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Ach«. (1.) Count D" (e. 170075), a French vice-admiral who lost to the British the French possessions on the Malabar and Coromandel coasts of India (1757). (3.) Robert Francois, Vicomte D'AcHE (1757-1809), son of the above, during the French revolution was a leader of the royalist Chouans of Brittany. He escaped to England, returned to France in 1809, ana fell in the Chouan insurrection of that year.
Achelous (modern name, AsPropotamo), largest river of Greece, rises in Mt. Pindus, flows s., and, dividing l.tuli i and Acar11.1111:1, falls into the Ionian Sea opposite the Echinades Is., after a course of about 130 m.
Achenbach, Andreas (1815), German painter of the DUsseldorf school, was born at Casscl. He was a leader of the realistic movement in German landscape painting—especially sea pieces. Typical works: Foundering of the S.S. 'President' (1842); Hardanger Fjord (1843); Ponttne Marshes 1846); Fish Market in Ostend 1866); Flooding of Lower Rhine ,1876). Several of his canvases are in the U. S.
Achcnbach, Heinrich Von (1829-99), German statesman; professor of law in Bonn University. As under-sccretary of state to the Minister for Ecclesiastical Affairs, he defended Bismarck's May Laws in the Reichstag (1872); from 1873 to 1878 Minister for Commerce, Industry, and Public Works; and after his retirement president of W. Prussia, and afterwards of Brandenburg.
Achenbach, Oswald (18271905), a German landscape painter, chiefly of Italian scenes; was born in Dusseldorf; brother of Andreas. From 1866 to 1872 he taught landscape painting at the Diisseldorf Academy. Several of his paintings are in this country.
Achpne. A one-celled, oneseeded fruit, dry, indehiscent, and with a closely fitting pericarp about the seed. The name is usually applied to the fruits of Composites and allied families.
Achensep, or L. Ache.v, 20 m. N.E. of Innsbruck, Tyrol, Austria. Alt. 3,050 ft., measures 5 m. by J m., and is surrounded by mountains 5,000 to 6,000 ft. high.
Aehpnwall, Gottfried.(171972), most important statistician of the 18th century; born at Elbing; lecturer in Marburg (1746); professor of philosophy at Gbttingen (1748), and professor of law there later; first formulated the treatment of statistics as a distinct science in Abriss der neueslcn Slaatswissensrkaft der vornehmsten europdischen Rciche und Rcpubliken(niV).
Achernar = a Eridani, a white star of 0.5 photometric magnitude, showing a spectrum iutermedi
ate between the Sirian and solar types. Its large southern declination of nearly 58° renders it permanently invisible in Europe. The small parallax of 0.043', determined for Achernar by Sir David Gill of the Cape of Good Hope Observatory, corresponds to a light-journey of seventy-six years, and implies that the star exceeds three hundred times the lustre of our sun.
Acheron, riv., Epirus, and another in Bruttium, S. Italy. The name is more famous as applied to one of the five rivers of the lower world.
Acherusla, name given to several lakes, swamps, and caverns which were supposed by the Greeks to communicate with the lower world—e.g. one near Cumoe, in Italy, now the Lake of Fusaro.
Acheval Position, a position taken up by an army on both banks of a river.
Achievement, or Hatchment, in heraldry the shield and accessories fully represented; in a restricted sense, a representation of those of a deceased person exhibited at his obsequies, and framed in black.
Achillas, Greek general and minister of Ptolemy Dionysius, king of Egypt. With L. Septimius he murdered Pompey (48 B.c.), and was assassinated by Ganymede, instigated by Arsinoe, sister of Ptolemy (47 B.C.).
Achlllea, Milfoil or Yarrow, hardy plants, two to four feet high, with yellow, white, or pink flowers, widely naturalized in Europe ana Asia. There are many speciess all easily cultivated, and spreading very freely—some, of alpine habit (A. tomentosa, rupestris, aizoon), suitable for rock gardens; others (A. ptarmica, eupatorium) for borders. It is highly astringent. A. ptarmica. has become naturalized in the United States. A. millelolium is a native species of the West, and has also been introduced from Europe in the Eastern States.
Achilles, son of Pclcus and Thetis, the great hero of the Trojan war on the Greek side. His fate, as foretold by his mother, was either a short and glorious or a long and uneventful life. He chose the former lot, and led his followers, the Myrmidons, to Troy. There he was the special terror of the Trojans, until Agamemnon, the chief leader of the Greeks, wronged him by seizing Briseis, a beautiful maiden, who was his prize. He refused to fight until the death of Patroclus, his bosom friend, at the hands of Hector, aroused him. Thetis brought him special armor from Hephaestus, the god of craftsmanship. He slew Hector and other Trojan champions, but fell himself before Troy was taken, wounded in his
heel—his only vulnerable point, so legend says—by Paris. The story of his quarrel with Agamemnon is the main subject of Homer's Iliad. Achilles is there depicted as the type of Greek early manhood. In the Odyssey he is one of the heroes of the under world visited by Odysseus, and is also one of the characters in Shakespeare's Troiius and Cressida.
Achilles Tatlug. See Tatius.
Achlllps Tendon. See TenDon OP ACHJLLES.
Achllllnl. (1.) Alessandro (1463 - 1512?), philosopher and physician; born at Bologna; taught. at Padua and Bologna; one of the first to dissect the human subject. Achillini was a staunch disciple of Aristotle. The best among his philosophical works (Opera Omnia, 1545 and 1568) is De InteUigentiis. (2.) Giovanni Filoteo (14661538), poet; brother of the above; born at Bologna; wrote // Viriddrio (1513), // Fzdele (1523), and Annotaziont della Lingua Volgare (1536).
Achlll Island, co. Mayo, Ireland, separated from mainland by Achill Sound, crossed by a bridge. It is rocky, with precipitous coasts: has fisheries, cromlechs, etc., ana the stone fort of Dun .1 i.i'.i.s. Area, 36,283 ac. Pop. 4,647.
Achln. See Atjeh.
Achlsh, the king of Gath who sheltered David when he fled from Saul (1 Sam. 21:10 /.). A second Achish was contemporary with Solomon (1 Kings 2:39).
Achmet. See Ahmed.
Arlir.iy. a loch, Scotland > i • m. by | m.), Perthshire, 7$ m. w. by s. of Callander. Its beauties have been described by Scott, Coleridge, and Dorothy Wordsworth.
Achrolto, a colorless variety of the mineral tourmaline found in Elba.
Achromatic I.pik. a compound lens made of glasses of different refractive indices, such that it refracts light without splitting it into its spcctroscopic elements. It thus obviates chromatic aberration. Invented in 1773 by Hall. There is usually a convex lens of crown glass combined with a concave lens of flint glass. See Aberration; Dispersion-Lens.
Achromatopsia. See ColorBlindness.
Achsah, daughter of Caleb. She was promised in marriage to whosoever would take Debir. Othniel accomplished the task, and received her hand (Josh. 15:16-19).
Acid, in chemistry one of a class of substances which often have a sour taste and the 'acid reaction' —i.e. they change the color of litmus from blue to red. Most acids possess both properties. AU acids contain hydrogen, which is replaced by mi tills with the formaAcid
tinn of salts. Some acids contain one atom of replaceable hydrogen in the molecule, others two, others three and more: these are called monobasic, dibasic, tribasic acids respectively, and so on. Salts are also formed from acids by neutralizing with basic oxides, hydroxides, or carbonates. Organic acids, except a few, such as Hydrocyanic acid, the sulphonic acids, etc., contain the group CO.OH, which is called carooxyl; monobasic organic acids have one such group in the molecule, dibasic organic acids two such groups, etc. Acids when dissolved in water are more or less dissociated into ions—the hydrogen ion, to which the specific properties of acids are due, and an ion peculiar to each acid. Thus hydrochloric acid is dissociated in aqueous solution into hydrogen ions, each with its positive charge of electricity, and chlorine ions, each with its negative charge of electricity; similarly, sulphuric acid is dissociated into hydrogen ions and HSOj ions, and on fiirther dilution the latter gives hydrogen ions and SO4 ions. Neutralization is the union of the hydrogen ions of the acid and hydroxyl ions of the base to form water; the other ions of the acid and base remaining unchanged. An acid is strong in proportion as it becomes dissociated. The amount dissociated can be determined from the electrical conductivity of the solution. The relative 'strengths' of acids can be determined: in other ways: thus, by observing the amount of heat evolved when an acid acted on the salt of another acid, Thomsen compared their strengths or 'avidities.' For example, hydrochloric acid has the avidity 100, nitric acid 100, sulphuric acid 49, oxalic acid 24, acetic acid 3. Ostwald compared the volume changes which take place on neutralization, and obtained similar results. Other methods—such as the rate at which the acids invert sugar solutions, and the rate at which they effect the catalysis of methyl acetate—• are also employed. The simplest method of all—that of the replacement of an acid radical of a salt by another acid radical—leads to satisfactory results only when the conditions of such a reaction are attended to. Under one set of circumstances an acid radical can turn another out of its salts, to be itself turned out by the first under different circumstances — examples of 'reversible reactions.'
As used in medicine, acids differ widely in their action. Externally applied, some of them, such as sulphuric, nitric, and hydrochloric acids, act as caustics, and are never given internally, except in a very diluted form. If swallowed pure—as they sometimes are in error—they act as corrosive
poisons. Internally, the above acids, much diluted, stimulate first the flow of saliva, and next that of the gastric juice, which itself contains hydrochloric acid. Nitric acid is also much used as a cholagogue. Insufficiently diluted, when not strong enough to act as corrosives, these acids are gastric irritants, and so interfere with digestion. "When preparations containing vinegar are t?ken to reduce fat, as they often are, the effect is produced by the action of the acetic acid in dangerously affecting the stomach walls. Other acids, such as carbolic and sulphurous acids, are disinfectants. Carbonic and hydrocyanic acids are gastric sedatives, the latter being also the most rapid of poisons. Tannic acid is an astringent, coagulating albumin. Salicylic acid is a valuable antipyretic. See Poison.
Acldallus, Valens (1567-95), philologist and Latin poet: native of Wittstock, Brandenburg; known for his commentaries on Quintus Curtius, Plautus, and other Latin authors, which gained him great reputation as a critic.
Acldaspls, a genus of trilobites of rather small size found in Silurian and Devonian strata. The genus is distinguished by an indistinctly lobated head-shield, a thorax of 9 or 10 segments and a small tail, each segment of the thorax terminating in long spines.
Acldimetry, the process of estimating the quantity of a free acid. Several methods of determination are in use. (1) When acids are mixed with water only, the strength may be determined by taking the specific gravity; (2) by measuring yolumetrically the weight of alkali required to neutralize the acid; (3) by a gravimetric process adapted to the particular acid; (4) by loss of weight, after expelling the acid— this method is generally applied in the estimation of carbonic acid. Full details of these methods are given in Fresenius's Quantitative Analysis (transl. by \Vells, 1897); Sutton's Volumetric Analysis (1896); Lunge and Hurter's Alkali Maker's Pockttbook (1902).
Acidity. The incomplete oxidation of organic substances in the body results in the production of various acids, such as lactic, oxalic, uric, and other acids. A healthy adult excretes by the lungs and skin about 28 oz. of carbonic acid daily, and the acids excreted by the kidneys are equivalent to about 30 grains of oxalic acid. The excess of acid in the body, or acidity, depends mainly on two causes—excessive formation, the result of incomplete oxidation of the food and the tissues; and deficient elimination of the acid formed. These result from overfeeding, insufficient exercise, sed
entary habits, or disease. The skin and mucous membranes are affected by acidity, which shows itself in the skin by attacks of eczema, urticaria, and erythema, and in the mucous membranes by catarrh. In acid dyspepsia there is a regurgitation from the stomach of acid liquid, consisting chiefly of lactic, butyric, and acetic acids. Abnormal acidity of the urine irritates the urinary passages, and causes a deposit of insoluble uric acid in them, leading to the formation of calculi. Similar deposits may occur in the middle coat of tne blood-vessels and in the joints. The treatment of acidity includes active open-air exercise and careful regulation of the diet. Pastry and fermented liquors are particularly hurtful; starchy ana saccharine foods shoum be used sparingly; meat, fish, and poultry may be eaten slowly and in moderation; and skim-milk and lime-water may be drunk. If any form of alcohol is taken, it should be remembered that pure spirits are more easily obtained than good vines, and, largely diluted with some mineral waterj are probably among the least dangerous forms of alcohol. See Digestion' and Dyspepsia.
Acl Beale, or Acirfai.e (Sicil. Jaci), tn. and episc. sc< Catania, Sicily, at the S.e. foot of Ivit. ^3tna, 9 m. N.K. of Catania; has warm sulphur baths, and is visited for sea-bathing. Linen, cotton, and filigree work are manufactured. Pop. (1901) 35.203.
Acls, a Sicilian youth, beloved by the nymph Galatea, was crushed under a huge rock by the Cyclops Polyphemus, who was his rival. His blood was changed ky the nymph into the river Acis. at the foot of Mt. jEtna. Handel composed an opera on the subject.
Ackermann. (1.) Konrad Ernst (1712-71), a German actor of the first rank. Doth in tragic and comic parts. He married Sophie Charlotte Schroder (1714-92), herself a very able actress. (2.) RuDolph (1764-1834) German printseller and lithographer in London; greatly developed artistic illustration; published Forget-me-not, an annual (1825 ff.), Mtcrocosm of London (1808), Westminster Abbey (1812), World in Miniature, etc.
Aeklln, or Acklin's Island (45 m. by 1 to 2 m.), one of the S. Bahamas (largest of Crooked I. group).
Acknowledgment. A formal admission of the execution of a deed or other instrument, made in the presence of an officer authorized to administer oaths, and noted by him on the instrument. The act is in the nature of an authentication of the instrument for purposes of evidence, though it is not in general necessary to its validity. The recording acts in Acland
the United States, however, usually make the due acknowledgment of a deed necessary to entitle it to the priority which a record confers. Acknowledgments are usually made before a notary public or commissioner of deeds, though judges, court clerks, mayors of cities and in some States justices of the peace and aldermen, are empowered by law to take and subscribe the declaration. The term acknowledgment is also technically applied to the admission of indebtedness which keeps an obligation alive and enforcible notwithstanding the bar of the statute of limitations. Generally in order to have this
with him until he had recovered. See Stone's Sketch of Lady Harriet Acland, in Ballads and Poems Reining to the Burgoyne Revolution (1893), and Burgoyne's State oj the Expedition jrom Canada (1780).
Acland, Sir Henry Wf.ntWorth Dyke (1815-1900), English physician, was born at Exeter and educated at Oxford, where he was Radcliffe librarian for more than forty years; and regius professor of medicine (1857-94). The formation of the Oxford University Museum was largely due to his labors. He came to the U. S. with the Prince of Wales in 1860. Among his works are Ox
is no inclination or deviation from the horizontal position. See Magnetism.
Acne. (1.) A. rosacea, or eutta rosea. a congestion of the bloodvessels of the face, resulting in red patches and the formation of pimples. The mo^t severe form occurs on the nose, after long over-indulgence in alcohol, and leads to hypertrophy of the skin. It is trcatea surgically. A milder chronic flush, often seen in women, is alleviated by general attention to health, and the local application of sulphur ointment. (2.) A. vulgaris, the pimples ofteh occurring between puberty and adolescence, is due to poor circulation
effect the admission must be in writing.
Acland, Christian Hen-Eietta Carolina (1750-1815), in American history commonly called Lady Harriet Acland, and famous for her devotion to her husband. Major John Dyke Acland, an English officer, during the Revolutionary \Yar. She accompanied him during the Burgoyne campaign, nursed him when he was seriously ill in Canada and after he was wounded at Hubbardtown (1777). Again, after the second battle of Saratoga, where he was seriously wounded and taken prisoner, she fearlessly sought him out within the American lines—where she was received with all courtesy by the American officers—and remained
lord Museum, with letters from Ruskin (1859; repub. 1803); .\fcmoir on the. Cholera in 185-1; Village Health (1S84).
Acland, J< H . I)vke (d. 1778), soldier and politician, eldest son of Sir Thomas Acland; M.P. for the Cornish borough of Callinpton (1774); was a strong adherent of Lord North's policy; accompanied Burgoyne's expedition to America (1775). lie died from the results of exposure incident to a duel he fought on the question of the valor of American soldiers. His portrait was painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds. See Acland, Christian Henrietta Caroline.
Aclinic I.lne, or Magnetic Equator, an irregular and varying line passing through those points on the globe at which there
and nutrition. Tonics, careful dieting, and the local use of sulphur ointment are the best remedies.
Aetr-motse, or Acemites ('the Sleepless Ones'), communities of monks who in the 5th and 6th centuries, in Constantinople and elsewhere, carried on devotions 'without ceasing' day or night. Excommunicated in 534.
Acolliis, Emile (1826-91), French professor of law and politician, born at La Chltre. He advocated extreme revolutionary ideas. He was appointed president of the legal faculty by the Paris Commune of 1871, and in 1880 became inspector-general of penitentiaries. Chief works: Manuel de Droil Civil (1869-74); Let Droils du Peuple, Cours de Droit Acolytes
Politiqtte (1873); PhUosophie de la Science Politique (1877).
Acolytes, youths in holy orders who assisted in the ritual of the early church; now, candidates for the priesthood in the fourth stage of initiation.
A en ma, an Indian tribe inhabiting pueblos on the spurs of Mount Taylor, in Valencia CO., New Mexico. Their chief village reservation is some fifteen miles distant from Cubero Station, on the Atlantic & Pacific R. R., about sixty miles s.w. of Albuquerque. See 'Bandolier, Archaeological Institute Papers (1890).
Aconcagua. (1.) The most mountainous prov. of Central Chile, between the Pacific and the crjst of the Andes, watered by river of same name; bounded on the N. bv Coquimbo, and on the s. by Valparaiso and Santiago. Area, 6,332 sq. m. Pop. (1895) 113,165. Cap. San Felipe. (3.) Volcano, the highest summit of the Andes and of the New World, in prov. Mendoza, Argentina. Lat. 32° 38' s.; Long. 70° w. Alt. 23.080 ft. The first ascent was made in 1897, by Zurbriggen. See Fitzgerald's Highest Andes (1899).
Aconite (Aconitunf/, MonksHood, Wolfsbane, or Blue Rocket, a genus of the order Ranunculacex, common in temperate regions. A. nipellus, often cultivated in gardens, is a perennial plant from two to six feet high, and has dark-green, deeplycleft leaves, and a long branched head of deep-blue flowers; the sepals a~e petaloid, and resemble a hood, whence the popular name. All parts of the plant are very poisonous. The root has often been mistaken for horse-radish; but whil • the latter is cylindrical, and is often branched, the aconite root is tapering, pointed, and unbranched. The species native to the western United States, as A. Columbianum, are dangerous to grazing life stock. Aconite applied to the skin and mucous membranes produces first tingling then numbness. In medicinal doses it acts as an antipyretic, lessening the force, frequency, and volume of the pulse, and causing perspiration. It is also used externally and internally for neuralgia, lumbago, and rheumatic pains. The symptoms of poisoning are first tingling of the tongue and general numtmess of the mouth, then cold sweats and giddiness, followed perhaps by insensibility, with failing circulation and respiration. Treatment is first emptying the stomach with cither a stomach-tube or an emetic. Stimulants should be given freely afterwards, and the sufferer put into a bed, with hot bottles to the extremities if they are cold. Artificial respiration
A. Calamus is common in the swamps of eastern America, resembling bulrushes, and having tall linear leaves, sharp-edged and sharp-pointed, and about an inch wide. The flowers are arranged like a spike on a naked spadix, the spathe Deing elongated above it, and apparently only ilie continuation of the flower-stem. Itisknown as the sweet flag, and spreads by long, horizontal, and branched rootstocks which are fleshy and warmly aromatic. They were formerly candied, for a sweetmeat, and furnish a stimulative, carminative drug, called calamus.
Acosta, Gabriel D" (c. 15941640), also known as Uriel D'Acosta, a Portuguese of noble birth; born at Oporto; brought up a Roman Catholic; adopted Judaism, but was afterwards ex communicated for opposing the teaching of the rabbis. For the publication of his Examcn dos Tradicoens Phariseas (1624) he suffered fine and imprisonment. See his autobiography, Exemplar Humana Vita: (1847). Gutzkow made him the hero of a tragedy, Uriel Acosta.
Acosta, Joaquui (d. 1852) South American explorer and geographer, born at Guadas, Colombia. He penetrated the northern districts of S. America (1834-45), giving special attention to the history ofthe early Spanish settlements, as in the book Compendia Hislorico del Descubrimicnto y Colonizacion de la Nucva Granada (1S48), and Semcnario de la Nueva Granada (1849).
Acosta, Jose D' (1539-1600), Spanish Jesuit and historian; born at Medina del Campo. He was a missionary in Peru for several years. His famous Historia Natural y Moral de las Indias, written originally in Latin, was first published in Spanish in Seville (1590). It was published in London in English, translated by Edward Grimstone (The Naturale and Morale Historie oj the East and West Indies') in 1603, and a French version by Robert Regnault appeared in Paris in 1606.
Acoustics, strictly speaking, is the science of sound m relation to hearing. (For a discussion of the physical characteristics of the aerial vibrations which produce the sensation of noise see Sound, and for the more purely physiological side of the question see Ear.) The conditions under which an aerial disturbance is audible as sound cannot be described with accuracy. If we confine our attention to musical sounds, or sounds of dclinitc pitch, we know that the number of vibrations per second must lie between two limits; but the limits differ for different ears. Roughly speaking, the lower limit may be Acoustic*
set at from 20 to 30 vibrations per second, and the upper limit at about 70,000. Cases have been observed in which the ear was not sensitive to a certain ranee of high-pitched notes, but could near notes both of lower and of higher pitch. Whs.n the sound has no definite pitch, the condition of audibility seems to be a certain abruptness of change of pressure, such as we have in a tap or a blow. The change may be very slight, but it must be sufficiently abrupt. In judging of the direction from which a sound comes, we require the ears to be at different distances from the source of sound; or, to express it more accurately, the ears must be affected simultaneously by the same disturbance in different phase. For example, if a sound be produced at a point in the plane which passes medially through the head and bisects at right angles the line joining the ears, it is impossible for the hearer to say where the sound comes from.
An important practical branch of acoustics is the construction of musical instruments, the aim being to produce tones pleasing to the ear. It is here that the far-reaching principle of resonance finds its earliest and most familiar illustrations. By suitably-constructed cavities or tubes, within which the air vibrates naturally in definite periods, sounds having these pcriod.s are powerfully reinforced. In this way we produce the various qualities of tone associated with trumpets, organ pipes, flutes, and wind instruments generally. It is well to distinguish between true resonance, in which the body, sympathetically vibrating to the original sound, absorbs energy and gives it forth again, and ordinary reflection or echoing, in which the sound is simply thrown bark from 9- surface, such as the walls of a hall, a rock, or a forest. The application of acoustic principles in the construction of a large nail is still little understood. Experience has led to the construction of rectangular halls, and the reason is obvious. A hall with part of its walls in a circular form must of necessity give rise to focal concentration of rays of sound after reflection; and if the hall is large, a person placed at such a focus will hear the original sound and an echo separated distinctly in time. Lord Raylcigh's Theory of Sound (1 vols., 2nd ed. 1894-0) is the most complete treatise on the subject. Hclmholtz's Tonempfinaungen, or Sensations of Tone (Eng. trans., 2nd ed. 1SS5), is one of the classics of scientific literature, and discusses in a masterly manner many of the most profound problems connected with the sense of hearing. Sec also
Sabine's Architectural Acoustics (1900).
Acoyapa, or San Sebastian, tn., Nicaragua, dep. Chontales, Central America. Pop. 6,000.
Acqul, tn., Italy, and cpisc. see. prov. Alessandria, on the Bormida, 21 m. s.w. of Alessandria, with hot sulphur springs (mentioned by Plinv, xxi. 2); temp. 115°-1676 F. The Gothic cathedral dates from the 12th century. Pop. (1901) 13,940.
Acquired Characters. See Heredity and Weismann.
Acquisition. A term of popular rather than of legal meaning, signifying the acquirement of territory by the state or of real property by an individual. See ConQuest; Occupation; Title.
Acquittal. The judgment of a court of criminal jurisdiction absolving a person accused of crime. The term applies to a favorable decision on a technical defence (as that the act charged does not constitute a crime or that the prosecution is barred by pardon or by the statute of limitations) as well as to a verdict of 'not guilty' after a full trial, but not to a discharge by a committing magistrate nor to the failure ofa grand jury to find an indictment. An acquittal upon a verdict after a full trial is both at the common law and under the federal and State constitutions in this country a bar to a second prosecution for the same offence. Sec Jeopardy.
Acquittance. A written discharge of a debt or other money obligation. To be effectual an acquittance, if based upon part payment only, must be by release under seal or by accord and satisfaction. Where full payment is made an ordinary receipt or any other written acknowledgment of payment is a sufficient acquittance.
Acre, an American and British land measure, equal to 4,840 sq. yds. or jju sq. m. Forty rods (Rom. quarenlena; Eng. furtone—i.e. 'furrow-long1) by one rou make one rood; the acre was made up of 4 roods lying side by side. An early law (33 Ld. I.) defined the acre as 40 perches in length and 4 in breadth; by Geo. IV. c. v. s. 74, the imperial acre was established for land measurement throughout the United Kingdom. Being used in colonial days in America, it has persisted and the public and other lands are divided on this basis. A table of land measures of the world will be found under Weights And MeasUres.
Acre, St. Jean D' (Turk. Akka; O.T. Accho: N.T. Plolemais; the Ace of Strabo), city and seaport, Syria, on promontory at foot of Mt. Carmel. The city is famous for its many sieges:—(1) 1104, taken by first Crusaders, and re
taken by Saracens (1187); (2) llfll, taken by third Crtisaders. under Richard Coeur de Lion ana Philip Augustus, and handed over to Knights of St. John (Fr. Si. Jean, whence its modern name), and retaken by Saracens (1291); (3) 1517, captured by the Turks; (4) 1799. besieged for sixty-one days bj Bonaparte, who failed to take it owing to tne heroic defence made by Sir Sidney Smith and Jczzar Pasha; (5) 1832, taken by Ibrahim Pasha, and held by him for eight years; (6) 1840, captured by cornpined British, Austrian, and Turkish fleets. The older fortifications, much breached, may be traced outside later ones. Pop. 11,000 (S,000 Moslems; 3,000 Christians, Jews, and others).
Aerl, tn. and prov., Calabria, S. Italy. The town is on the Mucone, 20 m. N.N.E. of Cosenza Pop. (1901) 13,132.
Acrlslus, king of Argos, and father of Danae, whom he shut up in a tower, because an oracle had foretold that her child would kill him. See Danae and PerSeus.
Acrobat, literally one who walks on tiptoe, but commonly applied to a person who practises feats of personal agility, such as tumbling, vaulting, and particularly walking, dancing, etc., on rolling balls, pyramids of chairs, etc., and especially on the slack or tight rope, a feat which was popular among the ancient Greeks and Romans. The Chiarinis and Koltcr were famous in this line, and, in the 19th century, Farioso Madame Saqui, Diavolo, ana Blondin. See Morton's ed. of Le Roux and Garnicr's Acrobats and Mountebanks (1890).
Acrocoraunlan or Ceraunian Mountains, Albania on Adriatic coast, European Turkey, lat. 40° 15' N.; highest peak, Tcnika (0,300 ft.); forms Cape Linguetta or Glossa (Acroceraunia), 40 m. E.N.E of Otranto.
Acrolfln, or Acrylic AldeHyde, CH2CH.CHO, is a colorless liquid with a most pungent odor, and violent action on the mucous membrane. It is prepared by distilling glycerin with a dehydrating agent, and its presence is the partial cause of the peculiar odor of burnt fat. On oxidation it yields acrylic acid.
Acrolltbs, ancient Greek statues of wood, or of ordinary stone, with marble head, arms, and legs. They were frequently covered with" thin plates of g9ld.
Acrnnicic:>ly< a disease causing general enlargement of the bones, especially those of the head, feet, and hands; usually occurring between the ages of twenty and forty. most frequently in females, and lasting for ten or twenty years before death. The cause is still uncertain, though disease of the