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sanctity of the statue, by preventing it from being seen when the great door was open, unless when purposely exhibited.

At Ephesus there was a similar curtain, differing only from that of Olympia by its having been let down from the roof instead of having been drawn up from the floor! It would seem, therefore, that such curtains were usual in large hypæthral temples, and it becomes probable that the triados of the Parthenon was an embroidered piece of tapestry, which, having been previously displayed in the procession of the greater Panathenæa, was suspended until the next occurrence of the festival as a curtain before the statue of Minerva Parthenus. In fact, the object presented by a boy to the priest on the frieze of the Parthenon, has precisely the appearance of such a tapestry in a folded form, and has no resemblance whatever to the drapery of a female figure '. Although mapaméragua was the ordinary word for a tapestry, whether employed as a curtain or as a horizontal covering', tréndos may have been the term applied at Athens to this particular papanbragua, in consequence of its having been a dedication to Minerva Parthenon, analogous to that of the more ancient offering to Minerva Polias, which was a néndos, according to the original and ordinary meaning of the word. And thus we should have an explanation of the passage of Julius Pollux, in which he states that the word té doç had a double meaning ; that of a garment, and that of a covering, or of something interposed? At Athens it appears to have had this double signification.

1'Εν δε Ολυμπία παραπέτασμα έρεούν κεκοσμημένον υφάσμασιν 'Ασσυρίοις και βαφή πορφύρας της Φοινίκων ανέθηκεν 'Αντίοχος, ού δή και υπέρ του θεάτρου του 'Αθήνησιν ή αιγίς ή χρυσή και επ' αυτής η Γόργω ή ες τα αναθήματα. τούτο ουκ ές τό άνω το παραπέτασμα προς τον όροφος, ώσπερ γε εν 'Αρτέμιδος της Έρεσίας, ανέλκoυσι, καλωδίοις δε επιχαλώντες καθιασιν is tò idapoç. Pausan. Eliac. pr. 12, 2.

2 The only testimony which has been adduced as adverse to this conclusion (see Wordsworth, Athens and Attica, p. 125) is in the scene of the Birds of Aristophanes, in which play the customs of Athens are constantly alluded to. In reply to Euelpides, enquiring who is to be the guardian deity of the aerial city, and for whom they are to weave a peplus, Peisthetærus replies by asking, “ why Minerva Polias should be forgotten.”

EY. ........ rig dai deos

Πολιούχος έσται και το ξανούμεν τον πέπλον;

ΠΕΙ. Τί δ' ουκ 'Αθηναίαν εώμεν Πολιάδα ; Minerva, however, had a peplus in both capacities, and it was obviously as Πολιάς of Athens that she would become Πολιούχος of Nephelococcygia. The Scholiast, indeed, supposes the poet to have referred to the airlos Tauroix los, which was exhibited in the Panathenaic procession ; but late writers often confounded the Parthenon and the temple of Polias. Eren Clemens of Alexandria, who had considerable knowledge of the topography and monuments of Athens, describes the chryselephantine statue by Phidias as triv 'AOñvyoi Ilodiada. Protrept. 13, 14, Sylburg.

According to Pausanias, the curtain of the Olympian temple was made of wool, adorned with Assyrian embroidery, and dyed with Phænician purple, and it was the gift of the same Antiochus who had presented a golden Ægis and Gorgon, placed above the theatre at Athens. In referring to Ephesus for an example of an ascending curtain, Pausanias renders it likely that the peplus of the Parthenon was a descending curtain, like that of Olympia ?.

1 [lapanéraquara Mnoixà are mentioned by Aristophanes (Ran. 936), showing, as well as the upcopara 'Acoúpla of Pausanias (1. 1.) and the Babylonica tapetia of the Latins, the origin of that embroidered tapestry in which the Athenians far excelled their Asiatic masters in the ornamental, if not in the material part, though the skill of the latter nations has survived that of Athens ; and even in these times retains a portion of its ancient fame. The custom of hanging curtains at the doors of churches was one of the enduring customs of the east, where it is still found in all buildings, and from the Greek temples it descended to those of the Christians. For napanéragua, in the sense of a curtain suspended vertically, see Aristophanes 1. l., Diphilus ap. Athen. 6, 2, Synesius, Ep. 4 ; Suid. in v., who gives Bilov (velum) as a synonym. In the sense of an awning to shade a theatre from the sun, see Dion Cassius (63, 6), who describes one on which the figure of Nero in a chariot was embroidered (évéOTIKTO), surrounded with golden stars.

2 Πέπλος ..... δ' έστι διπλούν την χρείαν, ως ενδύναι και επιβάλλεσθαι: και ότι επίβλημά έστι τεκμήραιτ' άν τις εκ των της Αθηνάς πέπλων ότι kai xiTwv, &c. J. Poll. 7, 50.

3 On the supposition of a hypæthrum, we have an explanation of the karavirtns, whose office it was to cleanse the lower part of the Peplus, this being obviously that part which would suffer most from its exposure to the hypethrum; teooov 'A0nvuiv ở rà card ric Advas evalvóneva årordúvwv. Etym. M. in karavintus.

Qu. 5. There are some doubts as to the manner in which

this peplus was exhibited in the Panathenaic procession, and as to the length of time during which the custom of exhibiting it was continued.

The frieze of the Parthenon preserves no evidence of that exhibition of the peplus which is attested by writers of later time'. The earliest allusion to it is by Plato in the Euthyphron, where Socrates, after mentioning the contests of the gods and giants, which often formed the subject of pictures in the Athenian temples, remarks that the peplus, which was carried in procession to the Acropolis, was covered with ornaments of the same kind? And Harpocration and Photius quote Isæus, as saying that the Peplus, which was carried in procession to Minerva in the great Panathenæa, had been noticed not only by orators but by comic poets'.

We may presume, from the manner in which it was adorned, that it was spread out in such a manner as to be well seen by all, who were present at the procession : and this is confirmed by Plutarch in the life of Demetrius, who relates that the peplus, in proceeding through the Cerameicus (Teutóuevos dià toh Kepausikov), in the great Panathenæa of the year b.c. 307, was torn by a sudden squall; an accident which was ascribed to the wrath of Jupiter and Minerva, because the figures of Demetrius and his father Antigonus had been embroidered upon the peplus, together with those of the two deities'. The manner in which it was displayed may be gathered from a fragment of Strattis, one of the kwuikoi alluded to by Isæus, who describes it as having been drawn up by ropes like a

1 See above, p. 298. και ο πέπλος μεστός των τοιούτων ποικιλμάτων ανάγεται εις την ακρόnoliv. $6.

3 περί του πέπλου του αναγομένου τη 'Αθηνά τους μεγάλους Παναθηναίοις, ου μόνον παρά ρήτορσίν έστι μνήμη, αλλά και παρά τοις κωμικούς. Isæus ap. Harpocr., Phot. Lex. in IIéndos.

4 Plutarch. Demet. 12.

sail to the top of a mast', where Photius shows that it was suspended to a yard, which, together with the mast, formed the figure T'. Thus raised and displayed, the peplus, together with its machinery, was elevated, according to Virgil, upon a chariot'.

At what time a ship was substituted for a chariot, or rather when the chariot assumed the form of a ship', and how long the ship continued in use, there are no means of discovering. Though it was still in existence in the time of Philostratus, as his νυν ώρμισται testifies, the word ήκουον, with which he introduces the notice of it, seems to show that it was no longer employed as a part of the procession. Nor does Pausanias, who visited Athens in the time of Herodes, assert that the ship was even at that time employed

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in the procession, but only that it had been constructed for that purpose'. So that it may possibly have been an innovation, in the Panathenaic ceremony, which was not of long duration, though the ship may have continued to be one of the curiosities of Athens, recommended to the attention of strangers, as it appears to have been in the time of Pausanias : it may have been imitated perhaps from the ceremonies of Egypt, where many of the sculptured temples exhibit a ship as a conspicuous object among the sacred processions ; and may have been introduced at Athens in the reign of Hadrian, when the religion of Egypt was much in fashion.

I am also inclined to deduce from the words of Philostratus, that, although the peplus itself was carried up to the Parthenon, the ship did not enter the Acropolis : for, instead of ascending to the Propylæa, after passing the Pelasgicum, he describes it as having proceeded to the Pythium, which, supposing that temple to have been the same as that of Apollo Patrous, was between the north-western end of the Areiopagus and the Stoa Basileius, being very nearly the situation which Pausanias indicates, as that of the ship. There may even be a question whether the Panathenaic procession, except during the time that the ship formed a part of it, made the long tour by the Eleusinium. Earlier authors are silent, both as to the Eleusinium and the ship; and mention only the Cerameicus as having been traversed, or the Hermæ of the Agora as having been passed?, by the procession in its way to the Acropolis: It would appear from the third Oration of the sophist Himerius, that, among other attempts made by the emperor Julian to revive paganism, was that of establishing the Panathenaic ceremony and the procession of the ship.

" See above, p. 162. 2 Demetrius, a descendant of Demetrius of Phalerum, made a scaffold at the Hermæ, higher than the Hermæ, for his mistress Aristagore to view the Panathenaic procession. We have seen that one end of the street of Hermæ terminated at the Stoa Basileius, which was in the route as the procession passed through the interior Cerameicus. Hegesandrus ap. Athen. 4, 19 (64).

3 Thucyd. 6, 57.

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