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repair of the walls, by the treasurer of the state; conjointly with the 7r<i»Aj/ra«, or ten officers who had the charge of all public sales, leases, and contracts'. A chief architect and ten subordinates were appointed by the government; the required repairs were exactly described; the work was divided into ten parts, and the contractor named by whom each part was to be executed. We find, also, that a term of not less than five years was contemplated as the duration of the work; a delay, which seems incompatible with that apprehension of immediate danger which caused the measures of the year 339-8. Nevertheless, there is reason to believe, that the repair recorded in the inscription occurred very soon after that in which Demosthenes was employed, and was, in fact, a continuation of it. Lycurgus was at the head of the financial administration of Athens during twelve years, and this period appears to have begun at the time of the alarm excited by Philip'; but as, according to a law introduced by himself, he could not hold that office for more than one penteteris, or interval of four complete years, he governed under the name of a friend' in the two subsequent intervals. The presumption immediately follows, that his eldest son Habron, who is stated by the author of the life of Lycurgus to have held some high official situa

1 Hyperid. et Aristot. ap. Harpoe. in IlcuXi/rai. V. et Suid., Phot. Lex., Hesych. in v. Bekker. Anecd.Gr. I. p. 291. Boeekh's Economy of Athens, vol. I. p. 209.

* Lycurgus is stated to have restored, on an alarm of war, many of the defences of the city, which were in a ruinous state, simultaneously with the additions which he made to the navy (a\\a ri iroXXd rijc jroXfwc icartpprjKOTa Liravi\a(it, cat rptqpEic Tif Sriftqi TtrpaKoaiaQ jraiiftrcivaa. Phot. Bibl. Cod. 268, p. 1483.) This operation could only have occurred when the Athenians were preparing to defend themselves against Philip, and when we know that Lycurgus was in office (Vit. X. orat. in Hyperid.), or when they were preparing to oppose Alexander, in the year 336: hut the latter could not have been the first year of the financial administration t.f Lycurgus, because he governed twelve years in that capacity, and died about 325; luiving, a year or two before his death, been displaced by his adversary Menesiechmus (Phot. Bibl. 1.1. Dionys. de Din&rch. 11. Epist. Demosth. 3. Clinton, F. Hell. I. p. 159, 163): his administration commenced therefore before the year 336. On the other hand, itcould not have been long before the battle of Chferoneia ; because, until the preparations for war against Philip suspended those works of the Peirceeus, which Lycurgus completed,and caused the naval expenditure to be diverted to the former object, the distribution of the public funds had been in the hands of Eubtdus of Anaphlystus. Philochor. ap. Dionys. Ep. 1. ad Amni. 11. .(Eschui. cont. Ctesiph. p. 57 (417). Dinareh. cont. Demosth. p. 102. Plutarch. Prtecept. Polit. 15. It becomes highly probable, therp

fore, that the armament against Philip was the period at which the financial administration of Lycurgus commenced, as well as the penteteris, during which he governed in his own name. The circumstance alone of Callias, son of Habron of Bate, his brother-in-law, having been treasurer of war (ra/iuic Tu>v (TTpariuri/cwv) in the year of the battle of Chieroneia, renders it probable that Lycurgus was then in office. (See, on the date of the administration of Lycurgus, Boeckh's Economy of Athens, II. p. 184. C. Ins. Gr. No. 157. Mueller de Mur. Ath. p. 28.) If we knew exactly the age of Lycurgus at the time of his administration, we might form some judgment as to that of Habron ; but this is doubtful. Taylor (prsef. ad Lycurg. ap. Or. Gr. IV. p. 105, Reiske) supposes Lycurgus to have been born about 01. 93 (408-407 B. c), which would make him seventy at the time of the battle of Clueroneia; but it seems very unlikely that he should have begun his long administration at so advanced an age, or that he should have been so much as twenty or thirty years older than his colleagues, Demosthenes and Hypereides, pupils of Plato and Isocrates as well as himself, and who, without his advantages of birth, arrived at distinction as statesmen about the same time, and who, together with him, were the objects of the resentment of Alexander (Vit. X. Rhet. in Lycurg., Demosth., Hyper. Arrian. de Exp. Alex. 1, 10. Plutarch. Demosth. 23. Diodor. 17, 15.) Taylor rests his opinion entirely on the words of the biographer of the Ten Orators ( AwcoCpyoc irarpbg ijv AvtoQpovos Tov A vtovpyov, ov oi rpuwovra rvpavvoi iiriKTiivav); and those of Photius (p. 1484—uloc uiv i/i> Auntypovoc Tov Avcovpyov, ov >/ Tisv rotaKovTa Tvpavvlq dvctXc): which he supposes to mean, that Lycophron was put to death by the Thirty; but it was more probably Lycurgus the elder; for the naming of a grandfather was unusual, and seems to have been here introduced for the express purpose of showing, that the orator was the grandson of that Lycurgus (noted also as the Ibis of Aristophanes, Av. 1296) who had been destroyed by the Thirty. This question, although of minor importance, is interesting, as relating to one of the most able, liberal, and honest statesmen Athens ever possessed, and to whom, next to Pericles, she was indebted for her superiority over all other cities in the beauty and magnificence of her public buildings.

1 Intra ruv fiXuv inypa^/a/icvoc nva. Vit. X. Rhet. in Lycurg. The psephisma, however, states plainly that Lycurgus was treasurer for the whole time, yivofuvos rijt cotvqc irpoffWou rafttag ry xoXli iirt rpfic iriVTatTiJpitas.

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tion (TroKiTtvtrafii voe «n^avwc'), was one of these substitutes, in the second or third penteteris; and the second, which began probably with the archonship of Evsenetus, B. C. 335, appears preferable, because the threatened danger had then ceased; Philip had been assassinated; the vengeance of Alexander had fallen upon Thebes; Athens had escaped; and Alexander was on his march into Asia. Nothing seems more likely, than that the Athenians, relieved from their apprehensions, but still resolved upon completing their defences, should have then preferred to spread the expense over several years, and to complete the work by contract.

There is no reason to believe, that the fortifications of Athens suffered any damage from the fortune of war until the occupation of Athens by Demetrius, son of Antigonus, in the year B. C. 307. This event may indeed have happened in the lifetime of Habron; but, as the damage done by the Poliorcetes was confined to Munychia, such a repair as that recorded by the inscription could not have been required in consequence of it. Habron, moreover, would rather seem, from the words of the biographer of Lycurgus, to have died at no very advanced age'.

There may perhaps be some difficulty in understanding how the decree in honour of Lycurgus, when enumerating his works, omitted to mention the repair of the walls. It was possibly because the whole credit of it was given to Demosthenes, as having been Tu\oiroioq at the commencement.


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