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The very general and high commendation, bestowed by the press

and the community upon the American edition of Macaulay's Miscellaneous Writings, has induced the publishers to issue a new ard cheap edition embracing the remainder of the articles in the Edinburgh Review, and

several articles written and published while the author was at college.






(EDINBURGH Review, 1825.)

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TOWARDS the close of the year 1823, Mr. Le- | antiquity, no scrupulous purity, none of the mon, Deputy Keeper of the State Papers, in the ceremonial cleanness which characterizes the course of his researches among the presses of diction of our academical Pharisees. He does his office, met with a large Latin manuscript. not attempt to polish and brighten his composi. With it were found corrected copies of the tion into the Ciceronian gloss and brilliancy. foreign despatches written by Milton, while he He does not, in short, sacrifice sense and spirit filled the office of Secretary, and several papers to pedantic refinements. The nature of his relating to the Popish Trials and the Rye-house subject compelled him to use many words Plot. The whole was wrapped up in an enve- “That would have made Quintilian stare and gasp." lope, superscribed « To Mr. Skinner, Merchant." On examination, the large manuscript proved But he writes with as much ease and freedom to be the long lost Essay on the Doctrines of as if Latin were his mother tongue; and Christianity, which, according to Wood and where he is least happy, his failure seems to Toland, Milton finished after the Restoration, arise from the carelessness of a native, not and deposited with Cyriac Skinner. Skinner, from the ignorance of a foreigner. What Den. it is well known, held the same political opi- ham with great felicity says of Cowley, may be nions with his illustrious friend. It is therefore applied to him. He wears the garb, but not probable, as Mr. Lemon conjectures, that he the clothes, of the ancients. may have fallen under the suspicions of the Throughout the volume are discernible the government during that persecution of the traces of a powerful and independent mind, Whigs which followed the dissolution of the emancipated from the influence of authority, Oxford Parliament, and that, in consequence and devoted to the search of truth. He proof a general seizure of his papers, this work fesses to form his system from the Bible alone; may have been brought to the office in which i and his digest of Scriptural texts is certainly it had been found. But whatever the adven- among the best that have appeared. But he is tures of the manuscript may have been, no not always so happy in his inferences as in his doubt can exist, that it is a genuine relic of the citations. great poet.

Some of the heterodox opinions which he Mr. Sumner, who was commanded by his avows seem to have excited considerable majesty to edit and translate the treatisé, has amazement: particularly his Arianism, and acquitted himself of this task in a manner his notions on the subject of polygamy. Yet honourable to his talents and to his character. we can scarcely conceive that any person His version is not indeed very easy or elegant; could have read the Paradise Lost without but it is entitled to the praise of clearness and suspecting him of the former, nor do we think fidelity. His notes abound with interesting that any reader, acquainted with the history of quotations, and have the rare merit of really his life, ought to be much startled at the latter. elucidating the text. The preface is evidently The opinions which he has expressed respectthe work of a sensible and candid man, firm in ing the nature of the Deity, the eternity of mathis own religious opinions, and tolerant to. ter, and the observation of the Sabbath, might, wards those of others.

we think, have caused more just surprise. The book itself will not add much to the But we will not go into the discussion of fame of Milton. It is, like all his Latin works, these points. The book, were it far more orwell written though not exactly in the style thodox, or far more heretical than it is, would of the Prize Essays of Oxford and Cambridge. not much edify or corrupt the present generaThere is no elaborate imitation of classical tion. The men of our time are not to be con

verted or perverted by quartos. A few more Jeannis Milloni, Angli, de Doctrina Christiana libri days, and this Essay will follow the Defenson duo posthumi. A Treatise on Christian Doctrine, com- Populi to the dust and silence of the upper piled from the Holy Scriptures alone. By JOHN MILTON, shelf. The name of its author, and the reTranslated from the original by Charles R. Sumner, M. A., &c. &c. 1825.

markable circumstances attending its publica VOL. 1.-1



son, will secure to it a certain degree of atten- I do not admire them the more because they cion. For a month or two it will occupy a few have appeared in dark ages. On the contrary, minutes of chat in every drawing-room, and a we hold that the most wonderful and splendid few columns in every magazine; and it will proof of genius is a great poem produced in a then, to borrow the elegant language of the civilized age. We cannot understand why play-bills, be withdrawn, to make room for the those who believe in that most orthodox article forthcoming novelties.

of literary faith, that the earliest poets are We wish, however, to avail ourselves of the generally the best, should wonder at the rule interest, transient as it may be, which this as if it were the exception. Surely the uni. work has excited. The dexterous Capuchins formity of the phenomenon indicates a corresnever choose to preach on the life and mira- ponding uniformity in the cause. cles of a saint, till they have awakened the The fact is, that common observers reason devotional feelings of their auditors, by exhi- from the progress of the experimental sciences biting some relic of him-a thread of his gar- to that of the imitative arts. The improvement, a lock of his hair, or a drop of his blood. ment of the former is gradual and slow. Ages On the same principle, we intend to take ad- are spent in collecting materials, ages more in vantage of the late interesting discovery, and, separating and combining them. Even when while this memorial of a great and good man a system has been formed, there is still someis still in the hands of all, to say something of thing to add, to alter, or to rejeci. Every genehis moral and intellectual qualities. Nor, we ration enjoys the use of a vast hoard be.. are convinced, will the severe of our readers queathed it by antiquity, and transmits it, blame us if, on an occasion like the present, augmented by fresh acquisitions, to future we turn for a short time from the topics of the ages. In these pursuits, therefore, the first day to commemorate, in all love and reve- speculators lie under great disadvantages, and, rence, the genius and virtues of John Milton, even when they fail, are entitled to praise. the poet, the statesman, the philosopher, the Their pupils, with far inferior intellectual glory of English literature, the champion and powers, speedily surpass them in actual attain. the martyr of English liberty.

ments. Every girl, who has read Mrs. Marcet's It is by his poetry that Milton is best known; little Dialogues on Political Economy, could and it is of his poetry that we wish first to teach Montague or Walpole many lessons in speak. By the general suffrage of the civilized finance. Any intelligent man may now, by world, his place has been assigned among the resolutely applying himself for few years to greatest masters of the art. His detractors, mathematics, learn more than the great New. however, though oul-voted, have not been ton knew after half a century of study and silenced. There are many critics, and some meditation. of great name, who contrive, in the same But it is not thus with music, with painting, breath, to extol the poems and to decry the poet. or with sculpture. Still less is it thus with po. The works, they acknowledge, considered in etry. The progress of refinement rarely supthemselves, may be classed among the noblest plies these arts with better objects of imitation. productions of the human mind. But they will It may, indeed, improve the instruments which not allow the author to rank with those great are necessary to the mechanical operations of men who, born in the infancy of civilization, the musician, the sculptor, and the painter. supplied, by their own powers, the want of in. But language, the machine of the poet, is best struction, and, though destitute of models them- fitted for his purpose in its rudest state. Naselves, bequeathed to posterity models which tions, like individuals, first perceive, and then defy imitation. Milton, it is said, inherited abstract. They advance from particular im. what his predecessors created; he lived in an ages to general terms. Hence, the vocabulary enlightened age; he received a finished edu- of an enlightened society is philosophical, that cation; and we must therefore, if we would of a half-civilized ; eople is poetical. form a just estimate of his powers, make large This change in lie language of men is partdeductions for these advantages.

ly the cause, and partly the effect of a corres. We venture to say, on the contrary, para- ponding change in the nature of their intellecdoxical as the remark may appear, that no tual operations, a change by which science poet has ever had to struggle with more un- gains, and poetry loses. Generalization is nefavourable circumstances than Milton. He cessary to the advancement of knowledge, but doubted, as he has himself owned, whether particularly in the creations of the imagination. he had not been born “an age too late.” For în proportion as men know more, and think this notion Johnson has thought fit to make more, they look less at individuals and more him the butt of his clumsy ridicule. The poet, at classes. They therefore make better theowe believe, understood the nature of his artries and worse poems. They give us vague better than the critic. He knew that his poeti- phrases instead of images, and personified cal genius derived no advantage from the qualities instead of men. They may be better civilization which surrounded him, or from able to analyze human nature than their prethe earning which he had acquired : and he decessors. But analysis is not the business looked back with something like regret to the of the poet. His office is to portray, not to disruder age of simple words and vivid impres. sect. He may believe in a moral sense, like sions.

Shaftesbury. He may refer all human actions We think that, as civilization advances, po- to self-interest, like Helvetius, or he may never etry almost necessarily declines. Therefore, think about the matter at all. His creed on though we admire those great works of imagi- such subjects will no more influence his dation which have appeared in dark ages, wel poetry, properly so called, than the notions

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