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time of Plutarcb, "in the street leading to the gate at the heroum of Chalcodon, then called the Peiraic gate'." The Athenians were then turned by the enemy, and retreated as far as the Eumenides (at the north-eastern extremity of the Areiopagus2); but here receiving a reinforcement from the Palladium, Ardettus, and Lyceium 3; that is to say, from the north-eastward, the right of the Amazones was again defeated, and they were forced to retreat to their camp. It seems clear, therefore, that the Peiraic gate was beyond the Pnyx, in proceeding from the Museium,—the Athenians having on that occasion been the assailants, and victorious. In their subsequent retreat, they were driven almost to the walls of their fortress; but when joined by the reinforcement, which marched by the northern side of that height, they again resumed the offensive, once more overcame the right wing of the Amazones*, and obliged the whole body to retire to their camp, which we may suppose to have been situated beyond the site of the Asty, in some part of the plain.

1 Ttp\ riiv w\aruav Tqv tpipnvtrav tnl rat jruXac wapa To XaXicwCovrot fipfov, dc vvv IWipcuKac ovofidZovai.—Plut. Thes. 27.

2 Pausan. Att. 28, 6. See above, p. 160.

'The Lyceium we have seen was on the outside of Diocharis, or the eastern gate. Ardettus was near the Panathenaic Stadium. Harpoc. in 'Ap&jmic.

4 It has been supposed by Reiske (Plutarch. Op. I. p. 789), and by others, that the second tiztov in Plutarch is an error of the text for iviiw^iov; that is to say, that the Athenians, when reinforced, attacked the left of the Amazones, towards which their retreat had brought them: but the alteration is not necessary, nor is it of any great importance to the topographical question.

The heroum of Chalcodon, at the Peiraic gate', seems to accord with the sepulchral monument at the gate by which Pausanias enters Athens, and which he describes as bearing the figures of a horse and man, the work of Praxiteles2. If we may judge by numerous monuments of later times, inscribed with the title Jjpo>c, and bearing similar figures in relief, these were common accompaniments of heroic monuments. This apparent coincidence, therefore, favours the opinion, that Pausanias commences his description of the city at the Peiraic gate.

Plato and Xenophon afford reasons for believing, that even during the existence of the Longo-mural inclosure, the ordinary route from the Peiraeeus to Athens passed to the northward of it. The former alludes to a person ascending from the Peiraeeus to Athens, under the northern wall'; and Xenophon states, that the Peiraeeus was approached by a carriage

1 Chalcodon was the father of one of the wives of yEgeus. Athen. 13, 1 (4). Sehol. Eurip. Med. 671.

'Pausanias asserts (Att. 2, 3), that he was ignorant for whom the statue of the warrior was intended: but, as the Athenians had doubtless a name for it, this ignorance of Pausanias was affected, either because he did not agree with the tiijyijrat on this point, or because the statue had been inscribed with some modern name.

8 Aeovrwc 6 'AyXaiuvOQ avuav Ik I If tuaitig iiiro To (iopuov rii\oc Iktuq. De Republ. 4, 14. There was probably a succession of sepulchral monuments on the outside of the northern wall, as in all other parts of the suburbs of Athens. Pausanias notices those of Menander and Euripides in the way from Peiraeeus to Athens (Attic. 2, 2. See above, p. 108); that of the Augur of Thrasybulus appears to have been in the same route at the ford of the Cephissus (Xenoph. Hellen. 2, 4, § 19), and the epitaph on the tomb of Euphorion, which describes that monument as having been

road, along which the troops of the Thirty marched ', when they proceeded from the city, against Thrasybulus, in the Peiraeeus.

Many considerations lead, therefore, to the belief not only that Pausanias commenced his description of Athens at the Peiraic gate, but that this gate was in some part of the inclosure of the Asty between Pnyx and Dipylum. Some reasons may be alleged in favour of placing it, not in the pass at the northern end of the bill of Pnyx, but beyond the height, which is on the northern side of that pass:—1. The passage of the ridge is here less steep than at the opening near Pnyx. 2. On this supposition, if the Sacred gate was the same as Dipylum, the wall broken down by Sylla in a single night was of an easier length. 3. Here the route of Pausanias leads into a more central part of the inner Cerameicus, whereas the other position would have led to its south-eastern extremity. 4. The Pompeium would thus have been situated very conveniently for its purposes', near the great street of Cerameicus, through which the Panathenaic processions passed, soon after having entered the city at Dipylum.

at the UiipaiKa axcXti, leaves little question that it was similarly situated. Anthol. II. p. 43, Brunck.

1 i^upovv Kara rijy it rdy Utipaia 'Afia^iroy ayafipovtray. Xenoph. Hellen. 2, 4. § 10.

* Paus. Att. 2, 4. See above, p. 108.

SECTION IV.

First Part of the Route of Pausanias through the City.From tlie Stoa Basilcius to Enneacrunus.

The position of the gate at which Pausanias begins his description of Athens is an essential preliminary to the understanding of that description; the author having left us to deduce the order of his narrative from the places mentioned by him, on the presumption that his readers could not be ignorant of the relative situation of those places. In endeavouring to follow him, it is essential not to lose sight of this circumstance, or to forget that the topographical connexion of the historical and mythological remarks, which were his principal objects, is generally indicated with extreme conciseness, and sometimes entirely neglected; and that it was a part of his plan to omit the notice of those things which he considered the least interesting.

His description of Athens seems capable of the following arrangement. Entering the city at the gate which I have assumed to have been the Peiraic Gate, he passes by the Pompeium, and through a succession of Stose, adjacent to which was a gymnasium and several temples of the gods, and joins, not far from the Stoa Basileius, the great Ceramic street, which led from Dipylum to the Agora and the Acropolis. His subsequent progress through the city may be divided into five parts. J. Departing from the Stoa Basileius, he proceeds by the Metroum and the Council-house of the Five Hundred to the Tholus, and from thence by the statues of the Eponymi to the temple of Mars, near which were the statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, on the ascent to the Acropolis. He then describes the Odeium, near the fountain Enneacrunus, together with that fountain and some temples beyond it. 2. Resuming his position at the Stoa Basileius, he proceeds by the temples of Vulcan and of Venus Urania to the Pcecile, and terminates his description of various public buildings, in the part of the city northward of the Acropolis, at the Prytaneium. 3. He descends from the Prytaneium to the temple of Jupiter Olympius; after which he notices the Gymnasia, and the suburbs, on the eastern side of the city, including the Stadium. 4. Beginning anew from the Prytaneium, he proceeds by the quarter of Tripodes to the temple and theatre of Bacchus, and ascends from thence to the Propylsea of the Acropolis. 5. Lastly, he describes the Acropolis, and having descended from thence to the Areiopagus, concludes with an account of the cemetery of the exterior Cerameicus, and the third of the great Athenian Gymnasia without the walls, namely, the Academy.

The great difficulty in this arrangement, and which has been the principal cause of the doubts thrown upon the truth of the positions assigned in the preceding pages to Enneacrunus and the Peiraic gate, is the want of continuity in the succession of objects in the first division of the narrative of Pausanias:

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