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probably an artificial construction in front of the cavern. Here, or in the cavern itself, were six statues of the Furies, and three of the terrene deities (x Obviol Oeoi). In an exterior inclosure was the monument of Edipus'.

Between the temple of the Semne and the lowest gate of the Acropolis stood the heroum of Hesychus, whose descendants were priests of those goddesses. Here also was the monument of Cylon?, erected in the place where he had been slain.

phocles (Cd. Col. 40, vide et 107), having usually been considered the daughters of Uranus and Euonyme, or the Earth (Hesiod. Theogon. 185. Istrus ap. Sch. Soph. Cd. Col. 42), had very naturally a subterraneous onkòs, like that of their mother Earth, on the ascent of the Acropolis : and hence also the employment of torches in their ceremonies.

* Pausan. Attic. 28, 7. See above, p. 161.

? Prior to the sacrifice made to the Eumenides, a ram was immolated to Hesychus, oỗ ipov kor Tagà rò KuÀó vuoy croc Tūv évvéa mudūv. Polemon ap. Schol. Soph. Cd. Col. 489, on which see the remarks of K. O. Mueller in his Eumenides, p. 179, and in the notes to Rienäcker's translation of the first edition of the present work. Polemo probably designated the entrance of the Acropolis as the “Nine Gates ", because, in the time of Cylon, the old Pelasgic works remained, and the Cylonium was a little without the position of the lower gate.

3 It was in the time of Solon, or about 600 B.c. that Cylon, in attempting to maintain his usurpation of the sovereign power, was blockaded in the Acropolis, and was obliged to surrender, together with his adherents, on condition that they should be allowed to justify themselves in the court of Areiopagus (according to Thucydides, Cylon and his brother had previously escaped). In order to secure themselves from their enemies while proceeding from under the protection of Minerva to that of the Eumenides, the Cylonii tied a rope to the statue of Polias, and with the other end of it had arrived very near the sanctuary of the Furies, when the rope

The remarks of Pausanias on the Areiopagus lead him to enumerate the other courts of justice at Athens'; and with these he closes his description of the city, with the sole exception of the few words which he bestows on the ship employed in the Panathenaic procession to which I have already adverted?. As he mentions ten courts, including the Areiopagus, we may be persuaded that these were the ten principal courts which were distinguished by the ten initial letters of the Attic alphabet, beginning with the Areiopagus. Two of his names, however, Batrachius and Phænicius, are not found in any other author: but, as we know that some of the courts were distinguished by colours 4 as well as letters, there is reason to believe, that, in the instance of those two courts, the names derived from their colours -grass green and scarlet—had superseded, in common use, their other appellations. They were probably the same as the Epilycum and the Metichium: 1. Because the two latter names are the ninth and tenth in the enumeration of Julius Pollux !, whose eleventh, the Ardettus, had ceased to be a court at a very early period. 2. Because the Metichium was evidently one of the ten, being described as a péya dikaoth plov; and, 3, Because the other eight, enumerated by Julius, are the same which, together with the Batrachius and Phænicius, make up the ten named by Pausanias.

broke. They were then considered as abandoned by Minerva ; those who were outside the sanctuary were stoned to death, and those who fled to the altar of the Semnæ were there slaughtered. A plague ensued: Epimenides was sent for from Crete : his expiations were successful, and he would receive no other reward for his services than a treaty of alliance between the Cnossii and the Athenians, or, according to Plutarch, a sprig of the sacred olivetree. Herodot. 5, 71. Thucyd. 1, 126. Plutarch. Solon. 12. Præcept. Polit. 27. Diogen. Laërt. 1, 109. Suid. in ’Exquevidns. Pausan. Attic. 28. See above, p. 157.

See above, p. 161. * See above, p. 298.

* Schol. Aristoph. Plut. 277. In the Ecclesiazusæ (677) Praxagora alludes to this custom when she declares her intention of issuing tickets, marked with the letters of the alphabet from A to K, entitling the bearer to a supper in one of the Stoæ, and sending the last to a Stoa in Peiræeus.

* Aristot. de republ. Athen. ap. Schol. Aristoph. Plut. 278. Bekker Anecd. Gr. I. p. 220. Suid. in Bartnpla kai ovußodov. Schol. Aristoph. Vesp. 1105.

In regard to the situation of these courts of justice, that of four of them has already been indicated, namely, of the Areiopagus, Palladium, Prytaneium, and Delphinium? The Bucoleium was near the Prytaneium :: the Phreattys was on the shore of one of the harbours of Peiræeus 4. The Parabystum, or court of the Eleven, is placed by Pausanias in an obscure part of the city; from which, and from the court taking cognizance of matters of small importance, he derives the name. But others give a different interpretation of the word 5. The Heliæa, the greatest of the Athenian judicatures, and commonly

J. Poll. 8, 121. For the functions of the principal courts of justice, see Demosth. c. Aristoc. p. 645, Reiske. Lex. Rhet. ap. Bekker, Anecd. Gr. I. p. 262, 310. Meurs. Areop. 11.

2 See above, p. 165. 233. 269. 273. 3 Suid. in " Apxwv.

4 Pausan. Attic. 28, 12. See above, p. 162, and below, in Section IX.

5 Etym. M. in v. Bekker, Anecd. Gr. I. p. 292. Ilapaßvorov, according to these authorities, meant ô Xáopa ékpivEv.

called to uéya dikaothplov, in which 1500 were sometimes assembled, we may conceive to have been in or near the most ancient part of the Agora, as it was at least coeval with Solon; it was perhaps the úrokátw dekaothpov, or lower court, as contrasted with the Areiopagus, which was called the avw Bouir from its lofty situation, as well as its precedence in the state ? If this conjecture be well founded, the Heliæa probably occupied a situation in the valley to the south of the Areiopagus and south-westward of the Acropolis; for on every other side the former height appears to have been surrounded by archeia, temples, stoæ, and other monuments. The situation alluded to was very near the most ancient Agora.

Having finished his description of the city, Pausanias proceeds from Dipylum to the Academy, in descending to which he describes a Peribolus of Diana or Hecate, containing wooden statues of “the best and fairest of goddesses ?," and a small temple of Bacchus; to which, on stated days, the statue of Bacchus, which had originally been transferred from Eleutheræ to the Lenæum, was brought from the latter place. On either side of the road through

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* Pausan. Attic. 20, 2. 29, 2. 38, 8.

the outer Cerameicus to the Academy were sepulchral monuments of Athenians who had been slain in battle, with the exception only of those who fell at Marathon, and who were buried on the spot'.

For some remarks on the outer Cerameicus and Academy, sec Appendix XVIII.

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