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change from its simplest state. In the second example, the verb is changed into be, because not only doubt is expressed, but reference is made to futurity. If it be found otherwise, i. e. if it shall hereafter be found otherwise. In the third example, the verb is changed into were, because not only condition or supposition is expressed, but the verb that follows it is in the potential mood, which in general will not associate with this verb, in either of the other forms. Thus, in the example last given, we cannot say, If I am you, &c. nor, if I be

you; but we must say, as in the third form, If I were you, I would not hesitate.

Mr. Lindley Murray, in exhibiting the opinion of different grammarians on this subject, notices a theory which bears a near resemblance to the one here adopted. After formally stating three different opinions, he remarks, “We may add a fourth opinion, which appears to possess at least much plausibility. This opinion admits the arrangement we have given, (i.e. the arrangement given in Murray's Grammar,) with one variation, namely,that of assigning to the first tense of the subjunctive, two forms: 1st, that which simply denotes contingency; as, If he desires it, I will perform the operation; that is, if he now desires it, 2d, that which denotes both contingency and futurity: as, It he desire it, I will perform the operation; that is, If he should hereafter desire it.

This last theory of the subjunctive mood, claims the merit of rendering the whole system of the moods consistent and regular; of being more conformable than any other to the definition of the subjunctive; and of not referring to the indicative mood, forms of expression, which ill accord with its simplicity and nature."

This theory we deem correct as far as it extends; but we consider the addition of another form to the present subjunctive of the verb to be an improvement; since neither of the two forms specified above, will in general associate with a verb in the potential mood. To other verbs we have given two forms only of this tense.

For the information of learners, it may be proper to make a few remarks in this place relative to the application of some of the auxiliaries, &c.

The first is, that shall and will, when they do not denote futurity, may be considered, as well as their variations should

and would, as belonging to the potential mood. But as they generally signify futurity, they have been appropriated, as helping verbs, to the formation of the future tenses of the indicative and subjunctive moods.

The next remark is, that the auxiliary will cannot be correctly applied to the first person, in the second future tense of transitive verbs; nor the auxiliary shall to the second and third person.

The impropriety of such associations may be inferred from a few examples: I will have had

previous notice whenever the event happens: Thou shalt have served thy apprenticeship before the end of the year; He shall have completed his busiwhen the

messenger arrives. I shall have had; thou wilt have served; he will have come pleted, &c.would be correct and applicable.

Another remark is, that as the indicative mood is converted into the subjunctive, by the expression of a condition, motive, wish, supposition, &c. being superadded to it; so the potential mood may in like manner, be turned into the subjunctive; as will be seen in the following 'examples: If I could de

ness

ceive him, I should abhor it: Though he should increase in wealth, he would not be charitable: Even in prosperity he would gain no csteem, unless he should conduct himself better.

It may also be observed, that the terms made use of to designate the three past tenses, are not exactly significant of their nature and distinctions,

But as they have been adopted by grammarians in general, and especially as the meaning attached to each of them has been carefully explained, there seems to be no essential objection to their use.

The verb to have is conjugated in the following manner:

TO HAVE.
INDICATIVE MOOD.

Present Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1. I have.

1. We have.
2. Thou hast, or you have. 2. Ye or you have.
3. Hm, she, or it hath or has. 3. They have.

Imperfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1. I had.

1. We had. 2. Thou hadst, or your had. 2. Ye or you had. 3. He had.

3. They had.

Perfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1. I have had.

1. We have had. 2. Thou hast had, or you have 2. Ye or you have had. had.

3. They have bad. 3. He has had.

Pluperfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1. I had had.

1. We had had. 2. Thou hadst had, or you had 2. Ye or you had had, had.

3. They had had. 3. He had had.

First Future Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1. I shall or will have.

1. We shall or will have. 2. Thou shalt or wilt have, or 2. Ye or you shall or will hare.

you shall or will have. 3. They shall or will have. 3. He shall or will have.

Second Future Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1. I shall have had.

1. We shall have had. 2. Thou wilt have had, or you 2. Ye or you will have had. will have had.

3. They will have had. 3. He will have had.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Singular.

Plural. 2. Have, or have thou or you, 2. Have, or have ye, or do ye

or do thou or you have. or you have.

POTENTIAL MOD.

Present Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1. I may or can have.

1. We may or can have. 2. Thou mayst or canst have, or 2. Ye or you may or can have. you may or can have.

3. They may or can have. 3. He may or can have.

Imperfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1. I might, could, would, or 1. We might, could, would, or should have.

should have. 2. Thou mightst, &c. or you 2. Ye or you might, could, would,

might, could, would, or should or should have. have.

3. They might, could, would, or 3. He might, could, would, or should have. should have.

Perfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1. I may or can have had 1. We may or can have had. 2. Thou nayst or canst have 2. Ye or you may or can have

had, or you m'y or can have had. had.

3. They may or can have had. 8. He may or can have had.

Pluperfect -Tense.
Singular.

Plural 1. I might, could, would, or 1. We might, could, woald or should have had.

should have had. 2. Thou mightst, &c. or your 2. Ye or you might, could, would,

might, could, would, or should or should have had. have had.

3. They might, could, would, or 3. He might, could, would, or should have had. should have had.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.

Present Tense.--First Form.
Singular.

Plural. 1. If I have.

1. If we have. 2. If thou hast, or if you have. 2. If ye or you

have. 3. If he, she, or it hath or has. 3. If they have.

Present Tense.-Second Form.
Singular.

Plural. 1. If I have.

1. If we have. 2. If thou or you have. 2. If ye or you have. 3. If he have.

3. If they have. The remaining tenses of the Subjunctive mood are in every respect similar to the correspondent tenses of the indicative mood, with the exception before made. See page 58.

INFINITIVE MOOD.
Present. To have. Perfect. To have had.

Participles.
Present. Having:

Perfect. Had.
Compound perfect.

Having had. AUXILIARY VERBS. Auxiliary or helping verbs, are those, by the help of which the English verbs are principally conjugated. They are, do, be, have, shall, will, may, can, with their variations; and let, and mu

which, as, auxiliaries, have no variation. Let, as a principal verb, has lettest and letteth.

The principal auxiliaries, or those which are most used, and capable of the greatest variations, are be and have. But these, as may be seen in the fore

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