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The Number of the 'Penny Magazine' which the reader is now perusing will be left ready to be printed off-to “go to press” as it is technically termed-on the 19th of December. Its previous preparation will have employed writers and artists, and that class of printers called compositors, for several weeks. The paper for 160,000 copies, (the quantity required for the consumption during the first month after publication,) consisting of 160 double reams (each sheet printing two copies), will have been previously delivered from the mill, and will have been charged with the excise duty of 3d. in the lb. upon 5,600 lbs. the tax upon that quantity amounting to 701. Up to this point a great deal of technical knowledge and mechanical skill will have been employed. Chemical knowledge and machinery are indispensable in the manufacture of the paper; and without the very ingenious invention of Stereotype Founding, in which great practical improvements have been made within a few years, the · Penny Magazine' could not be printed in duplicate, which diminishes the expense, nor could the supply be proportioned to the demand. As we have already explained, the printing machine begins its work when every preparation is complete. In ten days one machine produces 160,000 copies from two sets of plates. If the printing machine had not been invented it would have taken a single. press, producing a thousand perfect copies each day, one hundred and sixty days, or more than five calendar months, to complete the same number. We see, therefore, that up to this point there are many conditions for the production of a Penny Magazine which could not exist except in a high state of civilization, where there were large accumulations of knowledge.
This Number of our periodical work, which thus goes to press on the 19th of December, will be sold in every part of the United Kingdom, generally on the 1st of January,—in remote districts, on the 3d or 4th at latest. No one who wishes for a copy of this Magazine, whether in England, Scotland, or Ireland, can have any difficulty in getting it, if he can find a bookseller. The communication between the capital and the country, and between large towns in the country and villages, is now so perfect, that wherever there is a sufficient demand of any commodity there will be a supply. But the · Penny Magazine'is still a Penny Magazine all over the country. No one charges three-halfpence or twopence for it. The wholesale dealer and the retailer derive their profit from the publisher; and the carriage is covered by that profit. But that could not be if there were not cheap as well as ready communication through all parts of the United Kingdom. The steam-boat upon the seas—the canalthe railway--the quick van—these as well as the stage-coach and mail--place the Penny Magazine' within every one's reach in the farthest part of the kingdom, as certainly as if he lived in London, and without any additional cost. This is a striking illustration of the civilization of our country; and when unthinking people therefore ask, what is the benefit of steam-engines, and canals, and fine roads to the poor man, they may be answered by this example alone. In this, as in all other cases, ready and cheap communication breaks down the obstacles of time and space, —and thus, bringing all ends of a great kingdom as it were together, greatly reduces the inequalities of fortune and situation, by equalizing the price of commodities, and to that extent making them accessible to all.
Some people have foolishly said that the · Penny Magazine' is a monopoly. There were formerly a great many monopolies of literature in this country;—that is, certain privileges were granted by the government to particular individuals, with the intent of diminishing the circulation of books by keeping up the price. Then the government was afraid that the people would learn to think. The object of those concerned in the Penny Magazine' is, contrary to the spirit of a monopoly, to circulate as many copies as they can, as cheaply as they can.
as they can. This work has no exclusive privileges, and can have no exclusive privileges. It stands upon the commercial principle alone ; and if its sale did not pay its expenses, with a profit to all concerned in it (except to the individual members of the Society who give it the benefit of their superintendence), it would not stand at all. The Society has no funds to assist the · Penny Magazine;' for its subscriptions are scarcely sufficient to defray the rent of the chambers in which it holds its meetings. But the Penny Magazine' contributes materially to the funds of the Suciety, which funds are ready to be devoted to new undertakings, where success may not be so assured. The public, who buy the · Penny Magazine' to the extent of two hundred thousand, are its only pecuniary supporters. It is the duty of those who receive this large encouragement to carry forward their work to as high a point of excellence as they may attain by liberal and judicious arrangements.
December 18th, 1832.
Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge,
PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY.
[March 31, 1832.
READING FOR ALL.
events, can only be corrected by the diffusion of sound In a book upon the Poor, published in 1673, called knowledge. Whatever tends to enlarge the range of • The Grand Concern of England explained,' we find observation, to add to the store of facts, to awaken the the following singular proposal :—" that the multitude reason, and to lead the imagination into agreeable and of stage-coaches and caravans, now travelling upon the innocent trains of thought, may assist in the establishroads, may all, or most of them, be suppressed, especially ment of a sincere and ardent desire for information : and those within forty, fifty, or sixty miles of London.” The in this point of view our little Miscellany may prepare evil of the stage-coaches is somewhat difficult to be per- the way for the reception of more elaborate and precise ceived at the present day; but this ingenious author had no knowledge, and be as the small optic-glass called " the doubt whatever on the matter," for," says he, “ will any finder," which is placed by the side of a large telescope, man keep a horse for himself, and another for his man, all to enable the observer to discover the star which is afterthe year, for to ride one or two journies, that at pleasure, wards to be carefully examined by the more perfect inwhen he hath occasion, can step to any place where his strument. business lies, for two, three, or four shillings, if within
CHARING CROSS. twenty miles of London, and so proportionably into any part of England ?"
This place has been recently We laugh at the lamentation over the evil of stage
greatly improved by clearing coaches, because we daily see or experience the benefits
away decaying houses, and enof the thousands of public conveyances carrying forward
larging the space for the public the personal intercourse of a busy population, and equally
convenience, and for the display useful whether they run from Paddington to the Bank,
of newly-erected handsome buildor from the General Post-Office to Edinburgh. Some,
ings. It derives its name from however, who acknowledge the fallacy of putting down
having been anciently a village, long and short stages, that horses may be kept all the
detached from London, called year, “ for to ride one or two journies," may fall into the
Charing, and from a stately very same mistake with regard to knowledge that was
Cross, erected there by order of thus applied to communication. They may desire to
Edward I., to commemorate his retain a monopoly of literature for those who can buy
affection for Eleanor, his deceased expensive books; they may think a five-guinea quarto
queen. The cross occupied the (like the horse for one or two journies) a public benefit,
last spot on which her body rested and look upon a shilling duodecimo to be used by every
in its progress to sepulture in one “at pleasure, when he hath occasion,” (like the stage--..
Westminster Abbey. The other coach) as a public evil.
resting-places of her sumptuous What the stage-coach has become to the middle classes,
funeral were dignified by similar we hope our Penny Magazine will be to all classes
edifices. an universal convenience and enjoyment. The Society
Two centuries and a half ago, for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge have considered it
Charing-Cross was within bowproper to commence this publication, from the belief that
shot of the open country, all the many persons, whose time and whose means are equally way to Hampstead and Highgate. North of the Cross limited, may be induced to purchase and to read it. there were only a few houses in front of the Mews, where The various works already published by the Society are the King's falcons were kept. The Hay-market was a principally adapted to diligent readers,—to those who are country road, with hedges on each side, running between anxiously desirous to obtain knowledge in a condensed, pastures. St. Martin's lane was bounded on the west and, in most cases, systematic form. But there are a side by the high walls of the Mews, and on the other side very great number of persons who can spare half an hour by a few houses and by old St. Martin's church, where for the reading of a newspaper who are sometimes disin- the present church stands. From these buildings it was clined to open a book. For these we shall endeavour to a quiet country lane, leading to St. Giles's, then a pleasant prepare an useful and entertaining Weekly Magazine, village, situated among fine trees.
Holborn was a mere that may be taken up and laid down without requiring road between open meadow land, with a green hedge on any considerable effort; and that may tend to fix the the north side. In the Strand, opposite to St. Martin's lane, mind upon calmer, and, it may be, purer subjects of stood the hospital and gardens of St. Mary Rouncival, a thought than the violence of party discussion, or the sti- religious establishment founded and endowed by William, mulating details of crime and suffering. We have, how. Earl of Pembroke, in the reign of Henry III. In the ever, no expectation of superseding the newspaper, and middle of the road leading to the Abbey, and opposite to no desire to supersede it. We hope only to share some Charing-Cross, stood a hermitage and chapel dedicated portion of the attention which is now almost exclusively to St. Catherine. bestowed upon “ the folio of four pages,” by those who Charing-Cross is represented in the above engraving. read little and seldom. We consider it the duty of every It was of an octagonal form and built of stone, and in man to make himself acquainted with the events that are an upper stage contained eight figures. In 1643 it was passing in the world, with the progress of legislation, and pulled down and destroyed by the populace, in their zeal the administration of the laws; for every man is deeply against superstitious edifices. Upon the ground of similar interested in all the great questions of government. zeal, Henry VIII. suppressed the religious houses of the Every man, however, may not be qualified to understand kingdom, and seized their estates and revenues to his own them; but the more he knows, the less hasty and the use : the hospital of St. Mary of Rouncival was included less violent will be his opinions. The false judgments in this fate. On its ancient site stands the palace of the which are sometimes formed by the people upon public Duke of Northumberland. It was built in the reign of Vol. J.
James I. by Henry Howard, Earl of Northampton, and no difficulties at the putset of colonization are enough to during his life was called Northampton House. In 1642 deter adventurers from steadily pursuing their object
. it came to Algernon, Earl of Northumberland, by For the first three years, the inhabitants being wholly marriage, and since then has been called Northumber- dependent upon foreign supplies for the commonest artiland House.
cles of food, were occasionally reduced to great straita; The exact spot upon which Charing-Cross stood is and, accordingly, we hear of eighteen pence per pound occupied by an equestrian statue of Charles I. in bronze, having been readily given for kangaroo flesh, and that executed in 1633 by Le Sæur, for the Earl of Arundel. even sea-weed, or any other vegetable substance that During the civil wars, it fell into the hands of the Parlia could be eaten, was eagerly sought afier. But man is ment, by whom it was ordered to be sold and broken up. always the better for being thrown upon his own reThe purchaser, John River, a brazier, produced some
After a time, it was discovered that the colony pieces of broken brass, in token of his having complied itself, if the land were cultivated, possessed that which with the conditions of sale; and he sold to the cavaliers would supersede the necessity of seeking elsewhere for the handles of knives and forks as made from the statue: food; and, although the first attempts at husbandry were River deceived both the Parliament and the loyalists; merely made with the hoe and space, enough was ascerfor he had buried the statue unmutilated. At the restora- tained by them, to bid the colonists go on and prosper." tion of Charles II. he dug it up, and sold it to the No sheep or cattle were imported till three years after the Governinent; and Grinlin Gibbon executed a stone settlement of the island. For some time after this, inpedestal, seventeen feet high, upon which it was placed deed, the colony was looked upon merely as a place of and still remains. The horse is remarkable for having punishment for persons convicted of crimes in New South a saddle without a girth. It has been customary, on the Wales, numbers of whom accordingly continued to be 29th of May, the anniversary of the Restoration, to dress sent to it every year. Governor Collins died in 1810, the statue with oakeu boughs.
and in 1813 Lieutenant-Colonel Davey arrived as his
successor. VAN DIEMENS LAND.
From about this time the colony began to be consiWe have before us an Almanac for 1831, published in dered in a new light. The population consisted no Hobart Town, the capital of Van Diemen's Land. It is longer merely of the convicts and the garrison ; but, a matter of agreeable wonder to find an Almanac pub- besides many persons who, having been originally crown lished in, and for the use of, a country, which even at so prisoners, had obtained their freedom by servitude or late a date as the beginning of the present century (within indulgence, embraced a considerable number of settlers thirty years), and indeed for some years afterwards, was who had arrived in successive small parties from the inhabited merely by a few thousands of the most ignorant neighbouring colony of New South Wales. Hitherto and destitute savages on the face of the earth. And now the only places with which Van Diemen's Land was we find established on those distant shores a community allowed to hold any communication, had been New South so far advanced in social refinement as to have already Wales and England: that restriction was now done an Almanac of its own; one, too, in many respects as, away with, and the two colonies were placed, in respect well executed as any production of the same kind to be to foreign commerce, on precisely the same footing. In found in older countries, and much better than some 1816 the numbers of the community and the importance that still disgrace the most civilized countries, This is of its affairs had so much increased, that the government an Almanac without Astrology.
thought proper to establish a newspaper, entitled, The Although called an Almanac, this little volume con- Hobart Town Gazette, principally for the purpose of tains a considerable variety of information not usually promulgating proclamations and other notices. This given in works of that description. The heavy stamp- year also was distinguished by the first exportation of duty in our own country renders it necessary that an corn from the island, a considerable quantity having been Almanac should contain little besides the Calendar, sent to Port Jackson, and likewise by the commenceLists, and useful Tables; and thus the Society for the ment of whale-fishing by the colonists, "two of the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge prints a Companion to sinews,” says the present writer, “ of our prosperity as a the Almanac, which may be bought with it or not. In colony.' addition to a Calendar and the ordinary lists, we have In 1817 Colonel Davey was succeeded in the governhere a body of inforination respecting the past, and espe- ment by Colonel Sorell. The first object which engaged cially the present state of the country, embracing almost the attention of the new Governor was the suppression every particular with which either a person intending to of an evil under which the colony had for some years emigrate, or the general reader, can desire to be ac- been suffering, the ravages of the bush-rangers, as they quainted.
and Van Diemen's Land was discovered so long ago as the roamed at large in the woods. The capture and execuyear 1642, by the Dutch navigator Tasman, who gave it tion of the principal leaders of these marauders in a the name which it still bears, in honour of his employer short time put an end, for the present, to their destrucAnthony Van Diemen, the then governor of the Dutch tive inroads. Colonel Sorell then applied himself to the possessions in India. It was not however till the year improvement, in various ways, of the internal condition 1804 that the country was taken possession of by Eng- of the colony. Amongst other important public works land. In the early part of that year Colonel David he formed a road between Hobart Town and LauncesCollius, having been appointed Governor of the pro- ton, another settlement which had been made about a jected settlement, arrived on the island with about four hundred and twenty miles farther north. hundrect prisoners in charge, and a force of fifty marines About 1821 may be said to have begun the emigration under his command. He was accompanied also by from England, which has since proceeded almost with severai gentiemen, commissioned to fill the various situa- uninterrupted steadiness. The immediate consequence tions in the new government. They fixed their head was, “ that trade began to assume regularity, distilleries quarters on the site of the present capital, to which they and breweries were erected, the Van Diemen's Land gave the name of Hobart Town, after Lord Hobart, the Bank established, St. David's church at Hobart Town then Secretary for the Colonies. "The Colony," pro- finished and opened, and many other steps taken, ceeds the narrative before us, “ being thus founded, con- equally indicative of the progress the colony was tinued to take root, although at times suffering very great making.” In 1824 a supreme court of judicature was hardships. Indeed those who recollect them, and see established in the colony. The same year Colonel Sorell what the place has siuce become, will be of opinion that was replaced by Colonel Arthur the present Governor. Very soon after Colonel Arthur's arrival, bush-ranging have changed; for privileges were then grai.ted to hopagain broke out in a more formidable mamer than ever; grounds. Tusser, in his · Five Hundred Points of good but by the judicious plans which he adopted for its sup- Husbandry,' printed in 1557, thus sings the praises of pression, " in the course of a few months,” says the pre- this plant :sent writer, “not only was tranquillity entirely restored, The hop for his profit I thus do exalt, but was placed on so firin a basis, that it is next to im- It strengtheneth drink and it flavoureth malt; possible ever to be again disturbed by a similar cause." And being well-brewed long kept it will last, In December 1825, Van Diemen's Land was declared
were called, or prisoners who had made their
And drawing abide, if ye draw not to fast. entirely independent of New South Wales; and an exe- In the reign of James 1. the plant was not sufficiently cutive and legislative Council were appointed as advisers cultivated in England for the consumption; as there is to the Governor, the members of both being named by a statute of 1608 against the importation of spoilt hops. the Crown. In 1827 the island was divided into eight In 1830, there were 46,727 acres occupied in the culti police districts, each of which was placed under the charge vation of hops in Great Britain. of a stipendiary magistrate. The colony about this time Of barley, there are now above thirty million bushels
began to export considerably, loading several ships annually converted into malt in Great Britain ; and more each season to England, with wool, bark, and oil.” than eight million barrels of beer, of which four-fifths
A new evil, however, now began to assail the colony, are strong beer, are brewed yearly. This is a consumpwe mean the hostility of the natives. After various tion, by the great body of the people, of a favourite attempts had been made in vain to tame them, or to beverage which indicates a distribution of the national deter ihem from continuing outrages against the settlers, wealth, satisfactory by comparison with the general the Governor, at last, in September 1830, deemed it poverty of less advanced periods of civilization in our necessary to resort to the extreme measure of endeavour own country, and with that of less industrious nations in ing to drive them into one corner of the island, with the our own day.-- Vegetable Substances used for Food. intention of there inclosing them for the future. For
FAIR PLAY. this purpose the whole of the inhabitants were called upon to arın themselves, and to lend their aid to the brate his marriage feast. All the elements were propitious
A nobleman resident at a castle in Italy was about to celemilitary. The result had not been completely successful except the ocean, which had been so boisterous as to deny at the time when the latest accounts left the country. In the course of the year 1828 the colony, and Hobart of the feast, however, a poor fisherman made his appearance,
the very necessary appendage of fish. On the very morning Town in particular, made a decided step in advance. with a turbot so large, that it seemed to have been created In 1829 a new Act of Parliament was passed for the for the occasion. Joy pervaded the castle, and the fisher. government of the colony, the most important provisions man was ushered with liis prize into the saloon, where the of which were, the transference of the power of levying nobleman, in the presence of his visitors, requested him to taxes from the Governor to the Legislative Council, and put what price he thought proper on the fish, and it should the extension of the authority of all the laws of Eng-man, on my bare back, is the price of my fish, and I will not
be instantly paid him. One hundred lashes, said the fisher land to Van Diemen's Land, as far as the circumstances bate one strand of whip-cord on the bargain. The nobleof the colony permitted.
man and his guests were not a little astonished, but our Such is a brief sketch of the origin and progress hi-chapman was resolute, and remonstrance was in vain. At therto of this young, but advanced and flourishing colony. length the nobleman exclaimed, Well, well, the fellow is a Our next week's publication will contain ali account of humourist, and the fish we must have, but lay on lightly, its present state.
and let the price be paid in our presence. After fifty lashes had been administered, Hold, hold, exclaimed the fisherman,
I have a partner in this business, and it is fitting that he ANTIQUITY OF BEER,
should receive his share. What, are there two such madThe general drinks of the Anglo-Saxons were ale and caps in the world, exclaimed the nobleman, name him, and mead: wine was a luxury for the great. In the Saxon he shall be sent for instantly; you need not go far for him, Dialogues preserved in the Cotton Library in the British said the fisherman, you will find him at your gate, in the Museum, a boy, who is questioned upon his habits and shape of your own porter, who would not let me in, until I the uses of things, says, in answer to the inquiry what for my turbot.Oh, oh, said the nobleman, bring him up
promised that he should have the half of whatever I received he drank" Ale if I have it, or water if I have it not.” | instantly, he shall receive his stipulated moiety with the He adds, that wine is the drink “ of the elders and the strictest justice. This ceremony being finished, he diswise.” Ale was sold to the people, as at this day, in charged the porter, and amply rewarded the fisherman. houses of entertainment; “ for a priest was forbidden by a law to eat or drink at ceupealethetum, literally, places writer on the Human Mind and on Government, mentions
CHANGES OF MANNERS.-John Locké, the celebrated where ale was sold.” After the Norman conquest, wine in his Journal, in the year 1679, the following as the amusebecame more commonly used; and the vine was ex- ments of London to be seen by a stranger:-“At Marebone tensively cultivated in England. The people, however, and Putney he may see several persons of quality bowling two held to the beverage of their forefathers with great per or three times a week all the summer; wrestling, in Lincoln's tinacity; and neither the juice of the grape nor of the Inn Field every evening all the summier; bear and bulle apple were ever general favourites. of a favourite baiting, and sometime prizes at the Bear-Garden; shooting wassail or drinking-song of the fifteenth century, the in the long-bow and stoß- ball, in Tothill-fields." burden was,
ANIMAL SAGACITY. - In the immense forests of North Bring us home good ale,
America; the moose-deer is hunted by the Indians with such “ The old ale knights of England,” as Camden calls are called forth for the preservation of its existence. Tanner,
relentless perseverance, that all the instincts of the quadruped the sturdy yeomen of this period, knew not, however,
a white man who lived thirty years in the woods, thus the ale to which hops in the next century gave both describes the extraordinary extent of the moose's vigilance: flavour and preservation. Hops appear to have been —“In the most violent storm, when the wind, and the used in the breweries of the Netherlands in the be-thunder, and the falling timber, are making the loudest and ginning of the fourteenth century. In England they most incessant roar, if a man, either with his foot or his were not used in the composition of beer till nearly two hand, breaks the smallest dry limb in the forest, the moose centuries afterwards. It has been affirmed that the will hear it; and though he does not always run, he ceases planting of hops was forbidden in the reign of Henry course of an hour, or thereabouts, the man neither moves,
eating, and rouses his attention to all sounds. If in the VI.; and it is certain that llenry VIII. forbade brewers nor makes the least noise, the animal may begin to feed to put hops and sulphur into ale. In the fifth year of again, but does not forget what he has heard, and is for Edward VI., the royal and national taste appears to many hours more vigilant than before.”.
THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS.
strength. Mr. Lloyd, in his Northern Field Sports, The greater number of our readers must have heard of says, he walks with facility on his hind legs, and in the Zoological Gardens, in the Regent's Park, at London, that position can bear the heaviest burthens." Indeed which have been established about four years, and which Mr. Neilson (a Swede) says,
a bear has been seen now comprise the finest Menagerie in the world, if we walking on his hinder feet, along a small tree trai regard the number and variety of the animals. The ex. stretched across a river, bearing a dead horse in his pense of this establishment, which amounts to many fore-paws.” thousand pounds a year, is maintained by the annual subscriptions of the Fellows of the Zoological Society, and the payment (a shilling) by each person who is recommended by the ticket of a proprietor. It is not our intention to give a description of all the various animals there; but we shall from time to time notice any remarkable circumstance that occurs, as illustrative of their habits; or we shall mention any new curiosity which is purchased by the Society, or presented to it.
The Wapiti, in the Zoological Gardens, shed his innmense horns on the 6th of February last. Their weight was twenty-one pounds five ounces. In 1831, he shed them on the 1st of February, when their weight was twenty-three pounds two ounces. In captivity, therefore, the Wapiti shows no deviation from the law of nature. which he exhibits in his own American forests,-that he should shed his horns, or bony excrescences, every year. All the deer tribe are subject to this law. Already the new horns of the Wapiti are beginning rapidly to growat first looking like a soft velvety substance, and gradually getting harder and more branching, till they Decome the gigantic antlers, which within a year will drop off, again to be renewed. It is generally considered that the horns of the deer tribe increase in size les the animal advances in age ; but in the individual nstance of the Wapiti of the Zoological Gardens, the horns of 1932 weigh less, by one pound thirteen ounces, than those of 1831.
APRIL 1.—The anniversary of the birth of the ceia
brated philosopher, René Des Cartes, who was born A very large bear, of the species called the Grizzly, has at La Haye, in Touraine, in 1596. When a child been recently brought to the Zoological Gardens. This is he was so remarkable for the anxiety he showed tu the largest and most ferocious of the bear tribe-the know the cause of every thing, that his father used to most terrible quadruped of North America, whom even call him his young philosopher. He entered the army the Indians, accustomed as they are to every danger, when very young; and continued to serve for some years. fly from and fear. He is exceedingly tenacious of life, but zealously pursued his mathematical and other stu and thus, if he encounters a single Indian, there is little dies all the time. An anecdote, illustrative of the exchance of destroying him with the generally fatal rifle. tent of his acquirements under apparently unfavourable Lewis and Clark, two enterprising travellers in the circumstances, is given in • The Pursuit of Knowledge wildest regions of North America, describe an encounter under Difficulties." He happened to be in garrison with a bear of this species. Six hunters went to atlack with his regiment at the town of Breda, in the Netherhim : four fired, and each wounded him. The two who lands, when, walking out one morning, he observed a had reserved their fire, hit him when he sprang forward. crowd of people assembled around a placard or adverBefore they could again load, the fearful animal was tisement which was stuck up on the wall. Finding ripon them. They fled to a river; four were able again that it was written in the Dutch language, which he did to fire, concealed behind a tree, and again hit him. He not understand (for he was a native of Touraine, in turned upon thein, aud they were obliged to throw them- France), he inquired of a person whom he saw reading selves into the water, from a bank twenty feet high. He it what it meant. The individual to whom he addressed took also to the water in chace of his hunters ; and had his inquiries happened to be the Principal of the Uni not one of the two men who remained on shore shot versity of Dort, a man of distinguished mathematical him through the head, the hindmost swimmer would at attainments; and it was with something of a sneer that least have rued the perilous adventure.
he informed the young officer, in reply to his question, The Brown Bear of the northern parts of Europe is that the paper contained the announcement of a difficult 11ct so ferocious as the Grizzly Bear, but of prodigious geometrical problem, of which the proposer challenged