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Here the interval is double some of the shortest distances between the other gates, and there can be little question as to any gate having occurred in this interval, the walls being clearly traceable in this part of the periphery. This exception however to the ordinary intervals between the gates may be sufficiently accounted for by the steep and rocky nature of the hill of Museium, which admitted of no convenient situation for a gate, in the line where the walls crossed it.

Besides the principal gates, there were doubtless several 7ruAi'Sfc» similar to that of Panops, which was situated between the Diomeise and Diocharis, and some traces of which were observed by Fauvel.

APPENDIX I.

Page 8.

ON THE TYREHENI PELASGI.

The fortifying of the Acropolis by the Pelasgi, is one of the most curious incidents in the early history of Athens. From whence they came is uncertain, but the epithet Tyrrheni or Tyrseni, which Herodotus and others give to them, may incline us to the belief that they were a portion of the Pelasgi, who are said to have been driven out of Tuscany: for Tyrrheni was the name which the Greeks constantly applied to the people of that country. The first Pelasgi who came to Athens, were joined soon afterwards by some others, who had been compelled to .retire from Bceotia by the Bceoti, when these returned to their original seat on being expelled from Arne of Thessaly by the Thessali coming from Epirus. The Tyrrheni Pelasgi when exiled from Attica, settled in Lemnus and Imbrus, and these were the Tyrrhenian pirates, whom Bacchus was fabled to have converted into dolphins, and of whom the earliest notice is in the Homeric hymn. As the Pelasgi were already dispersed and destroyed as a nation, at the time of the Trojan war, we must look to a much higher date for their acme, and accordingly the general testimony of history tends to show that before the arrival of the Phoenician and Egyptian colonies on the south eastern coast of Greece, the Pelasgi existed as a tribe of Greeks, who had already derived letters and arts from the same

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quarter, through Asia Minor, and by means of their superior intelligence had governed a great part of Greece, but who were gradually confined by less civilized but more powerful tribes, to the north of Thessaly and some parts of Macedonia and Epirus. Others passed over into Italy: those of Peloponnesus after an intermediate colonization on the western side of Greece, others by crossing the Adriatic into Middle Italy, whither they conveyed the use of the alphabet, and where they fortified many strong positions in the manner of their native country '. The numerous remains of these fortresses or their repairs, especially in the central part of Italy, indicate the long prevalence in that country of a state of society, exactly resembling the Pelasgic or earliest civilized state of Greece, when that country was divided into small independent tribes dwelling in fortified towns, sometimes at war, sometimes in alliance with each other. The first Pelasgic or Greek emigrants were followed by others ; they were not always successful in establishing themselves where they had intended, and some of them, or their descendants, were under the necessity of returning to Greece. Among these were the Pelasgi who went to Athens. Even before the Trojan war, the Pelasgi were so much dispersed, that the name and nation were extinct except in Thessaly, and in some small districts or towns of Epirus, Macedonia, Thrace, and Asia Minor'.

1 (ffinotrus) tpnuri iroXnc /iiitpdc cot i»Kj(tic iirt role optffiv, 8<rjrep »/v role iraXmoic rpoiroc oini}Oiu>Q ffuvi'/Sijc. Dionys. Antiq. Rom. 1, 12.

'A tendency or liability to wander, to colonize and to settle in small communities in foreign countries, was perhaps a necessary consequence of the geographical construction of the native land of the Greeks, and of its position with regard to surrounding countries. The Pelasgi of the fifteenth century carried letters once more into Italy. Greeks engaged in commerce, and seldom unmindful of letters, have from that time been found in all the great cities of Europe and Asia, and even of America, not to mention the larger communities, which took refuge, and have continued to reside in the countries immediately bordering on Turkey. In London, the Greeks were most numerous in the reign of Charles the second, when Greek street, Soho, was named from them. Under the patronage of that king, and of his brother, the Duke of York, and assisted by donations from them, as well from Compton, bishop of London, and other prelates, they built a church, which still exists, with a Greek inscription upon it, attesting these facts.

The similarity, not to say the identity, which is remarkable in the alphabets as well as in the most ancient military architecture of Italy and of Greece, affords in its combination an unquestionable proof of the reality of the Pelasgic migrations, without having recourse to tradition, which however is not deficient. The same kind of monumental evidence gives an approximation to their date; for we may observe, 1. That the Etruscan, Oscan, Samnite, and Latin letters are similar to the earliest form of the Greek; and that they were written at the time of their introduction into Italy, from right to left like the Phoenician, and other oriental characters, whereas by the Greeks the alphabet was employed at a remote period in the opposite direction', probably even before the time of Homer; although in short documents, we often find it, at a much later period, written from right to left, or in the transition state of Boustrophedon.

2. That the ancient fortresses of Italy belonging to the Pelasgic state of society, resemble in their positions, their construction, and dimensions, those of Greece which were built in the ages prior to the Trojan war, as appears from the extant walls of numerous places named in the catalogue of Homer; those places having ceased to be of importance after that event, when a new form of society gradually established itself in Greece, and when in general the (UKpoirokirai quitted their fortresses and collected themselves into larger towns.

3. That in Italy, although the Pelasgic or early form of the Greek language did not displace the indigenous dialects, the latter adopted, together with the alphabet, many Greek words, and that the names of a great number of places in Italy, which are situated and fortified exactly in the Pelasgic manner of Greece, are of Greek derivation.

'A Phrygian specimen of the alphabet, of the seventh century B.c, on a rock near Nacoleia, is engraved from left to ri};lit. See " Journal of a Tour in Asia Minor," p. 21.

4. That the mythology of Italy closely resembled that of Greece, that some of the names of deities were identical, that if others were not so, the same kind of dissimilitude occurred in different parts of Greece, and that even the heroes of Italy were in general of Greek origin.

Among the people of Italy who profited by Pelasgic migration, the Etrurians by means of their federal union and the wisdom of their institutions, obtained far greater and more permanent power than any others. Before the foundation of Rome they had attained to great skill in almost all such manufactures as were known to the ancients, and in the imitative arts they had formed a school little inferior to the archaic Greek, and which to the last resembled the Greek, though still distinguishable from it like a family long separated from the original stock. Etruria in short was nearly in the same state as the monarchies or federal unions of Greece when in the ninth and eighth centuries, B.c, the redundant population of Greece sought colonial settlements in all the surrounding countries, and bringing with them wealth, naval power, and skilful men in various branches of art, found no difficulty in obtaining lands on the coast of Italy as far north as Etruria, including a part of that country, and inland as far as Rome. In some instances they established themselves in unoccupied sites near the sea, but more frequently they enlarged the bounds and population of places inhabited by people among whom they found the kindred manners which had been introduced by the Pelasgi.

The discoveries which have lately been made in the Papal states within the ancient Tyrrhenia, of numerous vases bearing Greek inscriptions, are monumental illustrations of these later Greek migrations, not less satisfactory than those afforded of the earlier or Pelasgic, by the alphabets, by the names of places and deities, and by the fortresses. On some vases of archaic design, are found

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