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Asparts of nature terrible to man in the infaney of thonght; whence supersti.

gious feelings and fancies regarling nature. As these disappear inetaphysical
entities are assigned as natural causes, and man deerns himself the " measure
of the universe." Finally, the interrogation and interpretation of nature,
after the incluctive method, begin ; fruitful results of this method. Is the
luctive method, objectively applieil, available for the study of Mind!

ulties in the way of such application. Development of biography, and

almenee of any progress in metaphysics, te evidences of its value. Ichulenzial

Ianthem of interrogating self-consciousness palpalily inadequate; contra lictory

frsults of its use, and impossibility of applying it inutively. Self-conscious.

brus unreliable in the information which it does give, and incompetent to give

any account of a large part of mental activity: vives no acrount of the mental

phenomena of the infant, of the uncultivated adult, and of the insan. ; no

account of the lily conitions which underlie every mental manifestation;

Do as count of the large field of unconscious mental action exhibited, not only

in the unconscious assimilation of impressions, but in the registration of ileas

api their associations in their latent existence and intluince when not active,

ani in their recall into activity; and no account of the intluence organically

exerted upon the brain by other organs of the luuls. Incompatnry of self-

cons vousness further di-played by examination of its real nature. l'hysiology

eant t any longer le igriored ; henceforth necessary to associate tie Physiolin

gund with the Psycholo si al method; the former lming really the more im.

ortant and fruitful methol. The study of the plan of development of Mind,
The study of its fonus of vegeneration, the study of its progress in tertens

as elinliited in history, in the study of linger.phy, should not lim detected.

The union of empirical and rational faculties, really advocatel lig Pucon as

his method, is strictly applicabile to the investigation of mental as of other

matur : phenomena. The question of relative value of inductive oir leductive

tranus nig often a question of the cajacity of liim who lla's it ; illerinde

twtwera gedius and medium rits:-lonelusion

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Cortical cells of the hemispheres the centres of Ideation. No certain kuowledge

of the functions of different convolutions. Cortical cells the centres of inde.
pendent reaction ; of ideomotor movements, which may take place without
will and without consciousness : illustrations. Notion of innate idea unten.
able. Idea a gradual organization. Different signification of an idea according
to different states of culture. The so-called fundamental or universal in.
tuitions. Different modes of action of idea : (a) on movements, voluntary
and involuntary, conscious and unconscious; (b) on the sensory ganglia,
physiologically, as a regular part of mental function ; pathologically, in the
production of hallucinations; (c) on the functions of nutrition and secretion :
illustrations; (d) on other ideas : reflection or deliberation. Relation of
consciousness to Ideational activity. Comparison of ideas with movements in
regard to their association, their relation to consciousness, and the limited
power which the mind has over them. The character of the particular asso-
ciation of Ideas determined by (a) the individual nature, b) special life.
experience. Need of an individual psychology. General laws of association
of ideas. Concluding reinarks on the illustration of Von Baer's law of progress,
from the general to the special in development, afforded by the development

of ideas

Page 123—147


Relatiou of emotion to idea. Influence of the state of nerve-element on emotion.

Idea favourable to self-expansion is agrecable ; an idea opposed to self-expan-

sion disagreable. Applite or desire for agreeable stimulus, and repulsion or

avojlance of a painful one, as motivrs of action. Equilibrium between indi.

vidual and his surroundings not accompanied with desire. Intellectual life

dues not furnish the impulses to action, but the desires do. Character of

emotion determined by the nature of external stimulus, and by the condition

of Derve element, original, or as modified by culture. Cænæsthesis. Nervous

centres of ideas and emotions the same : emotions as many and various as

meas. Peychical tour ; how determinel? The conception of the ego and the

inoral sense. Intimite connexion of emotion with the organie life ; illustra

tion of their recipro al influence. Action of disordered emotion. Primitive

pressions, acconling to Spinoza. Ditficulties of the psychological method of

studying emotion." Hereditary action in the improvement of human feeling.

Law of progress from the general to the spacial, exhibited in the development

of the emotions

· · Page 157-167



The will not a single, unlecomposable faculty of uniform power, ble raries as its

ause rutiers : differs in quantity and quality, according io the preceding reflec.
tron. Aeronling to the conı mon view of it, an absiruction is made into
metaphyswal enti:y. Self-consciousness reveals the farticular slule of mind
of the notwent, but not the long series of causes on which it deads; hence
the opinion of free-will. Examples trim madman, drinkari, &c. The
dengn in the particular rolition is it sult of a srailually effected mental
organization: 3 physical necessity, nut:1.nscending or anticipating, but con.
furtning with, experience. Erroneous tosions as to the auto ratic power of
wil. Ils actual pwwer considered (1 wer movements, and (2) over the
inental operations. 1. Over movement' - : (n) no power over the involuntary
moremrois essential to life ; (0) no ...ver to effect voluntary movefuents
until they hare lwen acquired by practi...; (c) cannot control ile means, cau
extily will the erenl. 2. Over mental op-rations : (ai the forution of ideas
and of their associations independent of i: () its impotency in the early stages
ne mental development -in the young child and in the sarage : 16) cannot call
apo particular train of thought, or dism:-s a train of thought, rept through

associations of ideas that are beyond its control, and sometimes not at all. Is

many centres of volitional reaction in the brain as there are centres of ideas.

Volition built up from residua of previous volitions of a like kind. To the
freest action of the will there are necessary an unimpeded association of ideas
anil a strong personality. Character not leterwineil log the will, but deter-
miving it in the particular act. Relation of emotion to volition. Differences
in the quality and energy of the will. Will the highest force in nature; its
highest function creativc-initiating a new development of nature.

Page 163-190


Movements leave behind them resitiua in the motor centres, wiience a repository

of latent or abstract movemcuts. Motor residua or intuitions intervene bes

tween motive and act, and are related to conception on the reactive side as

sensation is on the receptive side. Actuation proposed for the psychological

designation of this departinent. Motor intuitions mostly innate in animals,

acquired in man. Illustrations from vision, speech, the plenomena of hypo-

tism, paralysis, insanity, &c. Aphasia in its bearings on motor intuitions.

Muscular hallucinations. Coordinate convulsions. The muscular sense ; its

relation to the motor intuitions, anel the necessary part which it plays in

mental function. The will acts upon muscles in directly through thic motor

Herrous centres, Orilerly subrilination of nervous centres in the expression

of the will in action. Natural differences between ditierent persons, in the

power of expression, by speech or otherwise

Page 191-208


Memory exists in "very organic element of the lovely an organie registration of

impressions. No memory of what we have not had experience, i no expe.
Livian cvor entirely forgotten. l'hivsiological inters of its similation and
litterentiation necessary to the interprétations of its phenomena. Power of
imaginition built up by the assimilation only of the like in iideas, lut
also of the relations of ideas. Its productier or creative jwWor is, in its
highest di-play, involuntary and uncois jous: it is ile supreine manifestation
of organin evolutioll. Dietition of memory to imagination. The action of
imaginatin. Pillironders in the character of memory in different persons
Manifolel ilivriless to which memory is liable. Thinemory of early youth
and of old age. So exact memory of pain : why!

Prevje 209-...)2

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Coneurrence of'e illises in the poruduction of lusimmity. Joral and persical cances

cannot be uctly divriminatel. Prolixpusing on uso s: the incluence of civili.
zation ; ovir population and the struggle for evinde ""; overcroiling and
insanitary conditions ; eager pursuit of waltli, il I deterioration of the
neral uitll ; sex; cucation; ri!iciou ; condition , life; anjuriod of
ito; bereary poradition. I'rosimule cuirses or wonder of the leational
centres :-' Original ditlirenees in constitution imperfectly developed
brains of t... Microcr poulie type, 1%) oteliuism, (c):*':.*? Of dovelopment is
disease, (il) : he insanı terwilneni, or neurons ? jjca ; (-) Quantity anil
quality of the blood--11:00 am constion; alcohol inm, and other media
cinal substilles, orgilii poison inconduced from wiel it or loriced in the landi,
and defective developinent of the Woodieself: (3) k.. irritation or pathole
sical sympidis-illustrations : lti Fxressive functional antivilt-userwoosh.

emotional agitation, le pressing passious, j'hysical exhaustion, &r. ; (9) Injury
and disease of the brain-sees, tumour, tubercle, syphilis. Concluding
remarks on the spuriind causation of the different forms of insanity. Mental
derangement a matter of degree. Appendix of cases, illustrating the causatiou
of insanity

Page 2:23–297

la sanity of young chililren must be of a simple kiud, the mental organization

lwring imperferi. Convulsions prore fatal at the earliest age : more or less
susurial insanity associated with them in some cases. Comparison of infantii..
insanity with the insanity of animals, and with epileptic fury. The organiza-
tion of sensory reselua, and hallucinations of the senses : hallucinations not
uncommon in intaney; examples. Chorcic insanity and the phenomena of
soun nambulism. (rounization of idea. Iucoherent conversation and fallacions
memory of children. Delusions. Resemblance between mania of children
and the delirium of adults. Hallucinations proluced by morbiil ideas. The
difference between foncy and inmination corresponds with the dillerer
hetuern dilipino anil mania. Forms of insanity met with in chiliro-a1
gud:-11) Vonia, when there is a powerful impulse to some art of
rience ; (2) Churrie mania- xamples ; (3) Cataleptoiel insunity-illustra-

; (!) Epileptic insunity, precveling, taking the place of, or following, the
nsual convulsions-examples ; (5) Mania; (6) Niclancholia ; (7) Arrecties
baruity--tui lastinctive or impulsire ; lurversions of the instinct of selli
rons'rvation and the instinct for propagation, (") Moral insanity--(samples,
The insine chill is a onerate variety or morbid kind---never reverts to the
11* of any animal: thoroul degrnerations of mankind are pathological spacio
marks concluding remarks upon the seeming precocity of rice in some insane

Page 298-331

| Tie ondersoe to mpw events ni -- !s characteristics. Eccentricity and insanity. The

relations of eetan hirds of talent to insanity displayed; also the wiile differ:
**** Awtuern time lizbora i orius and illy kind of 1.8 iering The Bumlily and
*** al charact rata sirong heredital prisposition. The different varieties
of numal diwillinin LTE i divisions-Alfortiti and Hileutial,
. Artipe I ni'yin) Tropulsito - the nature of it ascribed and illur-
Intellig ex.l!!! :Omera: int of its citus and expi:ion of its frequent
beloon will

ilong; hvorvi l'unit, precedles the outbreak of other
fome of inside miris.com, and Jassists for i time alır disap')* trance of
Isl. Pilet: dipinte cheils in the degeneration of the son ial senti.

lichilin art. not jou of of world insinty; its connexion
with other fillion of inutildran enrot and with opilougent. 3. Jenion!

+01 Portil, Jurling omania and chorinie melancholia ;
bit byzono... Imling in:10.11 anil mei incholia, chronic im wente. Moditi
el: 'catani'naliliwininy The nature, virieties, is poorns, and colli***
of partid R100 inwoni's discussed and illustratoul !! vamples. The
nuture, rari: simptoms and cells of general leittional insanity:
4. mr. * in and chronie. C:21-es of acute den it, and eramples
Olvenie da ; threr T"js of cores acrorling to i degree of mental
er norajn. liruin? Parului.--its aus, A!!! ons, and count.
Note on the theation, insanity. Sute on the leng ture in insinity.

Puge 353-427

her of mor', !'pwarne- after drail no proof of thesroce of morluel
strangus: illa on ol alwbition of diervous function ishont ricognisibile
hal of *** ure 1. summary of latest pole ysiolor el rosurches into

*** Juartus rimetite robiondet:-D ; plectro-luvos topmotion of nette,

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