and hunting the buffalo like other Plains Indians. At present they are found on several small reservations in Canada and the United States. See Maximilian, Travels in A'orth America (1S43); Coues,
New Light on the Early History tt) tin; Greater Northwest (1897).
Assls! (the ancient Asisium), tn. and episc. see, prov. Perugia, Italy, 15 m. by rail S.E. of Perugia, the birthplace (1182) of St. Francis Bernardone, founder of the Franciscan order (1209): his bones (since about 1822) have been interred in a crypt underneath the double church of the Franciscan order. These two edifices, both built between 1228 and 1253, stand one above the other, and are adorned with frescoes by Giotto, Cimabue, Memmi, ana others. Below the town the grandiose church of Sta. Maria degli Angeli is built (1569) over the oratory of St. Francis. Here were born the Latin poet Propertius (middle of 1st century B.C.) and the Italian poet Metnstasio (1G98). Pop. (1901) 17,240. See Cruikshanks j he Umbrian Tffiuns (1901).
Assist, St. Francis Of. Sec Francis.
Assistanc c, Writ Of. A chancery process in England and the United States directing the sheriff or other proper officer to enforce an order or decree awarding to the petitioner the possession of lands. It was a perversion of this writ which was employed by the Crown officers in the controversies leading to the revolution of the American colonies against Great Britain to enforce the Acts of Trade and other restrictions upon the trade of the colonies. These writs, the legality of whirh was furiously contested by the colonists, empowered and directed all officers of the customs or other Crown officers to forcibly enter any building suspected of harboring dutiable goods, which had not paid the customs revenue, to take possession of the same, and to levy upon them in the interests of the Crown and in accordance with the then Acts of Trade.
Asslut, AssiqUT. or Slur. (1.) Province (mudirien) of Upper Egypt; area, 840 sq. m.; pop. 782,720, 30,000 of them being nomads. (2.) Capital of aboveprov., between 1. bk. of Nile and Bahr Yusuf; 27° 10' N. lat. It is the site of a Nile barrage and lock. There is a Presbyterian misri.-m here. Pop. (1897) 42,078.
Assize of Clarendon (1166). Henry II.'s first measure of judicial reform, remarkable by its institution, in criminal trials, of the germ of the jury system—the justices and local sheriffs trying accused persons bv grand juries of the county. With the Assia t) Northampton (1176) it was effectual in removing the administrative machinery from the power of the barons. See Stubbs's Select Charters, 140-146 (8th ed. 1895).
Asslies. The sittings of a circuit court—i.e. of a court which moves about from place to place
to try causes. The term is also used in England of the entire round or circuit of such a court, or of its sittings in a certain county or judicial district. In the United States the term 'circuit' is usually employed in this sense. Thus in England the judges of the King's Bench Division of the High Court 'hold assizes," and the judges of the Supreme Court of the United States 'go on circuit." Associate Church of North America. See Presbyterians.
Associated Press. See Press Associations.
Associate Reformed Synod of the South. Sec PRESBYTERIANS.
Association Football. See Football.
Association of Ideas, the manner in which, or principle according to which, ideas or images succeed each other in the mind when their succession is not interrupted from without, or determined by logical thinking. By Hume and Hartley the conception was given a fundamental importance in psychological and philosophical theory, and their general view has been maintained since their time by a line of thinkers to which the name of the Associationist School has been given, and of which the most prominent later representatives have been the Mills and Professor Bain. This is sometimes spoken of as the English School. The philosophical application of the conception has all along been a matter of dispute, while within recent years the purely psychological significance and range of the conception have also been the subject of much critical discussion. Various laws of association have been formulated from the time of Aristotle onwards, but the two most generally accepted are those of Contiguity (ideas that have once been presented together tond to suggest each other) ami Similarity (ideas presented at different times, but resembling each other, tend to suggest each other). It is a disputed question whether one of these two laws is more fundamental than the other and, if so, which. Those who hold contiguity to be more fundamental, argue that the explicit consciousness of similarity involves comparison— i.e. already implies the presence ot both similars before the mind. So that, if we represent tlie similar ideas by A'l' and XZ (resembling each otlier in respect of the common clement A'), the really operative principle of revival is the contiguous association of the common A", now present in A'l', with 7,, its former associate in XZ; and the consciousness of the sin.iiarity of XY and XZ can only exist when XZ has thus been reinstated alongside of XY. But since XZ
is not, to begin with, before the mind, but exists only as a memory trace or residuum, the above analysis implies a process, not in consciousness, by which the present A'_oper^.tes the trace or residuum x in the residual whole xi. This process is called by Ward 'assimilation'; and he points out that such a process is implied in all association, contiguous and similar alike. For in every case the present idea can operate onlythrough the corresponding memory trace, apart trom which it would be a new idea, and awaken no memories at all. And it is a process distinct from that of association, because X and x are not, as X and Z are, distinct ideas before the mind. Thus contiguity remains the only law of association proper but implies the action of a prior law of mental process —prior, because assimilation is implied in perception as well as in memory. From this point of view, a lower limit has been assigned to the action of association, which cannot come inlo play until after a considerable development of perception, since traces of impression serve at first only for the perceptual recognition ot objects \\ithout constituting a distinct memory of them. From the other or higher side, it has been shown that the action of mere association is continually being modified by the thinking process whose material It supplies. See Stout's Analytic Psychology (1898), vol. ii. bk. ii. ch. 5 and 6. For a general view of the place of association in mental life, see Psychology. For more special criticism of the psychological doctrine of association, see Jau;es, Principles of Psychology (1893); KUlpe's Outlines oj psychology (trans.), sec. 27-33 (1N59); anil articles in Mind, July, 18U3, and Oct., 181)4, by Ward. For the philosophical doctrine of associationism, see Hum:: and Mill.
Assolant, Jean Baptiste A. (1827-86), French novelist and journalist, born at Aubusson. He was educated at the Kcole Normale and afterward taught history in several schools, but is best known in the country as the writer of a series of clever sketches entitled Seines de Uivicdes Ktats-V nis (1858), published originally in the Revue des Deux AlonJes, and based upon his observations during a visit to the U. S. in 1852. From this work he charged Sardou with plagiarism, in the play he brought out, entitled L'Ottcli' Sam, but Sardou was acquitted of the charge by a commission of authors. Assolant's other work includes several novels, Brancas (1859). Afarcomir (1.X73), Gabrielle de tkenevert, and Pcndragon (1881).
Assonance, a kind of impcr
feet rhyme consisting in the recurrence of the same vowel sounds. It differs from rhyme proper in paying no regard to the accompanying consonants. (See Rhyme.) fata and care, waver and fairest, are examples of perfect assonants. The oldest romances of the French trouveres are generally assonantal, one vowel sound being often carried through the whole composition; but French poets early rejected assonance and restricted themselves to rhyme. Nevertheless, some of the younger contemporary French poets, in their attempt to widen the range of their lyric poetry, have recently essayed the reintroduction of assonance. In Spain it has more than held its own against the more highly developed forms of rhyme imported from Italy, and has retained its position in the romance (or ballad) metres, in the dramas of Caldcron and Lope de Vega, in popular songs, and in lyric poetry generally. Its most striking development, however, is to be found in Celtic poetry, which compensates for its almost total absence of perfect rhyme by the establishment of a highly artificial and intricate system of assonantal harmonies, which includes not only the usual terminal correspondence of one line with another, but also a further assonance between the terminal word of one line and a medial word in the line following, together with the regular employment of internal 'chiming' within the bounds of the line itself. Assonance is only suitable to languages in which the vowel sounds S-edominate over the consonants, ence, while rejected in English, it is tolerated in Scottish poetry. Assuan, or Aswan, a town of Upper Egypt, at the first cataract of the Nile, near the site of the ancient Syene; lat. 24" 5' N. It is on the Nile railway. Po;>. about 12,000. Here is a barrage or dam, the largest work of the kind in the world, built by the Egyptian government after the design of Mr. W. Willcocks. at a cost of $24.000,000. The dam, which is 2,187 yards long, is designed to form a reservoir rcRiilating the flow of the Nile. It is built of solid masonry, weighing a million tons, with a sloping buttress throughout its length, and having ISO under-sluiccs, which when opened will allow free passage to the early floods—the later annual inundation being, of course. conserved. At its present level the dam will hold up no less than 35 milliards of cubic feet of water; but it is intended (by adding to its present height) tnat it snail In- capable of impounding double that volume of water, thereby, it is estimated, providing for the irrigation of 600,000 acres of su