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feet in depth, having a roof sustained by six Ionic columns standing in a double row, and thus dividing the vestibule into three aisles. These columns, although only three feet in diameter at the base, were, including the capital, nearly thirtyfour feet high; their architraves being on the same level with the frieze of the Doric colonnade. The ceiling was laid upon beams, which rested upon the lateral walls and upon the architraves of the two rows of Ionic columns; consequently there were three lengths of these beams in the whole breadth of the Propylæum. The beams covering the side aisles were twenty-two feet long, and those of the centre aisle seventeen feet, with a proportional breadth and thickness. Such masses raised to the roof of a building, standing upon a steep hill, and covered with a ceiling most elegantly adorned and painted, may excuse the notice which they received from Pausanias', though he is silent as to masses equally large and more numerous in the Parthenon ; for the wide space within this Propylæum, interrupted only by the six columns, gave a more advantageous view of the ceiling than could be obtained in any portico of a peripteral temple.
1 Τα δε Προπύλαια λίθου λευκού την οροφήν έχει, και κόσμο και μεγέθει Tūv Níowv je xpi yɛ šuoū a poeixe. Attic. 22, 4.
It is to the roof generally, including the pediment, that we are to apply the detos a por úlanos, which seems to have become proverbial. Bekker, Anecd. Gr. I. p. 202, 348.
Some idea of the elegance and magnificence of the great vestibule of the Propylæa may be formed from an inspection of the plates of the Propylæum of Eleusis, in the Inedited Antiquities of Attica : for it appears that this building was almost an exact counterpart of the Athenian Propylæum, both in design and dimensions. Revett (in Stuart's Antiquities of Athens, II. 5, pl. 4) has disfigured the beautiful Ionic columns, by placing them upon a high square base. But their bases have now been found to resemble those of the Propylæum of Eleusis. The capitals, therefore, differed little probably from those of the latter. Spon, though he had such a transient view of this building, and did not even discover that it was the Propylæa, had remarked that the columns were Ionic : “Il est d'ordre Dorique par dehors, mais les colonnes qui le soutiennent par dedans sont Ioniques, parcequ'étant plus hautes de toute l'épaisseur de l'architrave pour en soutenir le lambris, la proportion de l'ordre Ionique, qui fait la colonne plus haute que le Dorique, lui convenoit mieux." Tome 2, p. 81.
ON THE TEMPLE OF VICTORY.
The Cimonian, or southern, wall of the Acropolis terminated to the west in a sort of bastion; the western wall of which has already been mentioned as forming a right angle with the end of the Cimonian wall, and as having at the foot of it, in the body of the wall itself, two niches, which I have supposed to have been the adytum of the temple of Tellus and Ceres'. At the northern end, this wall forms an angle of 109 degrees with the northern wall of the bastion, which thus directed falls in a line with the third or lowest step of the southern wing of the Propylæa. The western wall is about thirty-five feet long, and twenty-nine feet high, at the adytum ; the northern wall is thirty feet long, and, standing on the slope, diminishes in height from the north-western angle of the bastion to the foot of the Propylæa : along the foot of it there is a flight of steps, which ascended from the level of the temple of Tellus to the Propylæa, and at the summit, led by a lateral smaller flight to a platform on the summit of the bastion, upon which stood the temple of Victory very near the western edge and north-western angle of the platform. This temple was constructed like the other public buildings of Athens, of Pentelic marble : it is raised upon a stylobate of three
i See above, p. 303.
steps, and is twenty-seven feet in length from east to west, with a breadth of eighteen feet; there is a space of about thirteen feet between it and the southern wall, and on the northern side a triangular space, of which the greatest breadth was less than six feet. This bastion, at the end of the Cimonian wall, having been the only part of the inclosure of the citadel which resembled a tower, with the exception of a smaller projection on the north-eastern side, seems to have been commonly called ó núpyog; for a statue of Hecate Triformis by Alcamenes, which stood by the side of the temple of Victory, was surnamed Epipyr
The temple of Victory was of the species called Amphiprostylus Tetrastylus, which had four columns at either end of the cella, and not any on the sides. The order was Ionic; the columns, including the base and capital, were thirteen feet and a half high, and one foot ten inches in diameter above the base. The external length of the cella was sixteen feet, the height of the entablature three feet nine inches, the total height of the temple to the apex of the pediment, including the stylobate, twenty-three feet.
The chief decoration of the building was a zophorus, or frieze, one foot six inches high, which encircled the exterior of the whole building, and represented in a kind of relief, which was higher than that of the cella of the Parthenon, and resembled that of the hyperthyra of the Theseium, various actions, adapted (we may presume) to a temple in which Minerva was worshipped in her character of the victorious goddess, or rather of Victory itself (Nían ’AOnvā”); and was represented by a statue, which bore a
pomegranate, the type of abundance, in the right hand, and a helmet, symbolical of military virtue, in the left'.
Of the four marbles belonging to the frieze which are now in the British Museum”, two are six feet one inch, the other six feet eight inches in length; the former represent in a continued design a battle between Greeks and Persians, the latter of whom are distinguished by crescent-shaped shields and long loose dresses. The other two marbles represent a battle, in which the warriors engaged on both sides are on foot, and are distinguished as Greek hoplitæ by great round shields and helmets, though poetically represented as naked, or clothed only with a small chlamys, or a short chiton. · In the excavation of the year 1835, which brought to light the remains of the temple, the greater part of the other component pieces of the frieze were discovered. Those of the eastern side are found to agree with the words of Spon, inasmuch as he remarked, in passing the front of the temple, that the reliefs on the frieze represented “a seated figure; before and behind which were nine or ten on foot 3." But, in fact, there were not less than twenty-eight or thirty figures in this front, and about 140 in the whole composition. These have so much suffered from time and from the barbarians, who have scarcely left any of the heads, that no very satisfactory conclusion can be derived from the examination of them ; especially as our information on the Athenian mythus of Victory is too scanty and uncertain to afford much assistance in the explanation. All we know is, that as Níkn ’AOnvā, or identified with Minerva, her statue was without wings, and we may presume that this statue, styled by the authors who mention it as a Fóavov", was either more ancient that the extant temple, having belonged perhaps to an earlier on the same spot, or was an imitation of a more ancient figure with the same attributes. In subsequent times Victory was figured as a young female with large golden wings. In the fifth century B. C. she was thus described by Aristophanes', and was thus represented by Phidias on the hand of Jupiter at Olympia, and of Minerva Nernpópos in the Parthenon. The wingless Victory, however, was still worshipped ; for Calamis in the same age made an imitation of the Athenian statue, as described by Heliodorus, for the Mantinenses, who placed it, on the occasion of some victory, beside a Minerva at Olympia, which had been dedicated by the people of Elis, and made by Nicodamus of Mænalus, who had represented the goddess as armed with her helmet and ægis ? Possibly the Athenian mythus supposed Victory to have been presented with wings when she was admitted into Olympus. That the later Victory was winged, and the earlier without wings, is in some measure confirmed by the fable, according to which the wings of Love were transferred to Victory, when the former was expelled by the gods from Olympus'. When it became customary to attach wings to representations of Victory in painting, sculpture, and verse, the Victory of the Acropolis naturally assumed the distinctive epithet of antepoç.
1 Νίκη Αθηνά. Λυκούργος εν τω περί της Ιερείας. ότι δε Νίκης Αθηνάς ξόανον άπτερον έχουν εν μέν τη δεξιά ροιάν, εν δε τη ευωνύμω κράνος, έτιμάτο παρ' Αθηναίοις, δεδήλωκεν Ηλιόδωρος ο περιηγητής εν τη πρώτη Tepi 'Axporólewc. Suid. in v. V. et Harpocr. in v. ? See above, p. 321.
3 See above, p. 320. • Heliodorus ap. Ilarpocr., Suid. I. 1. Pausan. Eliac. pr. 26, 5.