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PREEICE TO THE SECOND EDITIOX.

THERE are only two observations which it seems necessary to

make by way of preface to this edition. The first is, that it las not been my conscious desire or aim throughout the work to discarl entirely the psychological method of inquiry into mental plenomena, although the earnest advocacy of the physiological methol has, naturally perhaps, led some readers to assume such a design. Hitlerto, it must be remembered, the latter has banlly had any place, the former having been exclusively emplovel, in the study of mind. Now it is obviously impossible 10 set forth the fruitfulness and the rich promise of the physiolumical methol, and to elevate it to its rightful position, without cywing the shortcomings and the barrenness of the psychobezie al method, anil degrading it to a lower rank than that which it has unjustly usurped. The second observation is, that il.i work may, by virtue of its plan and mole of execution, rints claim to le judged, not in parts, but as a whole. St12:21*111* which in one place my appear too absolute, or (?!! Bly warranteil, will have their justification, or tlie show * i, at any rate, in other parts of the book. It may not lie ins, then, to all that an adequate criticism of the First 1'.:.: .not le maile without some consideration of the Second lir; and that in die manner the study of the second or 1'::cal l'irt cannot le undertaken to the best i vantage

ut a pin vious study of the Firs: or l'hivisjological l'art. Ti cliccole has been carefully pvised, with the view of Dili in se interracies, and coins ailditional matter, for 11. 117]of clucilatin' certain 'iscurities, which occurred

tira: calicion. Ju index lia- dlso lwen added for con110e of reference

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PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.

THE
HE aim which I have had in view throughout this work

has been twofold: first, to treat of mental phenomena from a physiological rather than from a metaphysical point of view; and, secondly, to bring the manifold instructive instances presented by the unsound inind to bear upon the interpretation of the obscure problems of mental science. Indeed it has been my desire to do what I could in order to put a happy end to the "inauspicious divorce” between the Physiology and Pathology of Mind, and to effect a reconciliation between these two branches of the same science. When I first applied myself, upwards of ten years since, to the practical study of insanity, having laid up beforehand soine store of metaphysical philosophy, it was no small surprise and discouragement to find, on the one hand, that the theoretical knowledge acquired had no bearing whatever on, no discoverable relation to the facts that daily came under observation, and, on the other hand, that writers on mental (liseases, while giving the fullest information concerning them, treated their suloject as if it belonged to a science entirely distinct from that which was concerned with the sound mind. This state of things could not fail to proluce au immediate mental disquietude, and ultimately to give rise to the endeavour on my part to arrive at svine definite conviction with regard to the physical conditions of mental function, and the relation of the phenomena of the sound and unsound mind. Of that endeavour the present work is the result. It can claim no more authority than what is due to a sincere purpose faithfully pursued, and to such truth as may be contained in it. The First Part, resting us it does mainly on the physiological method of inquiry into inental phenomena, will certainly not command the assent of those

who put entire faith in the psychological method of interrogating self-consciousness; it must appeal rather to those who have made themselves acquainted with the latest advances in physiology, and with the present state of physiological psychology in Germany, and who are familiar with the writings of such as Professor Bain, Mr. Herbert Spencer, Dr. Jaycock, and Dr. Carpenter, in this country. The Second Part of the book may stand on its own account as a treatise on the causes, varieties, pathology, and treatment of mental diseases, apart from all question of the proper method to be pursued in the investigatiou of mental phenomena. Even those who advocate the psychological method of interrogating self-consciousness do not insist on the application of it to the scientific study of the madman's mind.

In laying down the plan of this work, and in thus entering upon a task not before systematically attenipted, I could not fail to experience the serious disadvantage, not only of having no guide to follow, but of being compelled by the scope of the work to leviate from the paths already made in metaphysics, physiology, ind pathology respectively. In order to bring the results of the cultivation of these different branches of science into any sort of harmony, it was plainly necessary not to travel too far on paths which diverged more and more with every siep forward. For this reason I have passed by inany interesting questions which have lonoccupied a larye space in metaplıysics, and have deliberately omitted many discussions which were at one time intended to form a part of the book. Iu like manner, it seemed desirable, when treating of the physiology of mintal action, to omit anatomical description of the nervous system, leaving the knowledge of it to be obtained in a more complete and satisfactory form from books specially dealing with the sulject. Lastly, the pathology of liseases of the nervous system minerally, although throwing uch light on the pathology of mental diseases, could not find fitting place, and was after some besitation sacrificed, in order to preserve the harmony of design, and to prevent te book growing to an immiolence bulk. Indeed, as may be esily conceived, it has been throughout far more dificult to termine what to leave out than what to put in,

the proportion of material collected for the purposes of the project, but not directly used, exceeding that which has been actually used in its execution. I am fully sensible of the disadvantages resulting from these omissions : an amount of knowledge on the reader's part is taken for granted which he may not have, and without which many things may appear obscure to him, and many assertions unwarrantable. It may well be, too, that either the metaphysician, or the physiologist, or the pathologist, looking at the work from his particular standpoint, will see reason to pronounce it defective. Whosoever will, however, be at the pains to compare the discordant results of metaphysical, physiological, and pathological studies of mind, remembering that they are actually concerned with the same subject-matter, cannot fail to recognise and confess the uselessness of an exclusive method, and the pressing need of combined action and of a more philosophical mode of proceeding. If the work now offered to the public be successful in its aim, it will make evident how indispensable is the method advocated, and how full it is of promise of the most fruitful results.

In conclusion, I am glad to add a sincere expression of thauks to my friend Dr. Blandford, for his advice and assistance during the passage of the book through the press.

The Lawx, HANWELL, W.

Feb, 5th, 1867.

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