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E publishing firm responsible for this enterprise has aimed at producing a complete, up-to-date, and scholarly Encyclopaedia in a moderate compass.

In the allotment of space to the various topics, Nelson's EncycloPaedia differs considerably from its predecessors. It is essentially a modern book. While topics of classical or antiquarian interest are not neglected, a new and special emphasis has been laid on subjects which are of wide and active interest to-day, such as biographies of living persons, recent developments in science, and the results of modern invention.

By judicious condensation, and by recognizing the needs of the life of the world today, and especially of this part of the world, the publishers have succeeded in present^ ing information of greater practical value and upon a larger number of subjects than has ever before been brought within the same compass.

Within the available space, the publishers have endeavored to insure four things:— (i.) Accuracy.—This applies to the brief summaries and illustrations as well as to the longer articles.

(2.) Completeness.—Every topic is treated so as to present all the facts which readers other than specialists are likely to require.

(3.) Clearness.—Even the most technical subjects are discussed in language intelligible to such readers.

-^ (4.) Guidance for Students.—A full and carefully selected bibliography is appended

to each important article, to guide readers to the best sources for further study. This feature of the work places it in the front rank as a work of reference.

The result is that Nelson's Encyclopedia contains all that the well-informed man of to-day needs to know, together with the guidance that a student requires. It ~ is, in fact, a Complete Library o\ Reference. ? In the illustration of the work, the publishers have considered utility rather than


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4 Publishers' Preface

mere ornament. Technical and scientific illustrations are introduced to elucidate the text; reproductions of paintings, statuary, etc., to give some idea of the art of different ages and schools, or the character of scenery in different lands. In fact, not only can a wider range of subjects than is customary in general reference works be claimed, but also a greater number of illustrations. All of the leading cities of the world with their famous buildings and architectural monuments are represented. The reader may also see depicted ancient and modern civilization as well as nature in its many aspects. Portraits, which, owing to their human interest, are the most attractive of all illustrations, have been freely inserted.

This work, whose most distinguishing feature is that its contents are kept current with changes and progress from year to year, is issued by Messrs. Thomas Nelson & Sons, and has been prepared and edited by competent scholars, writers, and practical experts of the day.

Nelson's Encyclopaedia rests upon the reliability of its information, which has been thoroughly tested, the wide reach of its contents, and the unique means of keeping the material accurate to date. For its successful completion no efforts have been spared to obtain the services of scholars and men of letters of both the Old World and the New who are not only masters of their subjects but are able to expound them in simple language. Moreover, since the activities of the publishers are maintained in both Great Britain and America, it has been possible to unite the work of editors in both countries. The results justify the claim that Nelson's Encyclopaedia is truly international. The American articles have been written in the United States by leading authorities, while those dealing with European countries and institutions have been prepared in the Old World by scholars who are not only high authorities but have had unusual opportunities to use European libraries and collections. Furthermore, all articles of this latter class have undergone the scrutiny of American authorities and in their present form embody the results of American criticism and revision.

Edinburgh: Ne\v York.



Editor-in-Chief: JoHN H. FINLEY, LL.D., President of the College of the City of New York. Canadian Editor: WILLIAM PETERSON, LL.D., C.M.G.,

Principal of McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

European Editor:

GEORGE SANDEMAN, M.A., Edinburgh, Scotland.



Live-stock, Dairying, and Wool.


Soils, Fertilizers, and Farm Machinery.

Corn, Cotton, Tobacco, Wheat, and other Field Crops.


Animal Diseases.


KRUCKMAN, ARNOLD, Aeronautical Editor of the New York

FERRIs, RICHARD, B.S., C.E., Author of “How It Flies.”


TRUE, ALFRED C., A.M., Ph.D., Director of the Office of Experiment Stations, U. S. Department of Agriculture.

ALLEN, EDWIN WEST, B.S., Ph.D., Assistant Director, Editor of
“Experiment Station Record.”

MEAD, DR. Elwood, Chief of Irrigation and Drainage Investigation.

BEAL, W. H., Editor of “Experiment Station Record.”
SCHULTE, J. I., Associate Editor of “Experiment Station Record.”

SMITH, C. B., Associate Editor of “ Experiment Station Record.”

WILCox, DR. E. V., Associate Editor of “Experiment Station

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Evans, Dr. W. H., Chief of Insular Experiment Stations.

Mohlf.r, Dr. John R., Pathologist of the Bureau of Animal
Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture.

Hilgard, Eugene W., LL.D., Ph.D., Professor of Agriculture,
University of California.

Wallace, Robert, F.R.S.E., F.L.S., Professor of Agriculture
and Rural Economy, University of Edinburgh, and Carton
Lecturer on Colonial and Indian Agriculture.

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Wissler, Clark, Curator of Ethnology, American Museum of Natural History, New York.

Haddon, Alfred C., M.A., Sc.D., F.R.S., University Lecturer in Ethnology, Cambridge; Author of "Studies of Man."

Keane, Augustus H., LL.D., F.R.G.S., Emeritus Professor of Hindustani, University College, London.

Hepburn, Prof. David, M.D., C.M., M.R.C.S., F.R.S.E., Professor of Anatomy and Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Wales.

Mooney, James, Ethnologist, American Bureau of Ethnology.


Petrie, Wm. Matthew Flinders, D.C., Litt.D., LL.D., F.R.S.,

Professor of Egyptology, University College, London.

Pinches, Theophilus Goldridge, LL.D., Assyriologist, Lec-
turer in Assyrian, University College, London, formerly
Assistant in Department of Oriental Antiquities, British

Sayce, Rev. Archibald H., M.A., LL.D., D.D., Professor of
Assyriology, Oxford University.

Macritchie, David, F.S.A. Scot., Authority on Gypsy Lore and
Archaeology; Author of "Fians, Fairies, and Picts," etc.

Coles, F. R., Assistant Keeper, Scottish National Museum of
Antiquities, Edinburgh.


Gladden, George, formerly Editor of "Current Literature."

Hubert, Philip G., Jr., formerly Dramatic Editor, New York
"Evening Post."

Haworth, Paul L., Lecturer in History, Columbia University.

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Derry, Joseph T., Department of Agriculture, Atlanta, Ga.;
Author of historical works on the Southern Confederacy.

Macdonald, William, Ph.D., LL.D., Professor of History,
Brown University.

Baldwin, Simeon E., A.M., LL.D., Judge of the Supreme Court
of Errors, Connecticut.

Church, William C., Editor "Army and Navy Journal,"
Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel, U. S. Army.

Hunt, Gaillard, Chief of the Passport Bureau, U. S. Depart-
ment of State.

Leupp, Francis E., A.M., LL.B., former U. S. Commissioner of
Indian Affairs; Author of "The Man Roosevelt."

Thompson, Holland, Professor of History, College of the City
of New York.

Thwaites, Reuben G., LL.D., Superintendent of the Wiscon-
sin State Historical Society, Lecturer on American History,
University of Wisconsin.

Fisher, Sydney G., L.H.D., LL.D., Author of "The Making of
Pennsylvania," "The Evolution of the Constitution," "The
True William Penn," etc.

Wheeler, Everett P., of the New York Bar.


Revision of

LI terary


Sharp, R. Farquharson, Assistant Librarian, British Museum,
London; Author of "Dictionary of English Authors," "Mak-
ers of Music," "Architects of English History," etc.

Stronach, George, M.A., Chief Assistant Librarian, Advocates'
Library, Edinburgh.

Macpherson, Hector, Editor "Edinburgh Evening News";
Author of Lives of Gladstone, Thomas Carlyle, Adam
Smith, Herbert Spencer, etc.

Pollak, Gustav, formerly Editor "Century Dictionary of

Smith, David Nichol, M.A., Professor of English Literature,
Newcastle-on-Tyne; Editor of "Dryden's Essay on Dramatic

Chambers, Edmund K., B.A., Acting Assistant Secretary, Board
of Education, England; Editor of "Red Letter Edition of


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