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into unpenetrated regions, but the Indian tribes crowding upon each other to escape the formidable intruders, more frequently and desperately went to war with each other, than formerly, or fell a prey to European arms, and luxuries, and vices, unknown to their ancestors. The principal articles of commerce between them and their amicable inva. ders (whose friendship was more deadly than their open enmity might have been), were musquets and gunpowder, for which the bow and arrow were relinquished, and spirituous liquors, which introduced madness at their feasts, and inHamed domestic enmity and civil strife among them. Thus doubly armed, for social and for self-destruction, the aborigines of those immense regions have been dwindling towards extinction for two centuries past; till at this day, of all their numerous tribes, there remain only the remembrance of many, the skeletons of a few, and the whole body of not

Unless a miracle be wrought equal to the resurrection of dry bones, in the prophet's vision, it may be expected, that, so far as colonization touches upon their domains, or rather their haunts--their country being sold piece-meal for weapons, whereby they may more speedily destroy each other, and ardent spirits, whereby they may more speedily destroy themselves it may be expected, that ere long the few survivors of an ancient and patriarchal race will not have a remnant of country to inhabit, or the last remnant of their country will not have a survivor to possess it. Such is the pestilent effect of modern colonization. All the fine provinces now constituting the United States of America, were once the inheritance of these unhappy people, who sell their birthright--not for a mess of pottage, as Esau sold his, when he was fainting with hunger-but for liquid poison and leaden death.

The dry-rot of destruction thus early introduced among the Indian race by a fatal association with civilized stran. gers, has never ceased to waste away from the core to the bark, the sap and strength of this goodly forest tree; but the axe has also been occasionally laid to its root, and the tomahawk employed to prune its branches. It still, however, endures; and like the oak of Lucan, hung with martial trophies, and bowed with the weight of years, "stat magvi nominus umbra,” it stands the shadow of a mighty name, resting on its own shattered bulk, and casting a shade on the field with its forks rather than with its foilage. To be less figurative, but the Roman simile seduced us, and who would not turn out of his way to contemplate such an object ?-the Indian population has not been altogether kill. ed off in the fair way of trade; the different tribes, (besides these wars with each other, to which they have been too much instigated by European intrigues,) have too fre. quently engaged as auxiliaries in the wars which Euro. peans waged among themselves, and been excited to commit the most atrocious cruelties when victorious, have subjected themselves to the most remorseless retaliation when they were vanquished, and made prisoners-no quarter being granted on either side to these victims, both of friends and enemies. In those remote extremities of the United States, which are adjacent to the conquered deserts, where these Arabs of the West yet roam at large-a kind of border warfare is perpetually carried on, and aggressions and re. prisals are committed whenever opportunity tempts.

In these diabolical feuds, it is not easy to say which are the greater barbarians, the civilized and christianized colonists, or the pagan and the untutored Indians ; except that the former having more knowledge of right and wrong must be the more criminal, when they are the unprovoked assailants. In these sequestered regions, the eye of Providence alone beholds deeds of violence and wrong, which are unrecorded, and unavenged on earth, but which in heaven are both un. erringły recorded, and will be most signally avenged in the great day of the Lord.

As we cannot, in this paper, reach the point at which we aimed when we began, we shall only quote at present an authentic and curious transaction, which illustrates in a very lively manner, the cast of character of the Red Indians, as well as their mode of life, style of eloquence, and pantomimical ceremonies on great public occasions. The wars between the Delawares and Iroquois were violent, and of ancient standing. According to the accounts of the Delawares, they were always too powerful for the Iroquois, so that the latter were at length (about eighty years ago) convinced that if they continued the war, their total extirpation would be inevi. table. They therefore sent the following message to the Delawares ;-" It is not profitable that all the nations should be at war with each other, for this will, at length, be the ruin of the whole human race. We have therefore considered of a remedy, by which this evil may be prevented. One nation shall be the woman. We will place her in the midst, and the other nations who make war shall be the man, and live round

the woman. No one shall touch or hurt the woman, and if any one does it we will immediately say to him, "Why do you beat the woman?' Then all the men shall fall upon him who has beaten her. The woman shall not go to war, but endeavour to keep peace with all. Therefore if the men that surround her beat each other, and the war be carried on with violence, the woman shall have the right of addressing them, “ Ye men, what are ye about, why do ye beat each other ? we are almost afraid. Consider that your wives and children must perish, unless ye desist. Do ye mean to des. troy yourselves from the face of the earth. The men shall then hear and obey the woman.

The Delawares add, that not immediately perceiving the intention of the Iroquois, they had submitted to be the woman; the Iroquois then appointed a great feast, and invited the Delaware nation to it, when, in consequence of the authority given then, they made a solemn speech, containing three capital points : The first was, that they declared the Delaware nation to be the woman, in the following words : « We dress you in a woman's long habit, reaching down to your feet, and adorn you with ear-rings ;” meaning, that they should no more take up arms.

The second was thus expressed : “ We hang a Calabash filled with oil and medicines upon your arm. With the oil you shall cleanse the ears of the nations, that they may attend to good, and not to bad words; and with the medicine you shall heal those who are walking in foolish ways, that they may return to their senses, and incline their hearts to peace.” The third point, by which the Delawares were exhorted to make agriculture their future employ and means of subsistence, was thus worded ; « We deliver into your hands a plant of Indian corn and an hoe." Each of these points was confirmed, by delivering a belt of wampum, and these belts have been carefully laid up, and their meaning frequently repeated.

The Delaware nation has ever since been looked unto for preservation of peace, and entrusted with the great belt of peace, and chain of friendship, which they must take care to preserve inviolate.

According to the figurative explanation of the Indians, the middle of the chain of friendship is placed upon the shoulder of the Delawares, the rest of the Indian nations holding one end, and the Europeans the other,


ENGLISH CLEANLINESS. Cobbett has just published a work, under the title of “A Year's Residence in the United States of America,” in which he takes occasion to praise the cleanliness of the inhabitants of his native country: In particular those of Surrey and Hampshire, but more especially of the town of Guildford : “ The Philadelphians are cleanly, a quality which they owe chiefly to the Quakers. But, after being long and recently familiar with the towns in Surrey and Hampshire, and especially with Guildford, Alton, and Southampton, no other towns appear clean and neat, not even Bath or Salisbury, which last is much about on a par, in point of cleanliness, with Philadelphia, and Salisbury is deemed a very cleanly place. Blandford and Dorchester are clean; but I have never yet seen any thing like the towns in Surrey and Hampshire. If a Frenchman, born and bred, could be taken


and carried blindfold to Guildford, I wonder what his sensations would be, when he came to have the use of his sight. Every thing near Guildford seems to have received an influence from the town; hedges, gates, stiles, gardens, houses, inside and out, and the dresses of the people. The market-day at Guildford is a perfect show of cleanliness : not even a carter without a clean smock frock, and closely shaven and clean washed face. Well may Mr. Birkbeck, who came from this very spot, think the people dirty in the western couirtry: I'll engage he finds more dirt upon the necks and faces of one family of his present neighbours, than he left behind him upon the skins of all the people in the 3 parishes of Guildford. However he would not have found this to be the case in Pennsylvania, and especially in those parts where the Quakers abound ; and, I am told that in the New-England States, the people are as cleanly and as neat as they are in England. The sweetest flowers when they become putrid, stink the most; and a nasty woman is the nastiest thing in nature.

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THE LATE DUKE OF QUEENSBERRT. The late Duke of Queensberry, who very seldom quitted London, except for a day to his villa at Richmond, was rallied on his want of taste by an intimate friend, who asked him if he did not think London very dull in summer? Why I do,” replied his Grace gravely ; “ þut not so dull as the country.”


There appears in the Notizie del Giorno a very extraordinary advertisement. M. Jean Bruner, painter of decorations, engineer, and architect, a native of Bologna, and established at Ancona, undertakes to transport towers, churches, and palaces, all entire from one place to another, wherever the operation can be made on a plain surface. For example, he will displace the tower of St. Marc at Venice, and set it down either before the ducal palace, or the exchange. Ile attempts to reduce streets and palaces to regularity without doing the least in-jury to the edifices. Finally, he offers to suspend whatever part of an edifice may be desired to raise the entire building a story, or to add to it a new row of pillars. The Roman journalist does not finde these propositions altogether absurd. He even cites some examples

of operations of this description ; among others, a steeple which was removed from one spot to another, at Crescentino, near Vercelli, in 1776.


The death of M. Perrier, of the Royal Academy of Sciences, has occasioned a strange mistake. The Secretary of the Royal Society of Sci ences happens to be also named Perrier. At a recent meeting of the latter body, the Chevalier- eptered with a countenance woebegone, took his place among his brethren, then solemnly stood, drew froth a manuscript from his pocket, and with a voice of the deepest sorrow, began a funeral oration“ upon his deceased friend.”

What was his surprise, when the “deceased friend” stood up from the president's chair, which he filled, (the panegyrist was so blinded with tears as not to observe him sooner,) declined the honour about to be conferred on him, thanked his friend in the warmest terms, and proposed, amidst roars of laughter, to adjonrn the reading of the oration sine die.- Paris Paper.



The latest accounts from our Indian possessions, throw much light on the recent measures of our government in that quarter, and afford the highest testimonials of the foresight, wisdom and energy by which these have been directed and pursued. The proceedings of the native princes, in their submission to our authorities, turn out to have been fraught with deception, from the evil consequences of which nothing could have protected the latter, had they not exercised the greatest precaution and vigilance in acquainting themselves with the real motives and secret movements of their faithless opponents. The Rajah of Berar, by his deposition from the throne, has already paid the forfeit of his treachery. It appears by incontestible evidence, that while he was publicly issuing instructions to his chiefs to surrender his forts, agreeable to treaty, to our government, he privately enjoined them to evade the execution of these orders as long as they could, and by every means in their power. He also carried on a private correspondence with the Peishwa, for the purpose of escaping from our hands, and joining that who, with that view eluded General Smith and Pritzler, and moved with singular rapidity and enterprise upon Nagpore, the Berar Rajah's capital. The design being defeated by intercepting their communications, the person of the Rajah was seized, and he was sent off, under a strong escort, to Calcutta, by way of Allahabad. Another native Prince now fills his place on the Musnud, who, for some time, at least, may prove more obedient to the wishes and to the wants of his mistress, Madam Company. The Peishwa (Bajee Row) who, in his march towards Nagpore, was collecting the scattered troops of all the defeated Mahratta Princes, yet remained to be disposed of, and the most recent accounts are not coincident in their statements of his force and capability of resistance. The past victorious career of our army, leaves us po

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