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ON THE OUTER CERAMEICUS AND ACADEMY.
THERE were few objects at Athens more interesting, as illustrations of Athenian history, than those memorials of her distinguished citizens, which were preserved in the sepulchral monuments of the Outer Cerameicus. In the absence of the lost work of Heliodorus περί των μνημάτων, the brief description of this celebrated suburb in the twenty-ninth chapter of the Attica of Pausanias remains almost alone, to give us an idea of this compendious display of the past glory of Athens, which still gratified the traveller in the second century of our era, but of which nothing is now to be seen except a few fragments and foundations scattered over an open plain.
The first monument which presented itself on issuing from the gate , was that of Anthemocritus, the herald whom the Athenians accused the Megarenses of having slain in the year B.C. 445. As it is in treating of the Sacred Way, that Pausanias mentions this monument ?, and in a different place, that he describes those in the road which commencing at the same gate (Dipylum) led to the Academy', we may infer that the latter road branched from the Sacred Way, not far beyond the gate, but so far that the tomb of Anthemocritus, standing near the gate, occurred before the roads divided. Near the gate, also, were sepulchres of the Spartan polemarchs, Chæron and Thibrachus, of Lacretas an Olympic victor, and of other Lacedæmonians, who had fallen in Peiræeus in battle with Thrasybulus, in the year B. c. 403 ?. The first monument noticed by Pausanias on the road to the Academy, was that of Thrasybulus : next to it were those of Pericles, Chabrias, and Phormio. That of Pericles was a little to the right of the road. Then followed the tombs of those Athenians who had been slain in battle against the enemy by land or sea, with the exception of those who fell at Marathon, and who were interred on the spot. Soñdal or pillars were erected on the monuments, and inscribed on them were the name and demus of every citizen who had fallen, not omitting even those of the servile class.
1 See above, p. 36, n. 2.
2 It was a pò TÛV Tvwv according to Philip in his letter to the Athenians. Demosth. de Phil. Ep. p. 159, Reiske. 3 Attic. 36, 3.
First occurred the sepulchre of those who, under Leagrus and Sophanes, fell in action against the Edoni of Thrace, when having advanced as far as Drabescus, the latter fell upon them unexpectedly. Facing this sepulchre
i Attic. 29, 2.
2 Xenoph. Hell. 2, 4. $ 33. 3 Paullum ad dextram de via declinavi ut ad Periclis sepulchrum acce. derem. Cic. de fin. 5, 2.
* Cicero in adverting (de leg. 2, 26) to a law of Demetrius of Phalerum, which restricted the height of all sepulchral monuments to three cubits, mentions three kinds of monuments as customary at Athens ; the columella or short column, which was terminated with a moulding or other ornament above ; the mensa, or slab, which was similarly terminated, frequently with an åetos or representation of a gable roof, and the labellum or stele in the shape of a vase. All these are common among the antiquities of Athens.
5 The following description of these tombs by the Scholiast on Aristophanes (Av. 394) appears to be from Menecles : Padilovou dé évOev kai εντεύθεν εισί στήλαι επί τοίς δημοσία τεθαμμένοις εισι δε ούτοι οι υπό του δήμου πεμφθέντες, οι τε εν αυτή τη χώρα υπέρ της πόλεως τετελευτήκασι. έχoυσι δή και αί στήλαι επιγραφές που έκαστος απέθανεν.
o In the year B. C. 453. Herodot. 9, 75. Thucyd. 1, 100. 4, 102.
was a pillar upon which were represented two horsemen fighting : these were Melanopus and Macartatus, who died in opposing the Lacedæmonians and Baotians on the confines of the Eleusinian district towards that of the Tanagræi'. Next was a monument of the Thessalian horsemen, and another of the Cretan bowmen, who aided the Athenians when Attica was invaded for the first time by the Spartans under Archidamus, in the Peloponnesian war. Here also were the tombs of Cleisthenes, who arranged the Attic tribes as they still remained in the time of Pausanias ? ; of the Athenian horsemen, who fell together with the Thessalians on the occasion just mentioned; of the Cleonæi who came with the Argives to the assistance of the Athenians (at Tanagra); and of the Athenians who fell in battle with the Æginetæ, before the Persian war 3 ; of others who were slain in different places *; of the most distinguished of those who fell in the expedition to Olynthus”; of Melesandrus, who commanded a naval expedi
1 This was probably an action in the passes of Cithxeron prior to the battle of Tanagra : the passes leading to the Isthmus were at that time in the hands of the Athenians, and the Lacedæmonians were returning from Phocis. Herodot. 9, 35. Thucyd. I, 107. Diodor. 11, 80.
2 After the expulsion of the Peisistratidæ, in the year B. c. 510, Cleisthenes, leader of the popular party, having obtained the banishment of his rival Isagoras, increased the Attic tribes, which were then four in number, to ten. (Herodot. 5, 69.) In the time of Pausanias, his arrangement had lasted near 700 years.
3 Herodot. 6, 92.
* έστι δε και ανδρών ονόματα άλλων, διάφορα δέ σφισι τα χωρία των dyúvwy. Pausanias here alludes probably to the stele of which a portion is still extant, (Boeckh, C. Ins. Gr. No. 165.) and which recorded the names of the men who fell in the year B. c. 458-457, in Cyprus, Egypt, Phænicia, Haliæ, Ægina, and Megara (Thucyd. 1, 104. 105).
5 Two expeditions were sent to assist the Olynthii against Philip, in 349 B. c. and the following year. Philochor. ap. Dionys. ad Amm. 1, 9, $ 16. Diodor. 16, 53. But there was a greater and more ancient expedition to the same country, of which the principal action was fought in the Isthmus between Olynthus and Potidæa in the year preceding the Peloponnesian war, B. C. 432–431, when Callias, one of the commanders, together with a hundred and fifty Athenians, were slain (Thucyd. 1, 62). A
tion upon the river Mæander against Upper Caria'; of the Athenians who fell in the war with Cassander? ; of the Argives, who, in alliance with the Athenians, fought against the Lacedæmonians and Boeotians at Tanagra, with good success, until the Thessalians having betrayed the Athenians, the Lacedæmonians were successful ? ; of Apollodorus the Athenian, who, at the head of a foreign force sent by Arsites the satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia, defended Perinthus against Philip*; of Eubulus, son of Spintharus'; of those put to death for conspiring against the tyrant Lachares; and of those who having formed a design to eject the Macedonian garrison of the Peiræeus, were betrayed by confederates : here also were interred the Athenians who fell at Corinth, and “ whose fate, like that of the Lacedæmonians at Leuctra, where they were beaten by the Baotians alone, shows that courage without fortune is of little avail 6."
A single stele showed, by the elegies inscribed upon it, that it was erected over those who fell in the Peloponnesian war) in Eubea, in Chios, on the frontiers of Asia, and in Sicily: the names of the Plataenses were inscribed together with those of the Athenian soldiers ; and of the leaders, Nicias alone was omitted'. Upon another stele were recorded the names of those who fell in the same war) in Thrace and at Megara ; of those who fought under Alcibiades, when at his persuasion the Mantinenses and Eleians quitted the alliance of the Lacedæmonians, and of those who were victorious over the Syracusans before the arrival of Demosthenes in Sicily?. Here also were the sepulchres of those who fell in the naval action at the Hellespont (Ægospotami) ? ; in the battle against the Macedonians at Chæroneia * ; in the expedition under Cleon against Amphipolis ; ; and at Delium in the Tanagræa ® ; in Thessaly under Leosthenes?; of those who sailed with Cimon to Cyprus ® ; and of thirteen of the men who, under Olympiodorus, ejected the (Macedonian) garrison (from the Museium)'. Here also was a monument of the seamen of five triremes which the Athenians sent to the assistance of the Romans against the Carthaginians ; in the same road was the sepulchre of Tolmides and of the men who fell with him ''; of those who were slain in the great exploit under Cimon at the
fragment of the stele, erected in their honour, which was found near the site of the Academy, is now in the Elgin collection in the British Museum. It retains only the remains of twelve elegiac verses which preceded or followed the names. Boeckh, C. Ins. Gr. No. 170. As the object of the latter expedition was Potidæa, Pausanias alluded undoubtedly to the former, and has omitted to notice the latter monument.
1 For this unsuccessful expedition in the second year of the Peloponnesian war, see Thucydides, 2, 69.
2 Pausan. Attic. 25, 5 ; 26, 3. For a victory in this war, there was a trophy in the Agora : see above, p. 121.
3 The battle of Tanagra, B. C. 457.
5 Archon in the year B.c. 345-344, and a leading man in the party opposed to Demosthenes.
6 He alludes to the battle fought B. c. 394, at Epieikia, a place between Corinth and Sicyon (Xenoph. Hellen. 4, 2. $9--23); and which he balances against the defeat at Leuctra, in comparing the glory of Sparta with that of Athens.
Pausanias follows the historian Philistus in giving as a reason for this omission, that Nicias had surrendered himself to the enemy; whereas his colleague Demosthenes in his capitulation excepted himself, and attempted his own life.
? Of the two monuments last mentioned, the latter stele related to the earlier date, having recorded the names of those who had been slain during some years prior to the disaster of Sicily ; the former was the monument of those who fell in the latter part of the Sicilian expedition, and after its termination during the revolt of the Athenian allies, and until the battle of Arginusa inclusive. It appears that as the war was protracted, and many of the Athenians died at a distance from home, the honours of public sepulture became less frequent than they were at the beginning of the war (see Thucyd. 2, 34); and each monument comprehended a greater number of names. 3 B. C. 405.
4 B. c. 338. 5 B. C. 422.
& B. C. 424. ? In the Lamiac war, terminated by the battle of Crannon, in which Leosthenes was slain, B. c. 322. * B. C. 449.
9 About B. c. 282. 10 B. C. 147. Thucyd. 1. 108. 113. Pausan. Attic. 27. See above, p. 157.