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kept cool at all seasons by an upwelling of cold water along the coast and by low fogs. At the equinoxes a belt of rising air and heavy rains is found near the equator, and this moves N. and s. with the zenithal sun; so that round the equator there are two rainy seasons, and in some regions almost constant rains, while at the tropics there are one wet and one dry season.

There are nine climatic regions in Africa:—1 and 2. The Mediterranean and extreme s.w. regions, with mild winters (during which rain falls) and warm, drysummers. 3 and 4. The N. and s. desert regions, round the two

lower and the rainfall less, and, except on the great lake plateau, there is only one rainy season in summer. 9. The high mountain region, above 5,000 ft.

Hydrography. — Each climatic region has its own type of river, and most African rivers, where they leave the plateau, have their courses impeded by cataracts, usually in upper courses. 1 he nvi-rs of the equatorial rainy regions are constantly supplied with water, and where they flow through flat ground they snread out into numerous channels or loops, so that the limits between water and land are indefinite. The Zambezi and the Niger reach

and in summer they are supplemented by the temporary lake No. which is formed in the fiat Sudanese lands.

Flora and Fauna.—Physiologically, the biological regions correspond with the climatic ones. Morphologically, the Sahara is a barrier between the Mediterranean and true African forms. Hence the species differ greatly in Barbary and at the Cape, in the Sahara and the Kalahari, although there is a general resemblance in the manner in which they have become adapted to similar environments. The regions with winter rains are characterized by heaths and other

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tropics, where little rain falls, and the extremes of temperature are considerable. In the N. Sahara the rain showers usually come in winter: in the S. Sahara and Kalahari they usually occur in summer 5 and 6. The subtropical regions of summer rains, with a smaller range of temperature, and a short but adequate rainy season at the height of summer. 7. The equatorial regions, hot and wet nearly all the year round, but with the maximum rainfall when the sun is at the zenith. These include the Congo ba'sin and the Guinea Coast, the E. coast of the mainland from the equator to the Tropic of Capricorn, and the E. coast of Madagascar. 8. The higher land surrounding these regions forms the high plateau regions. Owing to their elevation the temperature is


the sea across great deltas fringed with mangrove swamps. The E. African rivers receive most rain in summer. The Orange (which flows in a deep gorge, with many rapids in its course) and the Senegal have their sources in coastal lands, with summer rains; but in their lower courses they flo\y through arid regions, where their volume steadily diminishes. The deserts are intersected by numerous wadis. filled only after heavy rains. The Nile crosses all the climatic zones, and consequently is an epitome of African rivers. The greatest precipitation over the basin, considered as a whole, occurs in the northern summer, both in the Sudan and Abyssinia, causing the annual floods of the Nile, to which Egypt owes its very existence. The great lakes act as reservoirs,

dry, scrubby plants: watrr-storins species, like mesembryan:hemum; and thick-skinned plants, such as the agave. The olive is typical of the wetter regions of the Mediterranean, but does not flourish in the s. The deserts have a very poor flora, of even more spiny, leathery, or water-storing plants than the abcv°. Animals are few, reptiles being relatively important. The grars lands consist of poorer scrub near the desert and in the karroos of the s. The most important grass lands are the savannas, which are continuous from the Upper Niger across the Sudan by the Eastern and the Malabele plateaus; anr! the High Veldt, a branch running westwards along the Congo-Zambezi divide. Flat-topped trees are dotted almut the savannas, and form continuous woods along the Alrtca


river courses. The savannas are

very rich in animal life, the most

numerous and characteristic being

antelopes. On the borders of the

forest lions, elephants, buffaloes.

leopards, hyaenas, and giraffes are

still found: but elephants and

most other big game are becom

ing scarce, owing to indiscrim

inate shooting by hunters. The

double-horned rhinoceros is abun

dant on some of the grassy pla

teaus, while the hippopotamus

and crocodile are found in the

rivers. Among the birds are the

ibis, pelican, and secretary bird.

Termites, tsetse flies, and mos

quitoes require special mention.

The wet jungles of the equatorial

forests cover the coastal plain of

Upper Guinea, the lower part of

the Congo basin, and the E. of

Madagascar. They are charac

terized by the number of palms,

their comparative poverty in

irammals. and their wealth of

bird and insect life. The gorilla,

chimpanzee, and other monkeys,

tlic hippopotamus and elephant,

are among the most important

mammals. Madagascar has dense

forests in the E., and savannas on

(he plateau and w. terraces. Sev

fral frees and plants are charac

icristic, and the flora generally is

of much interest. It is also a

Prcu.'/ar zoological region, which

connects the faunas of S. Africa

Snd the Malay Archipelago. There

are no large-sized mammals, but

the Jernur and the aye-aye are

among the characteristic ones. It

« rich in birds and insects, tl.e

laittrr ouriously unlike those of E.

atwl Central Africa, but resem

bling the species of S. and \V.

Mrica. ^A-sia, Australia, and even


Population. — The population is estimated at 17 0.000, 000, or fifteen inhabit arats per sq. m. Vast areas are uninhabited, especially in the deserts, and the dense wet jungles are Lnat sparsely peopled. The most uor>ulous regions are the savan-rja lands and the N. and s. coasts. In the W. Sudan, the Nile valley, and between the Atlas and the coast the density is between fifty and a hundred per sq. To.

Economic Conditions. — The majority Of native Africans live party by hunting, partly by superficial cultivation of the soil or by pastoral lnir?uits. In the s. and *•»••• in TTie Nile valley and Abys?'"]'• a»ri culture flourishes. Tropri • ,?l~**ations are being extendeo"« tr»e European possessions of \Vandl_ •£. Africa and Madagas"' A rie mineral wealth is in a"s Kreat. Iron is worked by onH "i^tive tribes, gold and dia. S s «VaVe attracted Europeans frica. and gold is found

and else'

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above the sea Europeans can live and maintain a fairly healthful existence with care; and although neither temperature nor rainfall is so high as in the lowlands, the savannas might be made to yield rich crops, as has been proved in Nyasaland. The desert regions are healthful, and are fertile where water can be obtained either by storage or from artesian wells. The labor problem is one of the chief difficulties in opening up Africa. Agriculture is, in most tribes, a woman's occupation, and to be compelled to engage in it is an affront to the dignity of the men. whose traditional occupations are hunting and fight

of Negro blood in them. In the N., however, the Mediterranean long-headed white race is represented amon^ the hicrhers, and the alpine or mountain longheaded race by the Arabs. About 1,000.000 Europeans live in the N".. and as many in the s. The black races are divided into the true Negroes of the Sudan, and the diverse races s. of the CongoKile divide—those who speak I'antu languages. In the equatorial forests are a number of dwarf races, such as the Akka, and in the s.w. the small Bushmen and taller Hottentots. The w. of Madagascar is inhabited by Negroid peoples, who, some auAfrica


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guages. The Malagasy language of Madagascar is related to that of Malay.

Racial Movements.—In the s. Bushmen and Hottentots formerly roamed over a much wider area than at present, but have been driven towards the more barren s.w. by advancing Bantus, who are more or less pastoral peoples, some with a powerful military organization. The most remarkable of these Bantus are the Zulus, who devastated much of east S. Africa early in the 19th century, and from whom the Matabele and Marotse warriors have sprung. The Arabs have expanded steadily for the last thousand years, and their traders and slave-traders penetrate as far s. as the Tronic of Capricorn. Mediterranean Africa has witnessed Egyptian, Phoenician, Grecian, and Roman civilization. Central and S. Africa are isolated from Mediterranean culture by the Sahara and the sea. The Portuguese navigators of the 15th century made known the central and s. coasts to Europe, the Cape having been rounded by Diaz in 1487. The Portuguese traded in Upper and Lower Guinea, and in the S.e.; but the Dutch were the first to settle in the temperate lands of the s., round their 'refreshment station ' at Table Bay. Hither, in the 17th century, came refugee Huguenots, and the resulting mixed race gradually spread over the s. terraces and the High Veldt. In the E. of these terraces, and in Natal, British and Germans settled in some numbers, especially in the middle third of the 19th century. Indian coolies have been brought as laborers to Natal, as Malays were formerly brought to the Cape, and Chinese are now being brought to the gold fields. Italians, Spanish, and French have settled on the African shores opposite their own lands, where they find similar climatic conditions.

Exploration of the Interior.— In every case the exploration of the great rivers of Africa has been from the source to the sea. Mungo Park, at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, followed by Lander, solved the Niger problem. La ing and Caillie reached Timbuktu, the mysterious, early in the 19th century. Earth reached it in the fifties by crossing from Tripoli to the s. and going up the Niger. Nachtigal, Schweinfurth, and Junker are the chief explorers of the E. Sudan. Speke and Grant traced the Nile from Lake Victoria, and Baker discovered Lake Albert in the sixties, the Blue Nile having been followed by Bruce in the previous century. Oswell, accompanied by Livingstone, crossed the Kalahari, disAfrica

covered Lake Ngami, and reached the Zambezi, which Livingstone afterwards explored on two memorable journeys, giving up his life to the problem of the Congo in 1873. Tanganyika was reached hy Burton and Speke in 1858, Cameron crossed the Congo basin in 1874-5, and Stanley followed the great river to its mouth in 1S70-7. In Central Africa, Stanley, Emin Pasha. Joseph Thomson, Johnston, Wissmann, Baumann, and many others, filled in our knowledge during the last quarter of the 19th century, as did French explorers on the Niger.

Political Spheres. — European states in the last fifteen years of the 19th century marked off protectorates and spheres of influence, so that only three states in Africa still remain nominally independent—Morocco in the N.w., Abyssinia in the E., and the republic of Liberia on the Guinea Coast. In N. Africa, France is overlord of all w. of and including the Tarso Mts. and N. of the Congo-Ubangi. except Morocco. Spanish Rio de Oro, Portuguese Guinea. British Gambia, Sierra Leone, Gold Coast, Lagos, and the protectorates of N. and S. Nigeria, and German Togoland and Kamerun. Trippli, Barka, and Egypt are Turkish possessions: but Egypt is only nominally so, and is controlled by Great Britain. In the Nilotic Sudan this AngloFgyptian co-dominion is predomir.a'ntly British; and British interests alone prevail in the Uganda and E. African protectorates and In Zanzibar. Round Abyssinia on the E. and s. are the Italian Eritrea and Somaliland. separated by French and British Somaliland. The rest of the E. African plateau is German to the Rovunia, and Portuguese beyond to Delagoa Bay. In the w. the Congo basin is controlled by the Belgium government, the king having transferred his title, Angolaland by Portugal, and Damara and Namaciua lands by Germany. The rest of Africa s. of Tanganyika and Nyassa is British, forming the Central African Protectorate—N. and S. Rhodesia. Bechuanaland, the Transvaal, Orange River Colony, Basutoland. Natal, and Cape Colony. Madagascar, the Comoro Is., and Reunion are French; the other E. African islands—Mauritius, Admiralty, Rodriguez, Seychelles, and Sokotra—are British. Portugal owns Madeira, the Cape Verde Is., Principe, and Sao Thome; and Spain the Canaries, Fernando Po. Annobon, and Corisco Bay in W. Africa. Ascension and St. Helena, on the midAtlantic ridge, are British. See separate articles under all these titles.


Afrlcalnp, L'., a well-known opera by Meyerbeer, first produced in Paris in 1865, a year after the composer's death. It has not had the vogue of The Huguenots, or Robert le Diable. The words of the opera were written by Scribe, the French dramatist, who also wrote the libretti of most of Meyerbeer's work.

Africander, or Afrikander. a native of S. Africa descended from Dutch parents settled there. —Afrikander Bond, a S. African association, formed (1879) for the furtherance and consolidation of Afrikander influence in S. Africa. Its founders were Borckenhagen, Reitz, and Hofmcyr. In addition to the Cape, the organization embraced the Transvaal and the Orange Free State, and after the Jameson Raid (1895) it became Boer rather than Afrikander. In the Anglo-Boer war of 1899-1902 it symphathized warmly with the Boers.

African Churches In the United States. The African Methodist Episcopal Church is a body of colored people who in 1816 withdrew from the Methodist Episcopal Church and elected as their first bishop the Re/. Richard Allen. In doctrine and discipline, they follow in the main the practices and usages of the parent church. In the interest of the body, several academics and one university are maintained, besides two weekly newspapers. In 1907, the statistics supplied of this religious organization were as follows: Churches, 6,070; ministers, 6,815: communicants, 850,000. Besides this church organization the colored people of the United States have another denominational organization, known as the African Meth. Episcopal Zion Church, organized in 1820, which maintains 3,241 churches, has 3,912 ministers, and 578,310 communicants. There is still another African church known as the Colored Methodist EpisCopal', organized in the South in 1870, which in 1907 had 2,(H9 churches, 2,673 ministers, and 219,739 communicants or adherents. Still another is returned as the African Union Meth. Protestant body, organized about 1816, which has 125 churches, the same number of ministers, and 4,000 adherents. There is furthermore a small church organisation known as the Congregational _ Methodist

Colored) body, with 5 churches and 5 ministers, and 319 adherents. Connected with the Baptist denomination there is a communion of Colored ReguLar Baptists, with 21,216 churches, 13,412 ministers, and 1,981,749 communicants. There are also the Cumberland Pres

After-l mages


churches and ministers, and 42,000 adherents.

African Interna'lonal Association. See Congo Free State.

African Ltly. Sec AgapanTHUS.

African Teak for African Oak), a heavy, hard timber used in shipbuilding, obtained fromOWfieldia ajricaiui (Euphorbiacex1).

Afrlcanus, a title of honor borne by the two greatest Scipios, in commemoration of their African victories. (Sec Scipio.) Also, the name of—(1.) Sex. Cecilius, a famous Roman jurisconsult and orator, pupil of Salvius Junius, of the time of Antoninus Pius. Extracts from his Libri IX. Quastionum appear in the Digest. The remains of his works have been expounded by Cujas, and annotated by Sciriio Gentili (1602-7). (3.) Sex. Julius, a Christian writer of the third century, who lived at Emmaus in Palestine, but visited Alexandria. His works, with the exception of extracts found in Eusebius, have been lost.

Afrldls, an Afghan or Puthan people, numbering about 300,000, inhabiting the mountainous region lying s. of the Hindu-Kush. Fanatical Mohammedans and fiercely independent, they resented the inclusion, in 1893, of their territory within the British frontier; and their consequent revolt in 1897 led to the Tirah campaign of 1897-8, in which a force of nearly 35.000 British and Indian troops took part. See E. Oliver's A cross Ike Border, London (1890).

Afrit, or Afreet. See Ifrit. After-damp. See ChokeDamp.

Aftpr-glow, the glow sometimes seen in the sky after sunset, illuminating the upper strata of the clouds, usually in shades of red and yellow; due to the presence of line dust in the higher atmosphere. It is most frequent in October and November, when the earth pass; s through meteoric swarms. During the autumn and winter of 1SS3, following the tremendous eruptions of Krnkatoa, in the Str. of Sunda, peculiarly bright and continuous examples were seen in every part of the globe.

Aftor-imaKPS are representations to the mind of bygone impressions. They arc "sensations for which at the time of their occurrence there is no present external stimulus. They may be due to—(1) a simple persistence of sensation; (2) a recurrence of sensation; or (3) fatigue of the nerve alls concerned in the reception of previous stimuli. The two former are positive images, while the third is negative.

Positive after-image _ may be considered as due to inertia of Afzenus

the nerve stimulated, as when we glance at an object and close our eves we seem for a moment to sec through the lids.

Negative after-images depend upon exhaustion cf the nerve sight. If the eye be intently fixed for a time upon a patch of Llack on a sheet ol wlute paper, and then be suddenly turned upon a white surface, a" bright patch appears on that surface-. It moves with the eye, and gradually fades away. Should the patch *be colored, the after-image has the color 'complementary' to the original. Thus, if the retinal cells be fatigued by a close, prolonged gaze at, say, a red spot, an image cf that spot is apparent when the eye is directed towards a new white surface. The image corr spom's in shape _ to the original, but in ce;lor is green, while its size depends on the distance cf the new field—the greater the distance the larger the image. The part of the retina on which rays from the primary object fell has temporarily come to an end of its capacity for appreciating red rays, but remains sensi ive to the other ravs composing the spectrum cf white light. Hence an after-image is formed, tinted by such rays of white light as the fatigued portion cf the retina can still appreciate. See Franz's Psvch. Rrv. Monograph Suppl. (1899), and Helmhcltz's llandbuch d. physio/. Oplik (ISflG).

AfzdlUN, Adam (ns^-is.1??). a Swedish naturalist, pupil of Linnaeus; demonstrator cf botany at t'psala (1785); visited Sierra Leone (1792); lived for a time in London as secretary to the Swedish ambassador: and from 1812 was professor of materi?. medica, Upsala; author of numerous botanical works.

Afzel'us, Arvid August (17851871), Swedish poet, and pastor (1828-71) of Enkoping; translator of the Edda, and editor, with Geijvr, of Svenska Folkvisor fran Fornliden ('814-17)—i.e. 'Ancient Swedish Folk-songs.'

Aeades, Agiiades, or Agadez, African tn., cap. of oasis of Atr or Asben, Sahara; lat. 18° 10'N., and long. 8°E.; an important centre on caravan route between the Sudan and Tripoli. Pop. 8,000 (Tuareg).

Agamemnon, son of Atreus or Pleisthencs, husband of Clytaemnestra, and father of Orestes. Iphigenia, Chrysothemis, and Elcctra. He was king of Mycenae in Argos. then the richc st city of Greece, and because of his position became leader of the Greeks against Troy. His character, as depicted by Homer, is eminently that of a king: a great warrior, though not the greatest: wise in counsel, always dignified in speech and action, yet


capable of displays of arbitrary temper and caprice. After the fall of Troy he was murdered, on his return home, by his unfaithful wife and her paramour /Kgisthus.

Aganii (Psophia crepitans}. one of the trumpeters, a familv of large, somewhat stork-like birds found in tropical America.

'.i-MiMicl.-i', a family of Old World lizards in which the teeth are inserted on the edge of the jaw (acrodont). The family includes such interesting forms as Draco volans (the flying lizard of Java), the hideous Moloch horridus of Australia, and the curious frilled lizard (Chlamydosaurus), also from Australia. The most familiar example is the little Agama stcllio, common in the Mediterranean countries.

Agafia (SAN Icxacio I>e Ac.ana), the principal town of Guam or Guahan I., Pacific Ocean, a possession of the United States: lat. 12° N., and long. 145° E. The town is situated on the s. shore of Agana Bay, about 9 m. N. of San Luis d'Apra. During the Spanish occupation Agana was the capital of the Ladrone Islands; the U. S. transferred the seat of govt. to Fort Santa Cruz, at San Luis d'Apra. It has wide streets, an arsenal and a college. Pop. 6,000.

Agapie, the 'love feasts' of the early Christians; usually associated with the cucharist, but also held in commemoration of departed friends on the anniversary of their death. Viewed in botn aspects, these feasts have been regarded as Christian modifications of older heathen practices. Dr. J. F. Keating (The Agapt and the Eucharist, 1901) has made a critical study of the question in its former relationship; while Pr. Joseph Anderson (Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot., xi. 3S7) cities De Rossi and Tyrwhitt in support of the view that the agapa; of the catacombs were akin to pagan funeral banquets. They have been revived by the Herrnhut community; compare the 'love feasts' of the" Wesleyans. Sec Bingham Christian Antiquities xv., 7; Uhlhorn, Christian Charity in the Early Church (18S3).

Agapanthus, the African lily, a native of the Cane, with white or blue flowers. One species is grown out of doors in tubs, but requires protection in winter; others are beautiful conservatory plants.

Agapomone ('abode of love"), called also Lampeter Brethren, the community of mystics, holding to a community of goods, and conventual in form, founded (1859) at Bridgwater, England, by Henry J. Prince (1811-99), an Anglican clergyman, a native of Bath. See article in Mag. of Christian Literature, Dec., 1891.

Agaric Mineiai

Agapetse, a name given to virgins of the early church, who lived with monks professing cdibacy, and between whom was said to exist a bond of spiritual love. The practice was put down by the Latcran Council in 1139 Also a sect of Gnostic women, arising about 395.

Agaprtu.s I. (d. 53fi), a native of Rome, was elevated to the papacy in 535. He was unsuccessful in a mission to Constantinople which he undertook in 536, with a view to making peace with Justinian on behalf of Theodatus, king of the Eastern Goths. He died there.

Agapr tns II., a native of Rome, occupied the papal chair from 9469,r>5. In 951 he refused the request of Otto I., king of Germany, that he would crown him emperor, in spite of the friendly relations between Otto and himself.

Agar, or AuGl'R, tn., on rocky height, 1,600 ft., in Gwalior, Central India Agency; about 100 m. N.w. of Bhopal. Pop. 30,000.

Agar-agar, or Agal-agal, Malayan names for a seaweed (Plocaria lichcnotdcs), 'Ceylon or Jaffna moss.' It forms an article of trade between China and the E. Indies. It is made into nutritious jellies, and the Chinese also use it as a paper varnish. Edible birds'-nests are made from another Plocaria on the coast of Siam. Agar is used by bacteriologists for the cultivation of bacteria.

Agardh. (1.) Karl Adolf (1785—1850), professor of botany at Lund from 1812 to 1835; bes't known as a classifier of algae, on which subject he wrote Svstema Algarum (1824). (z.) Jakob Geoko, his son (1813-1901), also professor at Lund; published works on algae—e.g. Analecta Algologica (1892-9).

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