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Baslllkon Doron

this number (365) that the name Abraxas is formed, as its letters, according to the Greek computation, make up 365. The later Basilidians became more and more imbued with the philosophy of the Stoics, and they abandoned altogether that obedience to the moral aw which their master strongly inculcated. See Schaff's History of the Christian Church,i\. (1891).

Baslllkon Doron, a work on the art of government, written (1599) by James vi. of Scotland for his son Prince Henry, and memorable as containing the king's own statement of the doctrine of divine right.

Basilisk, the name given by the Greeks and Romans to a fabulous monster possessed of many marvellous attributes, its glance alone being sufficient to kill, and its breath being the concentration of the most deadly poisons. It has been applied by zoologists to certain American tree-lizards which, despite their hideous appearance, are poth harmless and edible. In Basilicas milratus the head is covered by a scaly, distensible cap, the so-called helmet.

Basin, Geological. A depression in the rocks at the earth's surface caused by differential movements, by folding, or by erosion. When extensive faulting has taken place, a considerable area may be brought to a lower level compared with its previous position, thus producing a depression with more or less abrupt walls. Rift valleys partake of this character and are well illustrated by the great rift valley of Central Africa in which lie the large lakes of Tanganyika, Nyassa and Albert Nyanza. Basins formed by folding occur in mountainous regions where the strata have been bent by compression into synclines and troughs. The coal-fields of Pennsylvania afford examples of this type. (See SynCline). Erosional basins are those produced by the erosive action of water or ice upon the earth's surface. Most river basins have been formed in this manner.

Baskervllle, John (1706-75), English printer, was born at Wplverlcy, in Worcestershire. Without any special training he started type-founding (1750) and printing in Birmingham. His books are chiefly reprints, including Virgil (1757), Milton (1758), Juvenal( 1772-3), Addison, Horace (1770>, and the New Testament (1763). He was also the inventor of vellum paper.

Basket, a vessel made of willows, osiers, twigs, or splits interwoven, mentioned frequently in the Bible, and represented in the monuments of ancient Egypt. The ancient Britons were famed for their baskets, which found favor in Rome after the occupa

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Basket

basket, and the smaller for weaving the bottom and sides. Should the latter be applied to ordinary work, they are taken whole; but for implements of slight and finer texture, each osier is divided into 'splits' and 'skeins.' Splits are osiers cleft into four parts by an implement consisting of two edge tools placed at right angles, whereby the rod is longitudinally divided down the pith. These are next drawn through a machine resembling the common spokeshave, keeping the grain oi the split next the wood or stock of the shave; while the pith is presented to the edge of the iron which is set in an oblique direction to the wood. In order to bring the split into a shape still more regular, it is passed through another instrument consisting ola flat piece of steel, each end of which is fashioned into a cutting edge like that of an ordinary chisel. The flat is bent round, so that the two tdgcs approach each other at a greater or less interval by means of regulating screws, and the whole is fixed in a handle. By passing the splits between the two edges they are reduced to skeins, the thickness of which is determined by the intervals between the edges of the tool.

The implements required by a basket-maker are few and simple. In making an ordinary basket, the osiers arc laid out in a length considerably greater than that of the finishea work. They are ranged in pairs on the floor parallel to each other, at small intervals, in the direction of the longer diameter; and this may be called the woof, for basket-work is, in fact, a web. These parallel rods are then crossed at right angles by two of the larger osiers, with the thick ends towards the workman, who places his foot upon them, and weaving each alternately over and under the parallel pieces first laid down, he confines them in their places. The whole now forms what is technically called the 'slat' or slate, which is the foundation of the basket. Next, the long end of one of the two rods is taken and woven under and over the pairs of short ends all round the bottom, until the whole is woven in. A similar process is applied to the other rod, anil then additional long osiers are woven in until the bottom is of the desired size, and the woof is occupied by them. Thus the bottom, or foundation on which the superstructure is to be raised, is completed, and this latter part is accomplished by sharpening the large ends of as many long and stout osiers as may be necessary to form the ril>s or skeleton. They are forced or plaited between the rods of the bottom, from the edge

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towards the centre, and are turned up in the direction of the sides: then other rods are woven in and out between each of them, until the basket is raised to the requisite height. The brim is finished by turning down the perpendicular ends of the ribs, while a handle is made by forcing two or three osiers, sharpened at the end, down the weaving of the sides, close together. They are then pinned fast about two inches from the edge. After the osiers have been bound or plaited the basket is complete.

In many parts of the world houses, fences, and gates are formed of basket or wicker work: as also are screens, chairs, and trays.

Basketball was invented in 1891 by James Naismith under a suggestion from Dr. L. H. Gulick that there was an opportunity to fill in the time between the football and the baseball seasons with an indoor game. The first printed statement about the game was made in 1892 and the ame was taken up and met with avor at once. It was played by the Young Men's Christian Associations at first, and then the athletic clubs, National Guardsmen, schools, and colleges took it up. and now (1906) it has a large and increasing following, the colleges devoting almost as much time and care to the game as to their football. It is also played extensively in girls' schools and colleges. There are leagues all over the United States and championship games are held in each.

Basketball is played on any floor free from obstructions with 3,500 square feet of space. The ball is round, is made of a rubber bladder covered with leather, is not more than 32 inches or less than 30 inches in circumference, and may not weigh less than 18 or more than 20 ounces. The baskets are hammock nets of cord suspended from metal rings 18 inches inside diameter. The rings are placed 10 feet above the ground in the centre of the short side of the playing floor and the inside rim extends six inches from a rigid supporting surface, which, if not a wall of trie building, must be a special background which shall measure at least six feet horizontally and four feet vertically, and extend not less than three feet above the top of the basket.

The playing floor, according to the present rulest is 50 by 70 feet with the basket in the middle of the short end. In the middle of the floor is a circle with two feet radius. Twenty feet from the middle of each basket, at right angles to the back line, is the centre of another circle with a radius of six feet, and at right angles from the back line to the circum

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Basking Shark

ference of this circle two parallel lines arc drawn, each being three feet from the middle of the basket, making a line six feet wide extending out into the floor. In the line-up there are five players on each side — centre, right and left guards, and right and left forwards. Guards are opposed to forwards and centre to centre. The officials are referee, umpire, scorer, and timekeeper. The duties of the officials are about the same as those in football, upon which the game is modelled. The game consists of two halves of twenty minutes each with a rest of ten minutes between.

The referee puts the ball in lay, the centres standing with oth feet within the centre circle, by tossing up the ball in a plane at right angles to the side lines to a greater height than either of the centres can jump, and so that it will drop between them. The ball may be batted or caught by the centre men. Centres must not stand more than two feet from the spot indicated by the referee where the ball is to fall when the ball is put in play anywhere but in the centre. The ball may be batted or thrown in any direction with one or both hands, but a player may not run with it. A goal is made by throwing or batting the ball into the basket of the opposing side and counts two points. Goals froni fouls count one point and the side having the highest score at the end of the game is the winner. A foul allowed by the referee permits the player on the opposing side to have a free throw for the basket at a distance of not less than 20 feet from the basket. Authority, Snalding's Official Basketball Guide, published yearly.

Basket-Fish, an echinoderm related to star-fishes, sea urchins, etc. The basket-fish belongs to the Ophiuroida, but is distinguished by the peculiar and elaborate ramification of its arms. Its body, which is five-sided, is 2 or 3 in. broad, while its arms are

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account. The common name refers to the fact that the anima! is fond of lying at the surface of the water, with the upper part of the back exposed.

Basnage, Jacques(! 653-1725), French Protestant clergyman; born at Rouen, where he became minister of the Reformed church. At the revocation of the Edict of Nantes he went to Rotterdam, where he was chosen (1691) pastor of the Walloon church; and in 1709 he was transferred, in the same capacity, to the French church at The Hague. He is one of the best of the _ church historians, his books being accepted by Catholics and Protestants alike. He published Histoire de la Religion des Eglises Reformers (1690; much enlarged 5n 1725), Histoire de I'Eglise definis Jesus Christ jusqu? a present (1699), and Histoire des Jui/s depuis Jesus Christ (1706). See Mailhet's /. Basnage (1881).

Basoche, or Bazoche, a corporation of clerks of the Parliament of Paris, to which, about 1303, Philip the Fair granted special privileges, exempting its members from the jurisdiction of the common law. It survived to the revolution. See Fabre's Eludes Hisloriques sur les Clercs de la Basoche (1856).

Basque Road, Thk Action IN. The French fleet, which had escaped from Brest, was, in April. 1809, ranged below the island of Aix, and was there assailed by Lord Cochrane with a British fleet. The boom was broken by one of Cochrane's fin-ships. The French began hurriedly to get under way, and panic and confusion arising among them, all but two ran aground. The vessels actually destroyed beyond repair were three ships of the line, a 50

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fad Cochrane been properly sun ported by Gambier, all wouli nave been destroyed. See Cochrane's Autobiography of a Seaman (1890); Chatterton'sMemoria/jo/ Gambier (1861).

side, the Spanish provinces of Biscaya, Guipuzcoa, and Alava. and the Pamplona district of Navarra; on the north, one-third of Basses-Pyr£n£es. _ A language of Basque type was in prehistoric times common to the inhabitants on both sides of the Pyrenees. Euskaldunac, Euskaldcna, and Euskara are the native names of the people, countrv, and language respectively. The primitive Iberians have further, according to latest ethnographic evidence, to be grouped with the Ligurians of Italy, wnosc original home is traceable to the Mediterranean. The Ligurians, again, are. from evidence of craniology, archaeology, etc., concluded to have been prehistorically settled in the valley of the Po and Rhineland. The Ligurians, it is further held, were spread over all Italy, as also Sardinia, Corsica, ana

Basques

bints the Iberians and Picts in the term 'Ibero-Pictish.' Gabelenz has (1894) compiled 780 examples of verbal resemblance and structural correspondence between the Basque tongue on the north and the Berber tongue on the south of the Mediterranean. There seems ground, then, for the assumption that the Basques are descended from the aboriginal race of Europe.

The Basque language belongs to the agglutinative type, modifications oTmeaning and grammatical relations being denoted, not by inflection or by prepositions, but by adjunction and postfix. It lacks general and abstract concepts. Basque has only two conjugations—one for the intransitive verb, and to express the verb to be; the other for the transitive verb, and to express the verb to have. To the European the enunciation is about as hard as the grammar. The tongue is differentiated into as many as twentyfive dialects (L. L. Bonaparte), many mutually unintelligible.

R. Collignon, after most searching investigations, concludes that the physical traits of the Basques, out of all relation to those of any other type, assign them indisputably to the Hamitic branch of the whites, N. African or European (Afro-European). According to E. Rcclus, 'there is no Basque type." Among the Basques there are two forms of physique: the one tall, fair, ana long-headed; the other short, dark, and roundheaded. The two are blended in a long range of proportions, yet, on the whole, the Basques are

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Basques

the face narrowing rapidly towards the pointed chin. The complexion is generally fair; the eyes gray or blue; with blond hair, nign - ridged nose, upright figure, square shoulders, strong limbs. The Basques are further distinguished by their vigor and hardihood, sobriety and industry, gayety, proneness to sing, dance, and play games, by their frankness, hospitality, pride, love of independence, and; promptitude to avenge insult. They are noted as the best sailors of Spain. Peculiar are certain usages, such as the couvade the wearing of the beret and the zinta (belt), etc. The Basque dramas, in large part survivals of the morality plays, still, in spite of cur£s, are yearly performed and witnessed with great enthusiasm in the French cantons of Tardets and Maulfion. Peculiar are also some of the agricultural implements.

On the seaboard the Basques are engaged in commerce and fishing; inland, in agriculture and

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year 1876. They still, however, retain a certain administrative autonomy and some commercial privileges.

The literature of the Basques is of very narrow compass. A few words in Basque occur in L. Marineo Siculo's Cosas illustres y excellenles de Espana. (1539). The oldest printed relic of the Basque tongue dates from 1545—B. Dechepare's Lingua Vasconum PrimitHZ. There are some five hundred volumes in the Basque language, nearly all translations from Latin, French, and Spanish. Other Basque books betray the French or Castilian culture of their authors. The Basque dramas—pastorales—are, it appears from the discoveries of Mr. W. Webster, editions of French chap-books. The Basque traditionary legends, comprising fortyseven stories, have been published (1877) by Mr. W. Webster. There is a collection of wider range published by Vinson, Le Folk-lore du Pays Basque (1883). Ignatius

Bast

Vinson's Lcs Basques el le Pays Basque (1882); Mann's Dtnkmaler der Baskischen Sprache (1857); Prince L. L. Bonaparte's La Langue Basque et les Langues Finnoises (1862); Inchauspe's Le Peuplc Basque: sa Langue, son Origine, etc. (1894); A.H. Kcane's Man, Past and Present (1899).

Basra, Bassora, or Bussorah, tn. and nv. pt. on the Shat-el-Arab 70 m. from Persian Gulf, Asiatic Turkey; head of navigation for steamers drawing nineteen feet of water. River steamers ply between this port and Bagdad, 200 m. farther N. The district around is marshy and unhealthy. The exports for 1900 exceeded $7,500,000, the bulk of which was in wool and dates. Its imports consist of silk, woollen, and cotton goods. Founded in 632 by Caliph Omar, Basra was long one of the most important centres of trade, and a place of historic note in Arabic literature. It was visited by Marco Polo in the 13th century. Pop. 18,000.

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pastoral pursuits. The Basque Provinces are the centre of the iron-mining of Spain.

Pamplona (Pompeiopolis) testifies to the foundation of this town by Pompeius (74 B.C.). The Romans did not, however, succeed in imposing their language on the Basques. Routed, alter a long and obstinate resistance, by the Visigoths about 680, a portion of the Basques sought refuge in Gascony. About 920 the Basque countries were consolidated into the kingdom of Navarre, which was ultimately incrrporated in the kingdom of Spain. The Basques still, however, retained their jucros or assemblies, one in each province, safeguarding their home rule. When, in 1832, the fueros were abolished by the Cortes, the Basques offered such stout resistance as to cause their reinstatement. In the insurrections of 1833-7 and 1873-6 the Basques fought gallantly for Don Carlos, grandfather and grandson. The jueios ended with the

Bas-rclie/s front the Parthenon, Athens.

Loyola and Francis Xavier were
Basques.

Trie total population is reckoned at about 610,000, of whom 65,000 are in Bayonne, 60,000 in Mauleon, 150,000 in Navarra, 180,000 in Guipu/coa, 10.000 in Alava, and 145,000 in Biscay. Of recent years there has been a heavy emigration, especially to the Argentine Republic, Mexico, and Cuba, where Basques arc counted to the number of 200,000.

See Michel's Le Pays Basque: sa Populalionr sa Langue (1857); Garat s Origines dcs Basques de France et d'l-.spagne (1K69); J. F. Blad6's Etudes sur I'Origine des Basques (1809); GabclenU's Die Venvandtscliaft des Baskischen mil den Berbersprachen Norda/rikas (1894); Gcze's 'De Que/ques Rapports entre les Langues Bcrbere et Basque' in Ali-m. Sac. Archfol. du Midi de la France; 'La Civilisation Primitive dans la Sicilie Orientate,' in I'Anlhropntngie (1897); Cenac-Moncaut's Hist. desPeupiesPyrineens(W4);

Bas-relief (Fr. 'low relief), or Basso-rilievo (Ital.), in sculpture, a form of relief in which the figures or objects represented are raised upon a flat surface or background, slightly projecting, so that no part of' them is entirely detached from it. When the figures stand out half of their proportions, the term used is mezzo-rilievo (middle relief); and when they project more than half, the words used arc alto-rilieuo ('high relief). The finest known example of bas-relief is the frieze ot the Parthenon, copied in the design of the Athenaeum Club in London. Bas-reliefs were invented by the Egyptians, and their use in sculpture extended to India, Media, Persia, Greece, and Rome. See Sir C. Eastlake s Basso-rilicvo.

Bass, in music, is the lowest and most important part of all harmony. In earlier times it was common to write the bass notes alone of a composition, and place figures to indicate the construeBass

tion of each chord: this was termed a 'figured bass.* Bass is also the name given to the lowest male voice.

Bass, any of several fishes, both fresh-water and marine, allied to the perch. In the United States the name commonly refers to the two closely related game fishes of our rivers and lakes, the largemouthed and the small-mouthed black bass of the sunfish family (Centrarchidae). The former is the larger, sometimes 10 Ibs. in weight, and prefers quiet southerly waters, while the latter is more active, abounds in clear, rapid rivers and lakes, and has spread widely east of the Allegnanies, since the opening of the Erie and other canals. Both are favorites of the angler, taking a fly as well as baited hooks, and giving as much excitement in the catching as do gamy trout. Both are excellent eating; and have been extensively cultivated and transplanted by methods of fishculture. Various smaller and less attractive, yet interesting species, as the grass bass, red-eye oass, and others, abound in the streams of the Mississippi Valley.

The salt-water bass include many well-known species of Serranid&e, of which the original 'bass' (Morons labrax) of the European coast is a typical and valuable example; it is sometimes 2J ft. long. In eastern America the name oelongs primarily to the rock or striped bass (Roccus lineatus), a handsome fish, caught in large numbers for market, and also a favorite with anglers, when it enters the bays and estuaries in spring to spawn. It is characterized by the series of dark longitudinal lines ornamenting its sides. Several close relatives permanently inhabit the rivers and landlocked lakes of the interior of the United States, one of which is the excellent white bass, or white perch, of the Great Lakes. The term 'sea-bass' is applied to various other active and gamey sea-fishes as the weakfisn and drum of the Eastern coast, and the white sea-bass of California, the latter a near relative of the Eastern bluefish. See Jordan and Evermann, American Food and Game Fishes (1902); Henshall, Book oj the Black Bass.

Bass, Edward (1726-1803), American P. E. bishop, was born in Dorchester, Mass., and graduated (1744) at Harvard. He was licensed to preach as a Congregationalist, but took orders, in England, in the Episcopal church, 1752, and became rector of the church at Ncwburyport, Mass. He espoused the American cause in the Revolutionary War, and was consecrated first bishop of the reorganized church in Mass., 1797, and his jurisdiction was ex

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tended over New Hampshire and Rhode Island.

Bass, George (d. 1812), English explorer, was a native of Aswortny, Lincolnshire. After qualifying as a surgeon in London, he was appointed to H.M.S. Reliance, in which he served on the Australian coast with Flinders in 1796-1800. The strait between Tasmania and Australia which bears his name was, with Flinders Island, chartered by the two officers in 1798. See Flinders's Observations on the Coasts oj Van Diemen's Land (1801).

Bassandyne, or Bassendyne, Thomas (d. 1577), was a printer and bookseller at the Nether Bow, Edinburgh, who issued the first Bible printed in Scotland. Bassandyne commenced with the New Testament, which bears his imprint on the title, and the date 1576; while the Old Testament bears the name of Arbuthnot, and the date 1579. SeeDobson's.H*rf. of the Bassandyne Bible (1887).

Bassano, tn., prov. Viccnza, Italy, 53 m. by rail N.W. of Venice; stands on the high 1. bk. of the Brenta. It possesses a cathedral, manufactures straw hats and silk, and in the vicinity grows wine, olives, and asparagus. Pop. (1901) 15,097.

Bassano, or Jacopo Da Ponte (1510-92), Italian painter, called Il Bassano from his birthplace; noted as the first Italian painter of genre, and of landscape treated in the modern spirit. In his Biblical subjects he introduced episodes of contemporary country lifej his coloring is of fine Venetian quality; his horizons are bathed in delicate gray twilight. His best work is an altar-piece of The Nativity, in Bassano. Among his other works are— Rest during Flight (Ambrosian Library, Milan); Assumption (S. Luigi, Rome); Presentation (Pinacoteca, Vicenza); The Good Samaritan, once belonging to Sir Joshua Reynolds: two portraits in the National Gallery, London; and three pictures in Edinburgh. See Kuglcr's Italian Schools of Painting (Layard ed., 1887).

Basse, or Bas, William (d. 1653), English poet, was the author of numerous poems on country life. He lived most of his life near Thame, in Oxfordshire, as the retainer of a nobleman there. He is chiefly known by his Epitaph on Shakespeare (1633); and was also the author of Sword and Buckler (1602) and Urania (1653), though this latter has been assignee! to a second William Basse. See Corser's Collectanea Anglo-Poctica, i. 199-208 (1860-83).

Basseln. (1.) Town in Thana dist., Bombay Presidency, India, 28 m. N. of Bombay. It contains the ruins of a Portuguese fortress

Basset Hound

and of many churches. Pop. (1901) 10,702. (2.VTown in dist. of same name, Pegu • division, British Burma, situated on the 1. bk. of the Bassein R. Pop. (1901) 31,372.

Basses -Alpes, dep., S.E. France, on w. slope of Alps, forming the Italian frontier on the N.E. The area is 2,685 sq. m. The whole department is drained by the Durance R. On all sides high mountains (reaching 10,000 ft.) surround it. The chief peaks are Chatne du Parpaillon in the N., Mt. Pflat in the E., Mt. des Trois Eveches in the s. The climate is severe, except in the lower valleys, where even the olive tree grows. Good pastures are found, but deforestation has spoiled large tracts of mountains. The natural beauties of the department attract many visitors. Cap. Digne. Pop. (1901) 115,021.

Basses-Pyrtnees, the most s.w. department of France, forming the boundary of Spain along the ridge of the Pyrenees, and facing the Bay of Biscay for 17 m. between the Adour and the Bidasspa. The ridge of the Pyrenees rises slowly from w. to E.; the principal peaks are Pic du Midi d'Ossau(9,465 ft.)and Pic du Palais (9,765 ft.). Some twentysix passes lead from France to Spain, including the famous Pass of Roncevaux.' The department has about the same limits as the former province of B£arn, but the s.w. is really Pays Basque. The inhabitants, Basques and Bearcats, have for centuries kept their characteristic customs, especially in the mountainous districts. The plain of Beam is well cultivated. Extensive forests clothe the mountains, and the streams yield abundance of fish. There are copper mines and stone quarries, ran and Biarritz are noted health resorts. Area, 2,943 sq. m. Pop. (1901) 426,347.

Basse-Terrc, seapt., S.W. side of Basse-Terre or Guadeloupe, proper, w. half of Guadeloupe, W. Indies; cap. of island. Pop. (1901) 7,838.

Basseterre, seapt., s.w. side of St. Christopher (St. Kitts), Leeward Group, W. Indies; cap. of island, and has good trade, especially m sugar and salt. Pop. (1901) 9,962.

Basset Horn (Ital. corno di bassetto), a rich-toned wind instrument, invented in Bavaria about 1770. It is similar to and fingered like the clarionet, but has additional low kevs and a prolonged bore, which enable it to sound the octave C, this being equivalent to F below the bass clef, as the instrument is tuned in F.

Basset Hound, a kind of dog originating in France, where it is used to turn game out of cover

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