صور الصفحة
النشر الإلكتروني


woodlands. It has forking fronds, assuming a horse-shoe shape and spreading horizontally at the top ol a slender, darn, shining slip-;. It is used for basket making by the North American Indians.

Adlaphora (Gr., 'indifferent things'), in ethics, are such actions as lie between the spheres of good and of evil. The Stoics g^ave currency to the word in this sense, and Cicero (De Finibus, iii. 10) translates it by 'indifftrens.' The Adiaphoristic controversy troubled the Reformed Church in Germany for a few years subsequent to 1548. In that year the Emperor Charles V., desiring to heal trie breach between Catholics and Protestants, prescribed a certain rule of faith and ritual as binding on all till some permanent form should be promulgated by a general council. Thereupon the Elector Moritz of Saxonv urged Melar.chthon and his followers to declare what portions of the document they were willing to accept, and they decided, in the Leipzig Interim, to regard certain customs and tenets (/•£., the use of candles, pictures, Latin hymns, but notably the doctrine of justification by faith) as indifferent —adiaphora. This was more than the stricter followers of Luther would allow, and there ensued a bitter controversy.

Adlge River (Lat. Athesis, Ger. Etsck), in Austria and Italy, rises in the RhaHian Alps in Tyrol (alt. 5,003 ft.). After a swift descent to Glarus, it traverses the Vintschgau eastward: at Meran it bends s., flowing past Botzcn, Trent, and Roveredo; thence S.E. past Verona to Badia, and finally E. to the Adriatic. In its lower course the Adige is connected with the Pp by canals, and is itself canalized. Length, 250 m., of which 120 are in Italy. It is navigable up to the confluence of its chief tributary, the Eisach, 190 m.

Adi Granth, the sacred book of the Sikhs, first redacted in the IGth century. It consists in great part of poems and legends, and is exalted in its ethical and intellectual tone. A second granth was composed in the 17th century. Sec Trumpp's Adi Granth (1877) and Die Religion der Sikhs (1881).

Adlgrat, A Dig Herat, Addi GarAht, or Ategerat, town, Tigr£, capital of province Agame, Abyssinia, about 90 m. south of Massowah, at the summit of the Abyssinian plateau. It is an important market, and the centre of several routes. Altitude, 8,5OO ft. Mount Aleghia (10,490 ft.) is near it. Pop. 2,000.

Adlpocere is a white or yellow waxy substance that is formed in corpses buried in the absence of air. It is probably a collection of the fatty acids present. Adipose Tissue. See Fat.

Adirondack Park, a park area in the Adirondack region of New York, was established in 1892. It comprises all of Hamilton, and the adjacent portions of Essex, Franklin, St. Lawrence, Warren, and Herkimer counties, and contains 3,475,000 acres, of whicli me State owns about 1,200,000. The entire tract is under the direction of the Forest, Fish, and Game Commissioner, and is policed by fire wardens, game wardens, and foresters. The region is mountainous, and for the most part is densely wooded, comprising large areas of virgin forest, and embraces over a thousand lakes and ponds well stocked with game fish. Many private preserves and summer resorts are included within its borders. The park is visited annually by thousands in search of health and recreation. At Saranac Lake there is a sanatorium for consumptives.

Adirondack*, specifically a group of mountains in Northeastern New York, occupying Clinton, Essex, and Franklin counties. The name has been extended to embrace nearly all the territory lying between Lake Champlam and the valleys of the St. Lawrence and Mohawk Rivers. The mountain section culminates in Essex County, the tallest peaks being Mount Marcy, the highest land in the State"(5,:H4 ft.), Mclntyre 03,112 ft.), Skylight (4.920 ft.), Haystack (4,918 ft.), and Dix (4,'JIO ft.). The central masses are of granite, hypcrsthene, and other Archiean rocks. The physical features of the region have a general northeasterly and southwesterly trend, and are heavily scored by th^ Pleistocene ice sheet which traversed them from north to south. Toward the west and south the country assumes the form of a great plateau, elevated from 1,500 to 1,800 ft. above the sea; and this section has received the distinctive title of the lake region, owing to its profusion of lakes and ponds, among them Big and Little Tupper, Raquette, the Fulton Chain, Blue Mountain, and Long Lakes. In the mountain region, Lake Placid and the Upper and Lower Saranac Lakes arc the largest. Much of the Adirondacks is heavily forested with beech, birch, and maple, with some areas of spruce and nemlock, and a few remaining pines. The State holds about 1,400,000 acres as a forest preserve, the larger part lying within the Adirondack Park (q. v.). The wild beauty and healthfulness of the Adirondacks attract many summer campers and tourists; and for the sporLsman there are deer, hares, and partridges, a few bears and wildcats, and a plentiful supply of game fish.

Adls Abeba, or Anras Abbeba (finfini), capital of Abyssinia, in

Adjutant General

the midst of mountains, near one of the sources of the Blue Nile. Founded in 1885 as a pleasure resort, it is an important place of trade. Telegraph lines connect the capital with Harar and Jibouti, and a railroad to Harar is under construction (1910). Pop. (1909) 33,000.

Adit, a horizontal shaft into a mine from the side of a hill. See Mining.

Adjective. See Parts Of Speech.

Adjudication, in a general sense, is the decision of a court of law on a question of law or fact arising in an action. Specifically, it is the final judgment in a bankruptcy proceeding. See BankRuptcy; Judgment; Res JudiCata.

Adjustment of Average. See Average; Insurance, Marine.

Adjutant, an East Indian stork (Leplaplilus dubiits), characterized by its naked, flesh-red neck and throat, and large throat-pouch. Owing to its practically omnivorous habits, whereby it eats offal, troublesome reptiles, and so forth, it is protected as an efficient scavenger in the towns of India.

Adjutant, a staff officer of a post, battalion, squadron, or regiment, whose duties are to assist the commanding officer in the details of military work. The adjutant of a regirnent of infantry or cavalry in the U. S. service holds the" rank of captain. Each infantry regiment has three extra first lieutenants who are adjutants of its three battalions, and each cavalry regiment three squadron adjutants of similar rank. The tenure of office is four years, unless sooner relieved. Ever)' army post has an adjutant detailed from the officers on duty thereat, and each artillery district has an adjutant; also each independent small command in the field.

The adjutant is appointed by the commanding officer, and assists him in the training, discipline, and administration of his command. He is responsible for the proper keeping of all records and rosters of duties in his command; also for the receipt and distribution of all orders from higher authority, and for the issuance, in proper form, of all orders of his commanding officers. Consult U.S. Army Regulations.

Adjutant General, the military staff officer who stands in the relation of adjutant to the commanding general, and who ai-sists him in the details of his duties, such as issuing orders, receiving and executing orders from higher authority, consolidating and forwarding reports, rt-gulating the details of service, etc. See Army Of The United States. Consult U. S. Army Regulations.


Adjuvant, part of a prescription intended to aid the action of the base or principal drug.

Adler, Cyrus (186.J), American Orientalist, was born at Van Buren, Ark. From 1884 to 1893 he was successively fellow, instructor, and associate professor of Semitic languages in Johns Hopkins. He was special commissioner of the Columbian Exposition to Turkey, Tunis, Algiers, and Morocco, 1890-92; librarian of the Smithsonian Institution, 18921905, and assistant secretary, 19058. In 1908 he became president of the Dropsie College for Hebrew and Cognate Learning, in Philadelphia. He is also president of the American Jewish Historical Society, and a director of the Jewish Theological Seminary. He wrote The Shojar (1893), and, with Allan Ramsay, Told in the Coffee House (1898); also edited the Jefferson Bible, and wrote numerous papers on Jewish antiquities and American Jewish history.

Adler, Felix (1851), American educator, was born in Alzcy, Germany. He came to the United States in 1857; was graduated at Columbia University in 1870| professor of Hebrew and Oriental languages and literature there in 1874-70; established the New York Society for Ethical Culture in 1870j and became professor of political and social ethics at Columbia in 1902. In 1908-9 he was Theodore Roosevelt exchange professor to the University of Berlin. His works include Creed and Deed; The Moral Instruction oj Children; Lileand Destiny; Religion oj Dutv.

Adler, Friedrich (1827-1908), German architect and historian of art, was born in Berlin. He travelled extensively in Europe and Asia Minor, and returned to teach in Berlin. He carried out the designs of the Christuskirche and Thomaskirchc at Berlin, and made valuable researches into ancient architecture in connection with excavations in the Peloponnesus. Among his .works are Baugcschichtliche Forschungen in Dculsthland; Die Baueeschichte von Berlin; Die Weltsl&dte in der Baukunst.

Adler, Georg (1803), German economist, was born in Poscn. He was professor of sociology at the University of Basle, and proft-ssor of political economy at the University of Freiburg. He is an opixjncnt of radicalism in social policy, and has published Karl Marxsche Kritik (issii); Jnternationalcr Arbfitrr-Schutz (1KSS); Stoat ntid Arbeitslosifkeit (1S>4); Die Socuil-Refurm im Altcrliim (1898); Gcschichte dcs Sorwlismus and Communismus (1900): Die Bedrulung dcr Illusionenjur Polilik und saddles Leben (1901).

Adler, George T. (1821-68), German-American lexicographer,


was born in Germany. After graduating at the University of New York, he was for eight years (1846-54) professor of German there. He is best known for his German-English Dictionary (1848) and German Grammar (18G8).

Adler, Hermann (1839), Jewish rabbi, was born in Hanover, Germany. He taught in the Jews' College, and for nine years preached in the Bayswater Synagogue. In 1891 he succeeded his father, Nathan, as chief rabbi of the United Hebrew congregations of the British empire. He is president of the Jews' College, and one of the vice-presidents of the Mansion House Council for the Dwellings of the Poor. In 1909 he received the degree of c.v.o. from St. Andrews, and of Hon. D.C.L. from Oxford. He has published Ibn Gabriel and Scholastic Philosophy; Jewish Reply to Dr. Colenso; Can Jews be Patriots>; Anglo-Jewish Memories.

Adler, Jakob Georg ChrisTian (1750-1834). Danish Orientalist; one of the best Arabic scholars of his day; author of an interesting treatise on the Cufic MSS. in the University of Copenhagen (1770), and of the celebrated Nmii Testament! Versiones SyriMac (17S9). In 178993 he edited Abulfida's Chronicles in Arabic.

Adler, Nathan Marcus (1S0390), chief rabbi, was born in Hanover, Germany. Having filled the office of chief rabbi of the duchy of Oldenburg, and later of Hanover, he was in 1844 elected chief rabbi of London, where he played an important part in the reunion of the English congregations. He

Eublished Ncthinah Lager, a Hercw commentary on the Chaldce paraphrase of the Pentateuch.

Adler, Samuel (1809-91), Jewish rabbi of German-American nationality, was born at Worms, and educated at Bonn and Giessen universities. For fifteen years (1842-57) he was rabbi of congregations in Rhine-Hesse, when he was called^ to the Emanuel Temple, New York City. He was a learned scholar and a man of advanced and progressive views. His books include Jt-tvish Conference Papers (1880); Benedictions (18S2).

Ad libitum ('according to taste1), a musical term authorizing the use of discretion wilh regard to the tempo of the passage; or, in concerted music, indicating that the part thus marked may be omitted. - Also a common expression, meaning 'to an indefinite extent.1

Admetus, king of Thessaly, and husband of Alcestis who died to deliver her husband from death, but who was rescued from Hades by Heracles. See Euripides' Alcestis; Browning's Balaustion;


Meredith's Phoebus wth Admetus; Lowell's Shepherd oj King Admctus.

Administration, in law, is the settlement of the estate of a deceased person. This is effected through the agency of one who is known as the personal representative, because he represents the person of the deceased in his legal relations. When designated oy will, this representative is known as an executor; when not so designated, as an administrator. In either case, the personal representative acquires title at once to the personal property of the deceased, subject to trie obligation of paying the debts, funeral expenses, and legacies, so far as the assets received by him 'enable him to do so; or, if there be no bequests, subject in the same way to the claims of those entitled by law to the surplus assets. The administration of an estate comprehends every act of authority exercised by any one, whether rightfully or not, over the personal estate of a decedent. It begins with the taking possession of any part of the property; it includes the collection and settlement of claims by suit or otherwise, the payment of debts and legacies, etc and it does not end until the final accounting and discharge in the probate court. The administration of estates is everywhere subject to legal supervision. In the United States it is executed by probate and surrogates' courts. See AdminisTrator; Assets; Executor; ProBate; Will.

Administrative Law. See ExEcutive.

Administrator. A person appointed by the Probate Court to administer the estate of a deceased person when the latter dies intestate, or when he dies having made a will, but having left no executor. If an executor dies without having distributed the estate, an administrator de bonis nan is appointed—i.e.. of the property not yet distributed. The next of kin is generally appointed administrator, but in default ofanv other person a creditor can obtain letters of administration. The functions of an administrator are mainly the same as those of an executor; but while the latter can do many acts before obtaining probate of the will, the former, who derives his title from the court, can do nothing before administration is granted to him, except acts necessary for securing perishable property and acts of necessity or humanity—e.g., feeding animals. An administrator is allowed a fixed period (usually a year or eighteen months) from "the death of the intestate before he is obliged to distribute the estate, so that he may have time to deal with all claims against it. He

1. Admiral George Dewey. 3. Admiral David G. Farragut. 2. Admiral D. D. Porter. 4. Rear-Admiral W. T. Sampson. 5. Rear-Admiral R. D. Evans. 6. Rear-Admiral W. S. Schley.


Admirable Crlchton

should as soon as possible advertise for claims against the estate; and until he has done this he cannot safely distribute the property. The office of an administrator, unlike that of an executor, does not at death devolve upon his legal representatives, but a new administrator must be appointed. In the United States an administrator is usually entitled by law to remuneration in the form of a commission on the moneys received and disbursed by him. Sec Administration Of Estates; ExEcutor.

Admirable Crlchton. See Crichton, James.

Admiral (butterfly). Sec Red Admiral.

Admiral. The title of a naval officer of the highest rank. It has been in use among maritime countries since the 13th or 14th century. In its earliest application in England, the title was used only for the official in supreme command of all the naval forces, and it was not until 1311 that it became of general use in application to all commanders of fleets and squadrons. The functions of admiral had previously been discharged by officers in the king's service known as 'Guardians of the Sea,' 'Leaders and Constables/ * Justices,' 'Captains and Keepers of the Sea.' The office of Lord High Admiral seems to have been first created about 140C), and vested in John, Earl of Somerset.

The increase of the British fleet demanded an increase of admirals, and the grades of vice-admiral and rear-admiral were established. Admirals in command of great fleets were styled 'admirals 01 the fleet' while so commanding. This afterward became art honorary rank, to' which admirals are appointed afler virtual retirement from active service.

United Status.—The American Navy derived its organization chiefly from the British, ami adopted British naval titles; but no rank above that of captain was actually conferred until !S(i2, when the grades of commodore (hitherto a courtesy title given to captains commanding squadrons) and rearadmiral were successively established, and the corresponding rank conferred upon David Glasgow Farragut, whose previous rank nad been that of captain. In ISul Congress established the grade of vice-admiral, and in ISilti that of admiral, and in each case Farragut was promoted to the new rank. Since their establishment the grades of admiral and vice-admiral nave been held as special honorary grades to which oMuvrs m:iv be appointed for particularly distinguished service in war. The officers who have attained the rank of admiral are David G. Farragut, David D. Porter, and George


Dewey; those who have held the rank of vice-admiral are David G. Farragut, David D. Porter, and Stephen C. Rowan. At present (1011), Admiral Dewey is the only admiral, and there are no viceadmirals, but the increasing size of the United States fleets has caused efforts to be made to have the rank of vice - admiral conferred upon the rear-admirals commanding the North Atlantic and Asiatic fleets, as each of these officers has from two to six rear-admirals commanding divisions or squadrons of the fleet under him.

Flag ollicers of the navy take rank with general officers of the army as follows: Admirals with generals, vice-admirals with lieutenant-generals, rear-admirals (first half of list) with major-generals, and rear-admirals (second half of list) with brigadier-generals. All officers of the navy are retired at the age of 02, but the age of retirement is extended for those officers- who, receive the thanks of Congress for specially meritorious and important services. For admiral's table of pay, see Pay Department; for personnel, see Navy, U. S.

Admiralty, the administrative and supreme executive bodv of the British royal navy. Until the beginning of the l.">tli century the naval affairs of the country were conducted bv the King's Council. From 1406 "until 1028 there followed successive lords high admirals. The office was then put into commission; and its powers, with but one or two short intervals, have been ever since vested in the Admiralty authorities, now known officially ns the Commissioners for Executing the Office of I-ord High Admiral of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, etc. The organization as it stands at present (1!U1) consists of a first lord, who has under him four naval lords, a civil lord, and a financial secretary. The senior naval lord, who is always an admiral of high rank and general experience, practically fills the position of commander-in-chief or the navy. See Clowes' Roy<il -Vux'y.

Admiralty Court, a court of great antiquity in England in which the lord high admiral or his representative exercised limited jurisdiction over matters arising on the high seas. In the rccoristitution of the courts by the Judicature Acts, 1S73 and IST.'t, the functions of the Admiralty Court were transferred to the 1 ligK Court of Justice.

Admiralty I*aw. See MariTime Law.

Admiralty Division. See SuPreme Cotrt.

Admiralty Inlet, east arm of Pupet Sound, Washington, connecting it with Strait of Juan dc Fuca. Greatest width, 10 m.,


navigable for largest ships. Seattle, Tacoma, and Port Townsend (qq.v.) are upon this inlet.

Admiralty Island, belonging to the United States, N.E. of Sitka, between Chichakov and Baranov Islands and mainland of Alaska; lat. 58° 20' N., long. 13-1° 30' w. Length 90 m. Contains extensive deposits of coal and copper, and is well wooded.

Admiralty Islands, a group in the Pacific Ocean, N. E. of JTew Guinea, between lat. 2° and 3° S., long. 140° and 147° E., belonging to Germany. The largest is nearly GO m. long. The islanders are sh'ort. and have dark brown skins ana crisp, curly hair.

Admiralty Sound, 43 m. long, is an extension of the Strait (if Magellan, penetrating Tierradd ruego.

Admission, in law. See ConFession; EVIDENCE.

Admonltlontsts, the supporters of a Puritan memorial callc-d An Admonition to tin P&lietncnij issued by two clergymen alx>ut I.j72: and also of a second document, which similarly urged the advantages of the Presbyterian method of ecclesiastical government as opposed to that of the Church of England.

Adoa, Adowa. See Adua.

Adobe (Span.; Anglicized into doby, pi. d.ibu-5, in New Mexico), the sun-dried brick of Spanish America and ancient Egypt, Asia, and .North Africa.

Adolescence, the period between the ages of thirteen and twenty-live with bovs, and eleven and twenty-one with girls, during which the human body and its functions mature. The development of the organs of reproduction which takes place during this period is commonly accompanied in both sexes by general physical and mental instability, due to new functioning in the Ixxly and the widening of the sphere of the feelings and desires. At this time, too, when the diseases of childhood are losing, and those of maturity are gaining, in power, the boy or girl is peculiarly liable to the lighter forms of both.' Adolescence is the crucial period in the development of character, the whole future depending on how the newly acquired powers are organized ana directed. SeePuuERTY. Consult Hall's.lrf-oInrrnte (2 voLs., 1004); Lindheim's Saluti Juvntutis (1008); Mcndoussu's L'Ame de FAdolescent (11)09).

Adolphus, or AnOLPH (?1255OS), king of Germany, was elected king of the Romans on the death of Rudolph of Hapsburg (1292), but, disgusted with the German princes, he formed an alliance with England. He accepted sums of money from the latter, but failed to supply the help against France to which he had pledged himself. For seizing Meissen and other

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districts Adolphus was summoned before the assembled princes, and, refusing to obey the summons, was deposed in 1298. In the same year he was killed in battle with his successor, Albrecht.

Ailnniil. a Hebrew name for God. A don means 'lord,' and Adonai is probably a 'plural of excellence.' The final » means 'my.' but the original possessive signification came to be ignored, as in 'monsieur,' 'madonna.' See J Ehovah.

Adonai Shomo. See ComMunistic Societies.

Adonl, or Aowani, town, province of Madras, India; 64 miles from Bellary. It has cotton and silk manufactures, especially carpets. Pop. 30,000.

Adonic Verse consists of a dactyl and a trochee, and was so called because the songs sung at the festival of Adonis (q. v.) were written in this metre.

Adonljab. (1.) The fourth son of David, king of Israel, was the next heir to the throne on the death of Absalom, but was set aside in favor of Solomon, who caused him to be put to death (1 Kings ii. 22) on the charge of conspiring for the crown. (2.) A Levite teacher to the Judaeans (•2 Chron. xvii. 8). (3.) One of the 'chiefs of the people' after the Captivity (Neh. x. 16).

Adonis, a beautiful youth beloved by Aphrodite. He was slain by a boar while hunting, and the goddess, coming too late to his rescue, changed his blood into flowers. Her grief was so great that Pluto, the god of Hades, allowed him to spend six months of every year on earth. A yearly festival was celebrated in honor of Adonis, and consisted of two parts—a mourning for his departure to the under world, and a rejoicing for his return to Aphrodite. The myths connected with Adonis belong originally to the East. They display a worship of nature conjoined with that of the heavenly bodies, and Adonis himself appears to be the god of the solar year.

Adonis, a small genus of the Ranunculacese. A. autumnalis (Pheasant's Eye), found in European cornfields, is about 12 inches high; Mower terminal, small, and bright scarlet with a black centre flowers in autumn. A largerrlowered variety is cultivated in gardens as Flos Adonis. A. vernalis has large yellow flowers, opening in early spring.

Adonis Gardens, small jars containing lettuce and other quickly growing plants, used by the Greeks in their annual fes

Vol. I.—Oct. '13

tival of Adonis; typical of shortlived beauty. Plato (Phad., 276) and Shakespeare (1 Henry VI. I. 6) allude to them; and Isa. xvii. 10 (R. V. margin) reads 'plantings of Adonis.

Adoptlanlsm, a heretical doctrine regarding the person of Christ, allied to the tenets of Nestorius, which, arising in a crude form in the fourth century, was recast toward the close of the eighth century, and maintained in Spain by Elipandus, archbishop of Toledo, and by Felix, bishop of Urgel. These held that Christ was the Son of God only in His divine nature; in His human nature He was, like the rest of humanity, but a child of God, becoming the Son by adoption. Charlemagne summoned various synods (Ratisbon, 792; Frankfort, 794; Aixla-Chapelle, 799) to deal with Felix and his teaching. Adoptianism was condemned, and Felix deprived of his bishopric. Its ablest opponent was the English monk Alcuin. The subject remained under discussion, first by the schoolmen, to be revived by Georgius Calixtus of Helmstadt, and finally by Johannes Major in Jena (1656).

Adoption, in law, is the admission of a child, not the lawful issue of the adopter, to the legal rights and privileges of a son or daughter. In the United States, the common law makes no provision for adoption, and the practice is therefore based on statutes in the several States. The regulations governing adoption vary considerably, requiring judicial proceedings, or at least an order of the court, in some States, while it may be effected by a deed of adoption in other States. In all cases, however, the status of the adopted person is substantially that of a child born in lawful wedlock. (See Parent And Child.)

Adoption, or the admission of an alien to the full rights and privileges of a gens or family, is a practice of very ancient date. Its primary motive was that of strengthening the influence of the clan; and it is to this custom that Sir Henry Maine traces the beginning of civilization, for it was by this means that tribal life developed into federal and national life.

The law of adoption fills an important chapter in Roman law, where the practice was not limited to the adoption of children. A person alieni juris (i. e., under the palria poleslas of another) entering a new family was adopted by means of a threefold fictitious sale (mancipatio). If

the stranger was mi juris (his own master, free of palria polestas), he entered the new family by arrogation, which in ancient times was effected by a vote in the comitia, who jealously watched such proceedings, lest the last of a gens should arrogate himself, and its sacra be lost. Simpler modes of arrogation and adoption were employed in later times, especially by Justinian, who decreed that unless the adopter was an ascendant, the person adopted should not pass out of his natural family.

Exogamy, the custom of taking a wife from an alien tribe, still invariable in some savage races, is one form of adoption; and among the Somahs of Northeast Africa such exogamous marriages, which are only of occasional occurrence, are avowedly made for the purpose of obtaining immunity from the blood feud existing between the rival tribes. 'Blood brotherhood' between men of different race, symbolized by an exchange or transfusion of blood, is held to make them thenceforth actual kinsmen.

Transferred into religious usage from its usual and legal significance, the term adoption is employed by Paul to designate the new filial relation subsisting between Christians and the Father. In the Bible the word does not occur outside the letters of Paul; it is rare in Greek literature, but is found! with great frequency in inscriptions of the Hellenistic period.

Adoration (Latin ad, 'to,' ox, 'the mouth'), among the Romans, was the act of kissing the hand and waving it toward some person or object as a sign of deep reverence. The kissing of a sovereign's hand or of the cross on the Pope's slipper is the modern form of this practice. In our time, adoration denotes a mental attitude of worshipping devotion to God.

The Roman Catholic Church recognizes three kinds of worship: (1) lull-in, the worship due to God alone; (2) dulia, the honor paid to angels and saints or relics and images of the saints; (3) hyperdulia, the veneration of the Virgin Mary. Adoration of the Cross is a special ceremony carried out on Good Friday. Adoration of the Host is the supreme act in the celebration of the Mass.

In Christian art and archaeology an Adoration is a representation of the adoration of the Infant Jesus by the Magi. It has been the subject of many pictures.

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