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the time, when these
these numerous

may enjoy the blessings of our higher civilization. We must never forget that what they are, we might have been; and what we are, they may be. This account is written by one who has been much amongst them, and who knows their habits well.

2. The African, the writer tells us, has no idea of any ruling Providence, or of a future state; he trusts to luck and to magic charms; but he can be educated to know better, and he has proved himself to be quick at learning. Each district and each village has its chief, who has absolute power, though he is guided in a great measure by his "greybeards,” or elders, who constantly attend his residence, and talk over affairs of state. These state affairs are commonly petty internal matters.

3. When an elephant is killed, the chief claims a share of the meat, and one of the tusks, as his right; further, all leopard, lion, or zebra skins are his by right. The magician, who pretends to find out all secrets by some kind of witchcraft, has great power among the people. He can keep any traveller out of the country, by foretelling that, if he should set his eyes on the soil, all kinds of evil, such as famines, or wars, will come upon them. All this is believed by these poor, ignorant people.

4. This magician pretends to find out all these things by means of a cow's or antelope's horn, which he stuffs full of some kind of powder, which is believed to be magical. This horn is then fixed firmly into the ground in front of the village, and is believed to have sufficient power to keep off an enemy. By holding this horn in his hand, the magician pretends that he can find any thing that has been stolen or lost. So strong is the belief in the power of these charms, that the natives pay the magician for sticks, stones, or even mud, which he has doctored for them.

5. Sometimes other and more horrible devices are practised. By inspecting the body of a fowl which has been flayed to death, the magician pretends to find out if any war is likely to happen. If so, he beats to death a young child, and laying the mangled body on the path, directs all the warriors to step over it on their march to battle, and thus ensure victory. Utter disregard for human or animal life is one of the darkest stains of the savage character.

6. The slavery which still exists among these savage tribes is one great cause of laziness, for the masters become too proud to work, lest they should be thought slaves themselves. In consequence of this, the women look after the household work, such as brewing, cooking, grinding corn, making pottery and baskets, and taking care of the house and children, besides helping the slaves whilst cultivating, or even tending the cattle sometimes.

7. The constant state of warfare between neighbouring tribes makes it all but impossible for the African to grow out of his savage condition. He has only time to provide for his daily food. As his fathers did, so does he. He sells his children, enslaves all he can lay hands upon, and, unless he is fighting, he contents himself with drinking, singing, and dancing to drive dull care away. He cares not to store up much property, lest his chief or his neighbours should take it from him.

8. Even these people, with all their faults, might be made into a happy, industrious, and prosperous people, if a wise, just, and strong government were placed over them, and if their vices and superstitions could be driven away by the introduction of a true and more elevating faith in God.

Speke. QUESTIONS.—As the African has no idea of Providence or of a future state, what does he chiefly trust in? How is the chief of a district or village guided in the use of his power ? What does the chief claim as his right? Show how a magician can exercise great power. Explain by what means a magician pretends to find out what is going to happen. How can he find out what has been lost or stolen ? How does he pretend to know when a war is likely to happen ? What steps does he take to secure victory? How does slavery affect the men ? How does it affect the women ? State the reasons which prevent the African from growing out of his savage condition. What would make the African tribes a happy and prosperous people ?



flight, swiftly passing ere-while', formerly
sur-vives', lives

un-con'-scious, insensible
al-tern'-ate, by turns ves'-tige, trace
ob-liv'-i-on, forgetfulness an'-nals, history
1. Once, in the flight of ages past,

There lived a man—and who was he ?
Mortal! howe'er thy lot be cast,
That Man resembled thee.

2. Unknown the region of his birth,

The land in which he died unknown :
His name has perished from the Earth ;

This truth survives alone :-
3. That joy and grief, and hope and fear,

Alternate triumphed in his breast;
His bliss and woe,

-a smile, a tear !--
Oblivion hides the rest.


4. The bounding pulse, the languid limb,

The changing spirits' rise and fall, -
We know that these were felt by him,

For these are felt by all.
5. He suffered, but his pangs are o'er;

Enjoyed, -but his delights are fled;
Had friends,—his friends are now no more ;
And foes,—his foes are dead.

6. He loved,—but whom he loved, the grave

Hath lost in its unconscious womb :
Oh, she was fair! but naught could save

Her beauty from the tomb.
7. He saw-whatever thou hast seen;

Encountered—all that troubles thee;
He was—whatever thou hast been ;

He is—what thou shalt be.
8. The rolling seasons, day and night,

Sun, moon, and stars, the earth and main,
Erewhile his portion, life, and light,

To him exist in vain.
9. The clouds and sunbeams, o'er his eye

That once their shade and glory threw,
Have left in yonder silent sky

No vestige where they flew.
10. The annals of the human race,

Their ruins since the world began,
Of him afford no other trace
Than this—there lived a man !

James Montgomery.



leis'-ure, spare time

ex-plore', examine ad-dict'-ed, given to

trem'-u-lous, shaking se-ques'-ter-ed, hidden ve-loc'-i-ty, great speed glit'-ter-ing, shining

yelp, bark
peer'-ed, carefully looked baf'-fled, disappointed

1. During the winter of 1844 I had much leisure to devote to the sports of the new country.

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