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and the changes produced by the electrotonic state ; Katelectrotonus and Ane.
THE PHYSIOLOGY OF MIND.
(HAPTER I. ON THE METHOD OF THE STUDY OF Mixd.
II. MIND AND THE NErvous SYSTEM.
('EXTRES OF REFLEX Actios.
COMMENE. 1. HEMISPHERICAL GASGLIA; CORTICAL CELLS OF THE CEREBRAL
HEMISPHERES; TVEATIONAL Servors CENTRES; PRIMARY
VERVOL'S CENTRES; INTELLECTOR:IU'N CONXUXE.
ATION OR EFFECTIOS.
PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY OF MIND.
O.VTILE VETHOD OF TIE STUDY OF VIND.
"Ich sag' es dir : ein Kerl, der speculirt,
Ist wie ein Thier, auf durrer Heide
The right estimate of his relations to external nature has THE
ever been to man a matter of extreme difficulty and uncertiinty. In the savage state of his infancy he feels himself so little in the presence of nature's vastness, so helpless in conflict with its resistless forces, that lie falls down in abject prostration before its various powers. The earth of a sudden heaves beneath his trembling feet, and his shattered wellin's bury him in their riins; the swellin waters overjuss their accustomed boundaries and indifferently sweep away his property or his life; the furious l'urricane ruthlessly destroys the labour of years; and famine or p-stilence, regardless of his streaming eyes and pitious prayers, stalks iu desolating march through a horror-stricken people. In ilie deep consciou-ness of his in lividual powerlessness he falls o swn in an agony of terror ami worshijis the causes of his ifferings : he deities the powers .f nature, builds altars to protiate the angry Neptune, and loy otliring sacritices of that hich is most dear to him, even l.is own flesh and Wood, hopes
mnitiute the fury of Phabus. collo and to stay the dreadful · ang of his silver low. Everythin, appears supernatural because koows nothing of the natural: falsied with fear, he cannot
observe and investigate; himself he feels to be insignificant and helpless, while to nature he looks up with reverential awe as mighty and all-powerful. Reflect on the fearful feelings which any apparent exception to the regular course of nature even now produces, on the superstitious dread which of a certainty follows such unfamiliar event, and it will not be difficult to realize the extreme mental prostration of primitive mankind.
Through familiarity, however, consternation after a while subsides, and the spirit of inquiry follows upon that of reverence; the prostrate being rises from his knees to examine into the causes of events. Experience, sooner or later, reveals the uniformity with which they come to pass; he discovers more or less of the laws of their occurrence, and perceives that he can by applying his knowledge avoid much of the damage which he has hitherto suffered—that he can, by attending to their laws, even turn to his profit those once dreaded physical forces. Now it is that man begins to feel that he has a much higher position in nature than in his infancy he had imagined ; for a time he looks upon himself as belonging to the same order as the things around him; and he emancipates himself in great part from the dominion of the priests in whom he had hitherto believed as the sacred propitiators of the gods whom his fears had fashioned. When his creeds are seen to spring from an imperfection of the intellect, the prayers founded on them are abandoned as marking an imperfection of the will.
Thales of Miletus is said to have been the first who, in this advance amongst the Greeks, laid aside the priestly character and stood forth as a pure philosopher; and those who immediately followed him, and constituted the Ionian school of philosophy, having an instinctive feeling of the unity between man and nature, did seek objectively for a first principle of things the õpxn-common to him and the rest of nature. This slow and tedious method was soon, however, abandoned for the easier and quicker method of deduction from consciousness : abstractions were mile from the concrete by the active mind; and the abstractions, being then projected out of the mind and converted into objective realities, were looked upon and applied as actual entities in naturc. Anaximander, diving into his own mind and finding something inconceivable there, gave to it the name of