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copious source a little above Syriáni on the face of Hymettus, to the east of Athens, joins the other branch near the site of the Lyceium. Its source, the καθαρών γάνος Ηριδανοιo of an ancient poet, was probably the same as that called Callia at Pera, where stood a temple of Venus', and which by no means deserves the contemptuous remark of Callimachus or Strabo?, applicable only to the torrent in the drought of summer. The longer branch of the Ilissus rises at the northern extremity of Hymettus, and receives a contribution from Pentelicum, from whence it proceeds through the vale of Ambelokipo, in a direction which is nearly that of the united river.

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Fourth Part of the Route of Pausanias :-From the

Prytaneium to the Propylæa of the Acropolis.

Tripodes. BESIDES the street leading from the Prytaneium to

the Olympieium, there was another which branched from the same place towards the Lenæum or sacred inclosure of Bacchus, adjacent to the theatre. This street as well as the quarter through which it passed was called Tripodes, from the tripods there dedicated by the leaders of the Chori, who had been victorious in the scenic contests of the Dionysiac theatre. Some of these tripods were placed upon small temples dedicated to Bacchus and other deities, some of which temples were in the street, and others within the Dionysiac sanctuary, which included the theatre. Two of these temples still exist; one of them is the cavern, now the church of Panaghía Spiliótissa, which supported the tripod of Thrasyllus, and contained within it the figures of Apollo and Diana destroying the children of Niobe: the other is the building vulgarly called the Lantern of Demosthenes, which an inscription on its architrave shows to have been


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erected by a victorious choragus named Lysicrates : Monument the apex of this monument proves beyond a doubt crates. that it once supported a tripod, and the whole accords exactly with the words ναός υποκείμενος τη Tpírod, which are applied by Plutarch to a monument erected by Nicias in the Lenæum'. It seems evident, therefore, that this was one of the temples in the quarter of Tripodes, and that upon the summit of it there stood a large tripod, and probably a statue within it?

It may be thought, perhaps, that the circumstance of this building having been entirely closed is incompatible with the supposition of its having been a vads

1 Eιστήκει δε των αναθημάτων αυτού καθ' ημάς τό τε Παλλάδιον έν 'Ακροπόλει την χρύσωσιν αποβεβληκός και ο τοίς χορηγικούς τρίποσιν υποκείμενος εν Διονύσου νέως ενίκησε γάρ πολλάκις χορηyhoaç. Plut. Nic. 3.

? The three legs of the tripod formed an equilateral triangle of three feet the side. The whole height of the monument was thirtyfour feet, of which the square basis was fourteen feet, the body of the building to the summit of the columns twelve feet, and the entablature, together with the cupola and apex, eight feet. The cylinder was formed of six curved slabs of marble, the vertical junctures of which were covered with fluted Corinthian columns one foot two inches in diameter, projecting from the outside of the cylinder rather more than the semidiameter. The capitals of the columns were completed within the cylinder, but not in the same finished manner as without. The wall was surmounted with a frieze of tripods, of the same height as the capitals of the columns, two between each capital. These tripods give an additional proof of the intention of the monument. The slabs within the cylinder were polished, although there was no access into it, as the basis was solid, with the exception of a small rough hollow in the centre. For the details of this curious and elegant structure, see Stuart Ant. of Ath. I. 4.

or temple. In so small a building, however, (only six feet in diameter within,) it was natural that the artist or the victorious choragus, should in preference have bestowed all the expense on external decoration, there having been no alternative but that of leaving the columns open for the display of a statue, in a manner which seems to have been common among the Romans. To the interior of the monument of Lysicrates, on the contrary, there was no access, and it may therefore be described as a ψευδοναός, although it was equally sacred to the deity chiefly worshipped in this quarter, as we find clearly indicated by the frieze, representing in relief the destruction or transformation of the Tyrrhenian pirates by Bacchus and his dæmons'. The inscription on the architrave states only that Lysicrates son of Lysitheides led the chorus when the boys of the tribe Acamantis were victorious, when Theon played the flute, when Lysiades wrote the piece, and when Evænetus was archon”, that is to say, in the same year in

daíu wv tūv apoi Aróvvoov "Akpatos (Pausan. Attic. 2, 4). The destruction of the Tyrrhenian pirates by Bacchus was a favourite subject among the painters and sculptors of Athens, like the labours of Hercules and Theseus, the battle of Marathon, and the contest of the Centaurs and Lapithæ. Philostratus (Icon. 1, 19) describes a picture, in which the transformation of the pirates was represented, as on the monument of Lysicrates.

? Λυσικράτης Λυσιτείδου Κικυννεύς έχορήγει, 'Ακαμαντίς παίδων ενίκα, θέων ηύλει, Λυσιάδης Αθηναίος εδίδασκε, Ευαίνετος ήρχε.

The dedication of the tripod was made at the expense of the choragus or leader of the chorus (sometimes represented by the whole tribe, or even by the people of Athens). The orator Lysias (in defens. largit. p. 698, Reiske) informs us that the expenses of providing a chorus of men, and of consecrating a tripod, were five

which Alexander the great passed over into Asia (B.C. 335—4).

As the temple could not have had any statue within it, we may be the more assured that it was one of those monuments, which had images within the tripod, and it may therefore have been either that which contained the satyr of Praxiteles, or that which was the work of Thymilus, representing Cupid and Bacchus, with a young satyr presenting a cup to the latter deity ?

We have already seen that the Lenæum, which Lenæum. contained two temples of Bacchus, was contiguous to the theatre, which was itself within the sacred inclosure 2: and we learn from Vitruvius that it served as a place of shelter to the people, whenever a sudden fall of rain interrupted the scenic representations of the theatre 3. The only situation in

thousand drachmæ ; but those of Lysicrates were probably much
greater. Many remains of choragic monuments are still found
at Athens, chiefly of the fifth, fourth, and third centuries, B.c. See
Boeckh, C. Ins. Gr. No. 211 et seq. 217, 221 et seq. The same
form of inscription is found upon all these monuments; that of the
monument of Thrasyllus, erected B.c. 320, differs not from those
upon the choragic dedications of Aristeides and Themistocles,
about 485 B.C., as reported by Plutarch (Arist. 1. Themist. 5.)
though of course in all those, prior to the archonship of Eucleides
(B.C. 403—2) the four Ionic letters, which were then added in
public documents, to the old Attic alphabet, are not found.
* See above, p. 137.

? See above, p. 137, 185.
• Post scenam porticus sunt constituendæ, uti cum imbres
ludos interpellaverint, habeat populus quo se recipiat ex theatro,
choragiaque laxamentum habeant ad chorum parandum: uti sunt
porticus Pompeianæ, itemque Athenis porticus Eumenia, patrisque
Liberi fanum, et exeuntibus e theatro sinistra parte Odeium,
quod Athenis Pericles (al. Themistocles) columnis lapideis dis-

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