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of the building was the adytum of the temple of Polias, or of that of Pandrosus, but this problem seems sufficiently solved by the existence of a remarkable difference of level between the eastern and western portions of the edifice, the eastern portico standing upon ground about eight feet higher than the northern, whence we may infer that the two temples themselves had the same difference of level, consequently that all that portion of the building, which is on the lower level, belonged to the Pandroseium and the eastern apartment only to the temple of Polias. The superior elevation of this portion of the Erechtheium, we may observe, is consistent with the importance of the guardian goddess of Athens, relatively to the daughter of Cecrops receiving divine honour under her favour and protection', while the greater space allotted to the Pandroseium, may be accounted for by its having contained the salt well and olive tree, together with the sanctuaries of Pandrosus, Thallo, and Cecrops. As Pausanias describes the altars and dedications of the temple of Polias in three different situations, namely, before the entrance (npò rñs coódov); in the entrance (foedDovol), and in the temple (év vaq), the most probable inference is, that the altar of Jupiter Hypatus was in front of the portico, eastward : that in the portico were the altars of Neptune-Erechtheus, of Butes ', and of Vulcan : that on its wall were the pictures of the Butadæ : that in the cella, probably
i Those who favour the opinion that the central part of the building was the onkos or adytum of Minerva Polias (Mueller de Min. Pol. p. 23. Boeckh C. Ins. Gr. No. 160.) are led into one consequence to which there is a strong objection : it would then be necessary to imagine a descent from the outer to the inner apartment of the temple, by not less than twelve steps, which would have formed a singularly awkward approach to the revered Palladium. This difficulty has indeed been obviated by the supposition of a floor which equalized, or nearly so, the level of the whole interior, leaving some dark crypts, in which the monuments of Erechtheus and Cecrops are supposed to have been placed (see the figures in Boeckh C. Ins. Gr. I. p. 265). But in this case an ascent of steps would have been required from the northern door, not less objectionable than the descending steps from the eastern apartment.
? Stuart found, among the ruins of the temple, an altar of Butes, inscribed 'Iepéws Boúrov. (Ant. of Ath. II. p. 16. 22.)
near the western wall, stood the Palladium or ancient wooden statue of Minerva, before which was the golden lamp; and that in other parts of the same chamber were the altar of Oblivion, the wooden statue of Hermes, the chair of Dædalus, and the Persian spoils ?.
The difference of level between the floors of the two temples having been so great as eight feet, it is difficult to believe that there was any direct communication between them except by a door opening from a crypt below the temple of Polias, into the cella of the Pandroseium, remains of which door have been observed in the lowest part of the wall of separation? The crypt had probably an access into the apartment above it, by means of a secret staircase. That there was at least some mode of communication through the temple of Polias into the Pandroseium, is shown by an occurrence which has been recorded by an Athenian writer of good authority, and which though trifling in itself, excited much attention at the time, having been considered an omen. In the third year of the 118th Olympiad (B.C. 306), a dog, in violation of the law which excluded these animals from the Acropolis, made her way into the temple of Polias, and having penetrated from thence into the Pandroseium, there lay down upon the altar of Jupiter Herceius, which was under the olivetree.
I See above, p. 152.
3 Philochorus ap. Dionys. de Dinarch. 3. See above, p. 339, n. 3. About the same time a star was seen from the sanctuary of Polias for many days, when the sun was shining : hepi töv avròv dè xpóvov kai év tý iepa μεθ' ημέραν, ηλίου τ’ εξέχοντος και ούσης αιθρίας, αστήρ επί τινα χρόνον Šyéveto &kgavís. Philochorus was himself the pávtis or iepóokotos, who explained that this pávraoua, as well as the onuciov of the dog, portended a departure of exiles (ovyáow v kd Dodov) not in consequence of any revolution, but from political considerations (OÚK ÉK uetapodñs a payuátwr, all' ŠV TÔ KaDeorúOY noliteia). In fact, soon after the restoration of liberty to Athens by Demetrius Poliorcetes, many citizens expatriated themselves in consequence of the part which they had previously taken. By év tqj ispo we are to understand the external sanctuary. Virgil represents the altar of Jupiter Ilerceius at which Priam was slain
Cecropium. The Cecropium we may presume to have been a portion
of the temple, and not a separate building ; because temples often had their origin in sepulchres, and because it is not likely that Erechtheus, when he founded this temple should have excluded the tomb of Cecrops, who had the reputation of having introduced the worship of Minerva into Attica.
That Cecrops was supposed to have been buried in some part of the temple of Minerva Polias, we learn from the testimony of Antiochus, a writer on Athenian antiquities of the fifth century, B.c. as cited by Clemens of Alexandria, as well as by two other Christian authors, one of whom quotes Antiochus as describing the tomb of Cecrops to have been in the Acropolis near the guardian goddess (παρά την Πολίουχον αυτήν) which words Arnobius writing in Latin, interprets in Minervio'.
There is reason to believe, however, that there were not in reality, any sepulchral monuments, either of Cecrops or of Erechtheus in the temple, Pausanias not having made any mention of them, but that, as in the instance of Theseus in the Theseium, the tradition of their interment in the temple was sufficiently preserved by the names Erechtheium and by Neoptolemus (Eurip. Troad. 482. Quint. Cal. 13, 222. Pausan. Messen. 17, 3. Arcad. 46, 2.) as shaded by an ancient bay tree.
Ædibus in mediis nudoque sub ætheris axe
Æn. 2, 512.
1 ’Ev tớ veq rñs ’AOnvās ły Aapioop (scil. arce Argivâ) rápoc totiv 'Ακρισίου, Αθήνησι δε εν 'Ακροπόλει Κέκροπος, ως φησίν 'Αντίοχος εν τω łyváry Tūv ioropuñv. Clem. Alexand. Cohort. ad Gent. p. 13. Sylburg.
Και γάρ 'Αθήνησιν, ως 'Αντίοχος εν τη εννάτη γέγραφες ιστορία, άνω γε εν τη 'Ακροπόλει Κέκροπός έστι τάφος παρά την Πολιούχον αυτήν. Theodoret. Therap. 8. iv. p. 908, Schutze.
In historiarum Antiochus nono Athenis in Minervio memorat Cecropem esse mandatum terræ. Arnob. adv. Gent. 6. p. 66. Rome, 1542.
Clemens names eleven celebrated temples in which ancient heroes or heroines had been buried.
Cecropium, the former of which became a common appellation for the whole building, while the latter was applied to a portion of it. This portion could not have been the eastern apartment, because in that case the southern prostasis or portico of Caryatides, not having touched the walls of that apartment nor commanded any direct access into it, could not have been described as ń apóotaolç ý zpòs To Kekponíų? Nor could the Cecropium have been the middle apartment of the entire building, because it seems clear from Plutarch and Pausanias, that the temple of Polias was separated from the temple of Pandrosus by a wall common to both’; this apartment, therefore, was the onkòs, or adytum of the Pandroseium. Nor was the Cecropium the western apartment, for this also was a part of the temple of Pandrosus, since the inscription describes the western wall as the wall before the Pandroseium, (ο τοίχος και προς TOŪ Ilavdpootlov,) in the same manner as the northern prostasis is described as before the thyroma (npòs toū Oupóuaros). There can be little doubt, therefore, that the western wall, with its columns and pediment was the front, the western apartment the pronaus, and the middle apartment the adytum of the Pandroseium ; and that the Cecropium was the space inclosed within the southern prostasis, hence designated as ń tpootaois ń apòs tū Kerponia. The windows between the engaged columns of the western wall performed the office of intercolumniations, in admitting a direct light to the door of the adytum of Pandrosus ; though a smaller quantity than usual was sufficient, as light entered abundantly through the thyroma, when it was open. It may have been for the sake of obtaining this auxiliary light, that the northern door was made unusually large, larger even than that of the apartment of the principal deity, and with a prostasis in proportion. Another motive may have been its importance, as the common entrance both of the Pandroseium and Cecropium.
1 It was probably not without intention that the apòs in this instance was made to govern a different case, from that which follows it in the instances of ywvía após toŨ Kerporiov, a póoTaoiç apòc ro✓ Ovpúuaros, and toixos #pòs toũ llavòpoociov. The angle, portico, and wall stood before the objects, to which they respectively related. The Cecropium was included within the southern prostasis, and was defined by it.
2 See above, p. 155. 338. 340. n. 1.
An interesting question arises as to the sacred objects in the lower or western temple. Pausanias, after having noticed the altars of Neptune, Butes, and Vulcan, in the portico of the eastern temple, and the pictures of the Butadæ on its walls, all which were connected with the mythology of Erechtheus Poseidon, naturally proceeds, before he adverts to Minerva Polias herself, to make mention of two other objects which had reference to Neptune, though they were not in the same part of the building, but within (ěvdov,) for as he adds parenthetically, the building is twofold (an doūv yap toti rò oiknua)'. He seems clearly, therefore, to indicate that the well with the mark of the trident on the rock, was in the lower temple. And two considerations favour the same opinion, 1. It is more probable, that the salt spring should be in the lower than in the higher level, the vein of water having apparently been the same as that of the Clepsydra, which issues near the grotto of Pan. Indeed, as the source was in a well (év ppéarı), that is to say, below the surface of the ground, the water may have been at a level, not very different from that where the Clepsydra issues from the side of the hill, about its middle height. Secondly, as there was no separate shrine or apartment sacred to Neptune, nor any statue of that deity, the probability is that the well was near the olive-tree, and that the two symbols of the renowned contest were placed in juxta position, as the deities themselves, accompanied by those symbols, were usually represented in Athenian art.
On this supposition both the well and the olive-tree were probably in the Cecropium, or southern prostasis ?;
I See above, p. 153. 2 Mr. Wilkins supports this opinion as to the well by his interpretation