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strenuously objected and even tried to bribe the secretaries, he could not get the name altered. It should be added that early in 1682 Carteret, grandson of the original proprietor, transferred his rights in East Jersey to Penn and eleven associates, who soon afterwards conveyed one-half of their interest to the earl of Perth and eleven others. It is uncertain to what extent Penn retained his interest in West and East Jersey, and when it ceased. The two provinces were united under one governor in 1699, and Penn was a proprietor in 1700. In 1702 the government of New Jersey was surrendered to the Crown.
By the charter for Pennsylvania Penn was made proprietary of the province. He was supreme governor; he had the power of making laws with the advice, assent and approbation of the freemen, of appointing officers, and of granting pardons. The laws were to contain nothing contrary to English law, with a saving to the Crown and the privy council in the case of appeals. Parliament was to be supreme in all questions of trade and commerce; the right to levy taxes and customs was reserved to England; an agent to represent Penn was to reside in London; neglect on the part of Penn was to lead to the passing of the government to the Crown (which event actually took place in 1692); no correspondence might be carried on with countries at war with Great Britain. The importunity of the bishop of London extorted the right to appoint Anglican ministers, should twenty members of the colony desire it, thus securing the very thing which Penn was anxious to avoid—the recognition of the principle of an establishment.
Having appointed Colonel (Sir William) Markham, his cousin, as deputy, and having in October sent out three commissioners to manage his affairs until his arrival, Penn proceeded to draw up proposals to adventurers, with an account of the resources of the colony. He negotiated, too, with James and Lord Baltimore with the view, ultimately successful, of freeing the mouth of the Delaware, wrote to the Indians in conciliatory terms, and encouraged the formation of companies to work the infant colony both in England and Germany, especially the “Free Society of Traders in Pennsylvania,” to whom he sold 20,000 acres, absolutely refusing, however, to grant any monopolies. In July he drew up a body of “ conditions and concessions.” This constitution, savouring strongly of Harrington’s Oceana, was framed, it is said, in consultation with Sidney, but the statement is doubtful. Until the council of seventy-two (chosen by universal sufirage every three years, twenty-four retiring each year), and the assembly (chosen annually) were duly elected, a body of provisional laws was added. 2 ~ - 11 ‘4‘" ",
It was in the midst of this extreme activity that Penn was made a Fellow of the Royal Society. Leaving his family behind him, Penn sailed with a hundred comrades from Deal in the “ Welcome ” on the Ist of September 1682. His Last Farewell to England and his letter to his wife and children contain a beautiful expression of his pious and manly nature. He landed at New Castle on the Delaware on the 27th of October, his company having lost one-third of their number by small-pox during the voyage. After receiving formal possession, and having visited New York, Penn ascended the Delaware to the Swedish settlement of Upland, to which he gave the name of Chester. The assembly at once met, and on the 7th of December passed the “ Great Law of Pennsylvania.” The idea which informs this law is that Pennsylvania was to be a. Christian state on a Quaker model. Philadelphia was now founded, and within two years contained 300 houses and a population of 2 500., At the same time an act was passed, uniting under the same government the territories which had been granted by feoffment by James in 1682. Realistic and entirely imaginative accounts (cf. Dixon, p. 270), inspired chiefly by Benjamin West’s picture, have been given of the treaty which there seems no doubt Penn actually made in November 1683 with the Indians. His con~ nexion with them was one of the most successful parts of his management, and he gained at once and retained through life their intense afiection.
Penn now wrote an account of Pennsylvania from his own observation for the “Free Society of Traders,” in which he
shows considerable power of artistic description. Tales of violent persecution of the Quakers, and the necessity of settling disputes, which had arisen with Lord Baltimore, his neighbour in Maryland, brought Penn back to England (Oct. 2, 168.4) after an absence of two years. In the spring of 1683 he had modified the original charter at the desire of the assembly, but without at all altering its democratic character.l He was, in reference to this alteration, charged with selfish and deceitful dealing by the assembly. Within five months after his arrival in England Charles II. died, and Penn found himself at once in a position of great influence. Penn now took up his abode at Kensington in Holland House, so as to be near the court. His influence there was great enough to secure the pardon of John Locke, who had been dismissed from Oxford by Charles, and of 1200 Quakers who were in prison. At this time, too, he was busy with his pen once more, writing a further account of Pennsylvania, a pamphlet in defence of Buckingham’s essay in favour of toleration,in which he is supposed to have had some share, and his Persuasive to Moderation to Dissenting Christians, very similar in tone to the One Project for the Good of England. When Monmouth’s rebellion was suppressed he appears to have done his best to mitigate the horrors of the western commission, opposing Jefireys to the uttermost.2 Macaulay has accused Penn of being concerned in some of the worst actions of the court at this time. His complete refutation by Forster, Paget, Dixon and others renders it unnecessary to do more than allude to the cases of the Maids of Taunton, Alderman Kifiin, and Magdalen College (Oxford).
In 1686, when making a third missionary journey to Holland and Germany, Penn was charged by James with an informal mission to the prince of Orange to endeavour to gain his assent to the removal of religious tests. Here he met Burnet, from whom, as from the prince, he gained no satisfaction, and who greatly disliked him. On his return he went on a preaching mission through England. His position with James was undoubtedly a compromising one, and it is not strange that, wishing to tolerate Papists, he should, in the prevailing temper of England, be once more accused of being a Jesuit, while he was in constant antagonism to their body. Even Tillotson took up this view strongly, though he at once accepted Penn’s vehement disavowal. In 1687 James published the Declaration of Indulgence, and Penn probably drew up the address of thanks on the part of the Quakers. It fully reflects his views, which are further ably put in the pamphlet Good Advice to the Church of England, Roman Catholics, and Protestant Dissenlers, in which he showed the wisdom and duty of repealing the Test Acts and Penal Laws. At the Revolution he behaved with courage. He was one of the few friends of the king who remained in London, and, when twice summoned before the council, spoke boldly in his behalf. He admitted that James had asked him to come to him in France; but at the same time he asserted his perfect loyalty. During the absence of William in 1690 he was proclaimed by Mary as a dangerous person, but no evidence of treason was forthcoming. It was now that he lost by death two of his dearest friends, Robert Barclay and George Fox. It was at the funeral of the latter that, upon the information of the notorious informer William Fuller! (1670—1717?), an attempt was made to arrest him,but[he had just left the ground; the fact that no further steps were then taken shows how little the government believed in his guilt. He now lived in retirement in London, though his address was perfectly well known to his friends in the council. In 1691, again on Fuller’s evidence, a proclamation was issued for the arrest of Penn and two others as being concerned in Preston’s plot. In 1692 he began to write again, both on questions of Quaker discipline and in defence of the sect. Just M ensures in an Epistle of Peace and Love, The N ew Athenians (in reply to the attacks of the Athenian Mercury), and A Key opening the Way to every Capacity are the principal publications of this year.
Meantime matters had been going badly in Pennsylvania
‘ Dixon, p. 276.
Penn had, in 1686, been obliged to make changes in the composition of the executive body, though in r689 it reverted to the original constitution; the legislative bodies had quarrelled; and Penn could not gain his rents. The chief difficulty in Pennsylvania was the dispute between the province—i.e. the country given to Penn by the charter—and the “territories,” or the lands granted to him by the duke of York by feofiment in August 1682, which were under the same government but had differing interests. The difficulties which Quaker principles placed in the way of arming the colony—a matter of grave importance in the existing European complications—fought most hardly against Penn’s power. On the zrst of October r692 an order of council was issued depriving Penn of the governorship of Pennsylvania and giving it to Colonel Benjamin Fletcher, the governor of New York. To this blow were added the illness of his wife and a fresh accusation of treasonable correspondence with James. In his enforced retirement he wrote the most devotional and most charming of his works— the collection of maxims of conduct and religion entitled The Fruits of Solitude. In December, thanks to the efforts of his friends at court, among whom were Buckingham, Somers, Rochester, and Henry Sidney, he received an intimation that no further steps would be taken against him. The accusation, however, had been public, and he insisted on the withdrawal being equally public. He was therefore heard in full council before the king, and honourably acquitted of all charges of treason. It was now that he wrote an Essay towards the Present and Future Peace of Europe, in which he puts forth the idea of a great court of arbitration,'a. principle which he had already carried out in Pennsylvania.
I In 1694 (Feb. 23) his wife Gulielma died, leaving two sons, Springett and William, and a daughter Letitia, afterwards married to William Aubrey. Two other daughters, Mary and Hannah, died in infancy. He consoled himself by writing his Account of the Rise and Progress of the People called Quakers. The coldness and suspicion with which he had been _regarded by his own denomination had now ceased, and he was once more regarded by the Quaker body as their leader. About the same time (Aug. 20) he was restored to the governorship of Pennsylvania; and he promised to supply money and men for the defence of the frontiers. In 1695 he went on another preaching mission in the west, and in March r696 he formed a second marriage, with Hannah Callowhill, his son Springett dying five weeks later. In this year he wrote his work On Primitive Christianity, in which he argues that the faith and practice of the Friends were those of the early Church. In 1697 Penn removed to Bristol, and during the greater part of r698 was preaching with great success against oppression in Ireland, whither he had gone to look after the property at Shannangarry.
In 1699 he was back in Pennsylvania, landing near Chester on the 30th of November, where the success of Colonel Robert Quary, judge of the admiralty in Pennsylvania—who was in the interests of those who wished to make the province an imperial colony—and the high-banded action of the deputy Markham in opposition to the Crown, were causing great difficulties. Penn carried with him particular instructions to put down piracy, which the objections of the Quakers to the use of force had rendered audacious and concerning which Quary had made strong representations to the home government, while Markham and the inhabitants apparently encouraged it. Penn and Quary, however came at once to a satisfactory understanding on this matter, and the illegal trafiic was vigorously and successfully attacked. In 1696 the Philadelphian Yearly Meeting had passed a resolution declaring slavery contrary to the first principles of the gospel. Penn, however, did not venture upon emancipation; but he insisted on the instruction of negroes, permission for them to marry, repression of polygamy and adultery, and proposed regulations for their trial and punishment. The assembly, however, a very mixed body of all nations, now refused to accept any of these proposals except the last-named. His great success was with the Indians; by their treaty with him in r700 they promised not to help any enemy of England,
to traffic only with those approved by the governor, and to sell furs or skins to none but inhabitants of the province. At the same time he showed his capacity for legislation by the share he took with Lord Bellomont at New York in the consolidation of the laws in use in the various parts of America.
Affairs now again demanded his presence in England. The king had in 1701 written to urge upon the Pennsylvania governmtnt a union with other private colonies frr defence, and had asked for money for fortifications. The diflculty felt by the Crown in this matter was a natural one. A bill was brought into the lords to convert private into Crown colonies. Penn’s son appeared before the committee of the house and managed to delay the matter until his father’s return. On the 1 5th of September Penn called the assembly together, in which the differences between the province and the territories again broke out. He succeeded, however, in calming them, appointed a council of ten to manage the province in his absence, and gave a borough charter to Philadelphia. In May 1700, experience having shown that alterations in the charter were advisable, the assembly had, almost unanimously, requested Penn to revise it. On the 28th of October 1701 he handed it back to them in the form in which it afterwards remained. An assembly was to be chosen yearly, of four persons from each county, with all the self-governing privileges of the English House of Commons. Two-thirds were to form a quorum. Thenomination of sheriffs, coroners, and magistrates for each county was given to the governor, who was to select from names handed in by the freemen. Moreover, the council was no longer elected by the people, but nominated by the governor, who was thus practically left single in the executive. The assembly, however, who, by the first charter, had not the right to propound laws, but might only amend or reject them, now acquired that privilege. In other respects the original charter remained, and the inviolability of conscience was again emphatically asserted. Penn reached England in December 1701. He once more assumed the position of leader of the Dissenters and himself read the address of thanks for the promise from the Throne to maintain the Act of Toleration. He now took up his abode again at Kensington, and published while here his M ore Fruits of Solitude. ‘
In 1703 he went to Knightsbridge, where he remained until 1706, when he removed to Brentford, his final residence being taken up in 1710 at Field Ruscombe, near Twyford. In 1704 he wrote his Life of Bulstrode Whitelncke. He had now much trouble from America. The territorialists were openly rejecting his authority, and doing their best to obstruct all business in the assembly; and matters were further embarrassed by the injudicious conduct of Governor John Evans in 1706. Moreover, pecuniary troubles came heavily upon him, while the conduct of his son William, who became the ringleader of all the dissolute characters in Philadelphia, was another and still more severe trial. This son was married, and had a son and daughter, but appears to have been left entirely out of account in the settlement of Penn’s proprietary rights on his death.
Whatever were Penn’s great qualities, he was deficient in judgment of character. This was especially shown in the choice of his steward Ford, from whom he had borrowed money, and who, by dexterous swindling, had managed, at the time of his death, to establish, and hand down to his widow and son, a claim for £14,000 against Penn. Penn, however, refused to pay, and spent nine months in the Fleet rather than give way. He was released at length by his friends, who paid £7 500 in composition of all claims. Difficulties with his government of Pennsylvania continued to harass him. Fresh disputes took place with Lord Baltimore, the owner of Maryland, and Penn also felt deeply what seemed to him the ungrateful treatment which he met with at the hands of the asser bly. He therefore in 1710 wrote, in earnest and affectionatl language, an address to his “ old friends,” setting forth his wrongs. So great was the effect which this produced that the assembly which met in October of that year was entirely in his interests; revenues were properly paid; the disafiected were silenced and complaints were hushed; while an advance in moral sense was shown by the fact that a bill was passed prohibiting the importation of negroes. This, however, when submitted to the British parliament, was cancelled. Penn now, in February 1712, being in failing health, proposed to surrender his powers to the Crown. The commission of plantations recommended that Penn should receive £12,000 in four years from the time of surrender, Penn stipulating only that the queen should take the Quakers under her protection; and £1000 was given him in part payment. Before, however, the matter could go further he was seized with apoplectic fits, which shattered his understanding and memory. A second attack occurred in 1713. He died on the 30th of May 1718, leaving three sons by his second-wife, John, Thomas and Richard, and was'buried along with his first and second wives at Jourdans meeting-house, near Chalfont St Giles in Buckinghamshire. In 1790 the proprietary rights of Penn’s descendants were bought up for a pension of £4000 a year to the eldest male descendant by his second wife, and this pension was commuted in 1884 for the sum of £67,000.
Penn's Life was written by Joseph Besse, and prefixed to the collected edition of Penn's Works (1726); see also the bibliographical note to the article in Did. Not. Biog. W. He worth Dixon's bioflaph , refuting Macaulay‘s charges, a peare in 1851. In 1907
rs olquhoun Grant, one of Penn's escendants, brought out a book, Quaker and Courtier: the Life and Work of Willing; Igegzn.
PENNANT, THOMAS (1726-1798), British naturalist and antiquary, was descended from an old Welsh family, for many generations resident at Downing, Flintshire, where he was born on the 14th of June 1726. He received his early education at Wrexham, and afterwards entered Queen’s College, Oxford, but did not take a degree. At twelve years of age he was inspired with a passion for natural history through being presented with Francis Willughby’s Ornithology; and a tour in Cornwall in 1746—1747 awakened his strong interest in minerals and fossils. In 1750 his account of an earthquake at Downing was inserted in the Philosophical Transactions, where there also appeared in 17 56 a paper on several coralloid bodies he had collected at Coalbrookdale, Shropshire. In the following year, at the instance of Linnaeus, he was elected a member of the Royal Society of Upsala. In 1766 he published the first part of his British Zoology, a work meritorious rather as a laborious compilation than as an original contribution to science. ‘ During its progress he visited the continent of Europe and made the acquaintance of Buffon, Voltaire, Haller and Pallas. In 1767 he was elected F.R.S. In 1771 was published his Synopsis of QuadruPeds. afterwards extended into aHis/ory of Quadrupeds. At the end of the same year he published A Tour in Scotland in 1769, which proving remarkably popular was followed in 1774 by an account of another journey in Scotland, in two volumes. These works have proved invaluable as preserving the record of important antiquarian relics which have now perished. In 1778 he brought out a similar Tour in Wales, which was followed by a Journey to Snowdon (pt. i. 1781; pt. ii. 1783), afterwards forming the second volume of the Tour. In 1782 he published a Journey from Chester to London. He brought out Arctic Zoology in 1785—1787. In 1790 appeared his Account of London, which went through a large number of editions, and three years later he published the Literary Life of the late T. Pennant, written by himself. In his later years he was engaged on a work entitled Outlines of the Globe, vols. i. and ii. of which appeared in 1798, and vols. iii. and iv., edited by his son David Pennant, in 1800. He was also the author of a number of minor works, some of which were published posthumously. He died at Downing on the 16th of December 1798.
PENNAR, or PENNER, two rivers of southern India, distinguished as North an' South. The native name is Pinakini. Both rise near the hill of Nandidrug in Mysore state, and flow eastward into the Ba) of Bengal. The northern is the more important and has a total length of 355 m., that of the southern being 245 m. This latter 'bears the alternative name of the Ponniar. The Pennar (northern) river canal system comprises more than 30 m. of canals, irrigating 155,500 acres.
PENNE. a town and episcopal see of Italy, in the province of Teramo, 26 m. S.E. of Teramo, and 16 m. inland from the Adriatic, 1437 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1901), 10,394. The cathedral has been much altered; in its treasury is some fine 13th (?) century silversmiths’ work; the church of S. Giovanni has a fine cross by Nicola di Guardiagrele, and that of S. Maria in Colleromano, outside the town, a Romanesque portal. Many of the houses have fine terra-cotta friezes. It occupies the site of the ancient Pinna, the chief city of the Vestini, who entered into alliance with Rome in 301 B.C. and remained faithful to her through the Hannibalic wars and even during the revolt of the Italian allies in go B.C. No remains of the Roman period exist, even the city walls being entirely medieval.
See G. Colasanti, Pinna (Rome, 1907); V. Bindi, Monumenti degli Abruzzi (Naples, 1889, pp. 565 sqq.).
PENNELL, JOSEPH (1860- ), American artist and author, was born in Philadelphia on the 4th of July 1860, and first studied there, but like his compatriot and friend, J. M. Whistler, he afterwards went to Europe and made his home in London. He produced numerous books (many of them in collaboration with his wife, Elizabeth Robins Pennell), but his chief distinction is as an original etcher and lithographer, and notably as an illustrator. Their close acquaintance with Whistler led to Mr and Mrs Pennell undertaking a biography of that artist in 1906, and, after some litigation with his executrix on the right to use his letters, the book was published in 1908.
PENN], GIANFRANCESCO (1488—1528), Italian painter, surnamed “ Il Fattore," from the relation in which he stood to Raphael, whose favourite disciple he was after Giulio Romano, was a native of Florence, but spent the latter years of his life in Naples. He painted in oil as well as in fresco, but is chiefly known for his work in the Loggie of the Vatican.
PENNINE CHAIN, an extensive system of hills in the north of England. The name is probably derived from the Celtic Pen, high, appearing in the Apennines of Italy and the Pennine Alps. The English system is comprised within the following physical boundaries. On the N. a well-marked depression, falling below 500 ft. in height, between the upper valleys of the Irthing and the south Tyne, from which it is known as the Tyne Gap, separates the Pennines from the system of the Cheviots. On the N.E., in Northumberland, the foothills extend to the North Sea. On the N.W. the Eden valley forms part of the boundary between the Pennines and the hills of the Lake District, and the division is continued by the upper valley of the Lune. For the rest the physical boundaries consist of extensive lowlands—— on the E. the vale of York, on the W. the coastal belt of Lancashire and the plain of Cheshire, and on the S. and S.E. the valley of the river Trent. The Pennines thus cover parts of Cumberland, Westmorland and Northumberland, Lancashire and Yorkshire, Cheshire and Derbyshire, while the southern foothills extend into StaHOrdshire and Nottinghamshire.
The Pennine system is hardly a. range, but the hills are in effect broken up into numerous short ranges by valleys cut back into them in every direction, for the Pennines form a north and south watershed which determines the course of all the larger rivers in the north of England. The chain is divided into two sections by a gap formed by the river Aire flowing east, a member of the Humber basin, and the Ribble flowing west and entering the Irish Sea through a wide estuary south of Morecambe Bay.
The northern section of the Pennine system is broader and generally higher than the southern. its western slope is generally short and steep, the eastern long and gradual; this distinction applying to the system at large. In the north-west a sharp escarpment overlooks the Eden valley. This is the nearest approach to a true mountain range in the Pennine system and indeed in England. It is known as the Cross Fell Edge from its highest point, Cross Fell (2930 ft.), to the south-east of which a height of 2780 ft. is reached in Milburn Forest, and of 2591 ft. in Mickie Fell. This ran e is
. marked off eastward by the upper valleys of the south Tyne an the
Tees. and, from the divide between these two, branch ran es spring eastward, separated by the valley of the Wear, at the hea of which are Burnhope Scat (2452 ft.) and Dead Stones (2326 ft.). In the northern range the highest point is Middlehope Moor (2206 ft.), and in the southern. Chapel Fell Top (2294 ft.). It is thus seen that the higher elevations, like the steeper slopes, lie towards the west. Cross Fell Edge terminates southward at a highfpass (about 1400 ft.) between the ead of the Belah, a tributary o the Eden, and the Greta, a tributary of the Tees. This pass is followed by the Tebay and Barnard Castle line of the North Eastern railway. The hills between the Lune valley on the west and the headstream of the Eden and the Ribble on the east are broken into masses by the dales of tributaries to the first-named river—here the chief elevations are \Vild Boar Fell (2323 ft.), \Vhernside (2414 ft.), and lngleborough (2373 ft.). The Ribble and Eden valleys afford a route for the main line of the Midland railway. Well-marked eastward ranges occur here between Swaledale and the river Ure, which traverses the celebrated \Vensleydale (q.v.), and between the Ure and Wharfe. In the first the highest points are High Seat (2328 ft.) and Great Shunner Fell (2340 ft.); and in the second Buckden Pike (2302 ft.) and Great Whernside (2310 ft.). There is then a general southerly slope to the Aire gap. he southern section of the system calls for less detailed notice.
Heights exceeding 2000 ft. are rare. The centre of the section is the well-known Peak (q.v.) of Derbyshire. Both here and throu hout the system the summits of the hills are high uplands, roun ed or nearly flat, consisting of heathery, peaty moorland or hill pasture. The profile of the Pennines is thus not striking as a rule, but much fine scenery is found in the narrow dales throughout; Wensleydale, Wharfedale and other Yorkshire dales being no less famous than the dales of Derbyshire. In the parts about Settle below Ingleborough, in Derbyshire, and elsewhere, remarkable caverns and subterranean watercourses in the limestone have been explored to
reat depths. In lngleborough itself are the Ingleborough cave, near Cla ham; the chasm of Gaping Gh ll, over 350 ft. deep; Helln or Hel an Pot, a vast swallow-hole 359 t. deep, only exceeded by Rowten Pot (365 ft.) near \Vhernside; and many others. Malham Tarn, near the head of the Aire, is drained by a stream which quickl disappears below round, and the Aire itself is fed b a broo gushin forth in ful stream at the foot of the cliffs of Mal am Cove. A notable exam le in Derbyshire is the disappearance of the Wye into Plunge Hole, a ter which it traverses Poole's Cave, close to Buxton. There may also be noted the remarkable series of caverns near Castleton (q.v.). Lakes are few and small in the Pennine district, but in some of the u land valleys, such as those of the Nidd and the Etherow, reservoirs ave been formed for the su ply of the populous manufacturing districts of Lancashire and the est Riding of York_ shire, which he on either flank of the system between the Aire gap
and the Peak. (For geology see ENGLAND and articles on the several counties.)
PENNSYLVANIA, a North 'Atlantic state of the United States of America and one of the original thirteen, lying for the most part between latitudes 39° 43' 26-3' and 42° N. and between longitudes 74° 40' and 80° 31' 36' W. The state is in the form of a rectangle, except in the north-west where a triangular projection, extending to 42° 1 5’ N. lat., gives it a shoreline of almost 40 m. on Lake Erie, on the east where the Delaware river with two large bends separates it from New York and New Jersey, and in the south-east where the arc of a circle which was described with a 12-m. radius from New Castle, Delaware, forms the boundary between it and Delaware. The forty-second parallel of N. latitude forms the boundary between it and New York on the N.; Mason and Dixon’s line is the border between it and Maryland and West Virginia on the south and a north and south line marks the boundary between it and West Virginia and Ohio on the west. The total area is 45,126 sq. m. and of this 294 sq. m. are water surface.
Physical Features.—Pennsylvania skirts the coastal plain in the south-east below Philadelphia, is traversed from north-east to south-west by the three divisions of the Appalachian province— Piedmont or older Appalachian belt, younger Appalachian ridges and valle s and Alleghany plateau—and in the north-west corner is a small) part of the Erie plain. The entire surface has a mean elevation of about 1100 ft. above the sea. It rises from 20 ft. or less on the bank of the Delaware between Philadelphia and Chester to 2000—3000 ft. on the higher rid es in the middle section (3I36 ft. on Blue Knob in Bedford county , and falls again to 900—1000 ft. on the Ohio border and to 750 ft. or less on the Erie plain; in the south-east is an area of about 6100 sq. m. that is less than 500 ft. above the sea, while on the ridges in the middle of the state is an aggregatearea of about 2000 sq. m. that everywhere exceeds 2000 ft. in elevation. The area below 500 ft. is mostly in the Triassic lowland of the Piedmont region, or, as the Pennsylvania portion of it is called, the south-east province. This is an undulating plain which has been produced b the wearing away of weak sandstones, &c. On the north an west borders of this plain are two parts of a chain of semi-detached and usually rounded
ills, known as the South Mountains. The north-east part is a south—westward arm of the New England uplands, is known as the Reading Prong, and extends from New Jersey through Easton to
Reading. The south-west part is a north-eastern prolongation of the Virginia Piedmont, is 'nown as the Cumberland Prong, and extends N.N.E. through the south part of Cumberland county. In the Reading Pron most of the hills rise 900—1000 ft. above the sea and about one-ha f that height above the surrounding country; in the Cumberland Pron their height increases to the southward until, on the Maryland order, they rise 2100 ft. above the sea and 1400 ft. above the adjoining plain. Another range of hills, known as the Trenton Prong, extends from the northern suburbs of Philadelphia both westward and southward through Chester. Delaware, Lancaster and York counties, but these rise only 400—600 ft. above the sea and have few steep slopes. Both of these ranges of hills are composed of hard crystalline rocks, and between them lies the lowland eroded on the weaker sandstones and sediments. In Bucks and Montgomery counties is a large sandstone area; traversing Chester county is the narrow Chester Valley with a limestone bottom, and in Lancaster county is the most extensive limestone plain. The Pennsylvania portion of the younger Appalachian rid es and valleys, known as the central province of the state, em races the region between the South Mountains, on the south-east, and the crest of the Alleghany plateau or Alleghany Front, on the north-west. It extends from south-west to northeast about 230 m. and has a nearly uniform width of 50 m. except that it narrows rapidly as it approaches the north-east corner of the state. The ridges and intervening valleys, long parts of which have an approximately parallel trend from south-west to north-east, were formed by the erosion of folded sediments of varying hardness, the weak belts of rock being etched out to form valleys and the hard belts remaining as mountain ridges. After the folding the whole re ion was worn down nearly to sea-level, forming a low plain which bevelled across the geological structure of the entire state, including the Piedmont area to the south-east and the plateau area to the north-west. Then came a broad uplift followed by the erosion which carved out the valleys, leaving hard rocks as mountain ridges which rise about to the level of the old erosion plain. In Bedford county and elsewhere the ridges rise to 2400 ft. or more above the sea, but their more usual height is 1400 to 2000 ft. above the sea and 500 to 1000 ft. above the intervening valle 5. Their crest lines are often of nearly uniform height for mlles an enerally are little broken except by an occasional V-shaped wing gap, 3 narrow water gap or a rounded knob. The valleys rarely exceed more than a few miles in width, are usually steep-sided, and frequently are traversed by longitudinal ranges of hills and cross ridges; but the Pennsylvania portion of the Appalachian or Great Valley, which forms a distinct division of the central province and lies between the South Mountains and the long rampart of Blue Mountain, is about 10 m. in width on the Ma 'land border and t0 the north-east its width increases to 20 m. lThe north-west part of it is a slate belt that has been much dissected by eroding streams, but the south-east part is a gently rolling belt of limestone to which occasionally a steep hill descends from the slate belt. The Pocono plateau, into which the central province merges at its north-east extremity, is a continuation' of the Catskill plateau southward from New York and covers Wayne, Pike and Monroe counties and the east rtion of Carbon county. Its surface is underlaid by a hard san stone and conglomerate which erode slowly, and the eneral upland level, which is 1400—1800 ft. above the sea, is little roken except by shallow valleys and occasional knobs. The Alleghany plateau, which extends from the crest of the Alleghan Front to and beyond the west and north borders of Pennsylvania and covers more than one-half of the state, is much more dissected. In Tioga and Potter counties on the north middle border, it rises 2400—2500 ft. above the sea, but from this height the general upland level falls graduall to 1200—1300 ft. in the south-west and 9001000 ft. along the Ohio border, and in Erie county there is a sudden fall of about 200 ft. to the Erie plain. In the northern, middle and south-west portions of this plateau province the upland is cut by an intricate network of narrow valleys and ravines that are commonly 300—600 ft. deep and occasionally 800-1000 ft. deep, but west of the Allegheny river, where harder rocks have resisted such deep dissection and glacial drift has filled depressions or smoothed rough surfaces, the u lands are broader and the valleys wider and shallower. Most o the Pennsylvania shore of Lake Erie is lined with a wall of sand and clay 50—100 ft. in height and along the foot of this is only a narrow beach, but in front of the city of Erie the shore currents have formed a spit, known as Presque Isle, which affords a good harbour.
The Pocono lateau, nearly all of the central and south-east provinces and t e north-east portion of the Alleghany plateau are drained by the Susquehanna and Delaware river~systems into the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays; the greater part of the Alleghany plateau is drained by the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers into the Ohio river; the extreme southern ortion of the central province and the extreme western portion olPthe south-east province are drained by tributaries of the Potomac; the Erie plain is drained by short streams into Lake Erie; and a very small section of the Alle hany plateau, in the northern part of Potter county, is drained by t e Genesee river into Lake Ontario. The Susquehanna drains about 21,000 sq. m. of the state; the Ohio, Allegheny and Monongahela 14,747 sq. m.; and the Delaware 6443 sq. m. The Susquehanna is a wide and shallow stream with a zigza course and numerous
islands, but both the Susquehanna and t e Delaware, together
with their principal tributaries, flow for the most part transverse to the geological structure, and in the gorges and water-gaps through which they pass ridges in the mountain region, is some of the most
icturesque scenery in the state; a number of these gorges, too, liave been of great economic importance as passages for railways. The lower portion of the Delaware river has been entered by the sea as the result of thedepression of the land, giving a harbour, at the head of which developed the city of Philadelphia. The present course of the Upper Allegheny river is the result of the glacier which blocked the northward draina e of the region through which it flows and turned it southwarcfi The Monon ahela is an older stream, but like the Allegheny, it meanders muc , and both rivers flow in deeply intrenched valleys. The few small lakes of the state are mostly on the Pocono plateau, where they were formed by glaciation; here, too, are some streams with picturesque cascades.
Fauna.—Under the protection of a game commission which was created in 1895, of some game preserves which have been established by this commission, and of various laws affecting wild animals and birds, the numbers of Virginia deer, black bear, rabbits, ruffed grouse, quail and wild turkeys have increased1 until in some of the wilder sections they are quite plentiful, while the numbers of weasels, minks, l nx and foxes have been diminished. Squirrels, racoons, woodchucks and skunks are common, and musk-rats, porcupines and opossums are found in some sections. Two species of venomous snakes—the rattlesnake and the copper-head—occur in the sparsely settled re ions. The avifauna includeong the birds of prey—the red-shouldered hawk, red-tailed hawk, marsh hawk, Cooper’s hawk, sharp-shinned hawk and s arrow hawk; the great horned owl, the barn owl and the screech ow ; and bald eagles are not uncommon in the mountainous regions along the larger rivers. The “ turkey—buzzard " — turkey-vulture— (very valuable as a scavenger) is seen occasionally, especially in the south and south-west. The game birds include the ruffed ouse, quail and En lish pheasant (which have increased rapidly un er protection), besi es woodcock, snipe, many sgecies of ducks and a few Canada geese. The song and insectivorous irds—thrushes, flycatchers, vireos and woodpeckers— of this latitude, are well re resented, and the high plateaus (particularly the Pocono lateau) ave especial ornithological interest as the tarrying-places, uring the migratory seasons, of many species of birds whose natural breeding ground is much farther north. Perch, sunfish, trout, bass, pike and pickerel abound in many of the streams. Yellow perch are especially plentiful in the lakes on the Pocono
lateau. Pike-perch and a few blue pike are taken in the Susque
anna, where shad are no longer plentiful since work was begun on McCall's Ferry dam, and in 1908 the entire catch for the river was valued at about $20,000, but in the Delaware there are valuable shadl'and herring fisheries. The blue pike, whitefish and herring, obtained on Lake Erie are of'considerable commercial importance. In 1908 the total catch on Lake Erie was valued at $200,8 , the princi al items being herring ($90,108), blue pike ($13,657 and white sh (831,580). The catch of herring was twice as much in 1908 as in 1907 and that of whitefish nearly four times as much in 1908 as in 1907; this increase was attributed to the work of the state hatcherics. There were eight hatcheries in 1910 and the number of fish distributed from these during 1908 was about 662,000,000; they consisted chiefly of pickerel, yellow ‘perch, walleyed pike, white fish, herring, blue pike, trout and sha .
Flora—Except on some ortions of the Pocono plateau, Pennsylvania was originally wel forested, and, althong most of the merchantable timber has been cut, about one-half of the state is still woodland. On the hi her elevations the trees are mostly white pine, yellow pine and emlock, but in the valleys and lower levels are oaks, hickories, maples, elms, birches, locusts, willows, spruces, ums, buckeyes, the chestnut, black walnut, butternut, cedar, asE, linden, poplar, buttonwood, hornbeam, holly, catalpa, magnolia, tulip-tree, Kentucky coffee-tree, sassafras, wrld cherry, pawpaw, crab-apple and other 5 ecies. The flora 15 most varied in the Susquehanna Valley be ow Harrisbu , and on Presque Isle are some plants peculiar to the Lake region. The state has forest reserves (918,000 acres in 1910) in 26 counties, the largest areas being in Potter, Clinton, Center, Cameron, L coming, Huntingdon, Union and Mifiiin counties; and there is an e cient department of forestry under a state commissioner of forestry. A state forest academ (the only one in the United States) is at Mont Alto, where there is one of the three state nurseries; its first class graduated in 1906. In 1909 the state legislature passed an act authorizing any city, borough or township of the first class to acquire, subject to the approval of the commissioner of forest , a munictpal forest; and it authorized the distribution of seedling forest trees, at cost, to those who would plant and protect them, for growing private forests.
Climate—The temperature is quite mild and equable in the south-east province where the ocean influences it and where the mountains bounding it on the north and north-west are some protection from the colder winds. The crests of the higher ridges in the central province are delightfully cool in summer, but the
adjacent valleys are subject to excessive heat in summer and severe cod 1n winter. The mean annual temperature decreases to the north-westward on the Alleghan plateau, but on the Erie plain, in the extreme north-west, Lake rie exerts its moderating influence, the mean temperature rises, and extremes shorten. The mean annual temperature in the south-east province is about 52° F.; it decreases to 50° in the central province and to 47° or less in some of the north-west counties of the Alleghany plateau, but rises to 49° on the shore of Lake Erie. At Philadelphia the mean temperature in winter (December, January and February) is 34°, the mean temperature in summer (June, July and August) is 74°, and the range of extremes here for a long period of ears ending with 1907 was within 103° and 6°. At Huntingdon, Pluntingdon county, in the Juniata Valley, the winter mean is 30°, the summer mean 71°, and within the period from 1888 to 1907 extremes ranged from 104° to 213°. The summer maxima on the mountains are usually 8° to 10° ess than in the valleys directly below them; Sae erstown, Crawford county, is nearly 30 m. south of Erie, on Lake rie, and yet the winter mean is 28° at Erie and onl 25" at Saegerstown, and the lowest temperature on record for rie is —16° while for Saegerstown it is —27°. During the period from 1875 to 1905 inclusive, extremes within the state ranged from 107° at York, _York county, in Jul 1901, to —42° at Smithport, McKean county, in January 1904. July is the warmest month in all parts of the state. January is the coldest in some and February in others. The average annual rainfall is 44 in. It is 50 in. or more in some regions along the south-east border of the mountain district or farther south-east where the rains are occasionally heavy, and it is less than 40 in. in some of the north-east and south-west counties. The amount of rainfall during the summer is about 3 in. more than that during either autumn or winter and 2 in. more than that during s ring. In the mountain region and in the vicinity of Lake Erie t ere is often a fall of several inches of snow during the winter months and the rapid melting of this produces floods on the Dela~ ware, Su uehanna and Ohio rivers and some of their tributaries. The prevai ing winds are westerl , but they are frequently interru ted bty warm breezes from the soutii, or moisture-bearing currents fprom t e east. - 1
SOiIS.—Th6 most productive soil is that in the south-east section of the Great Valle and in Chester Valley where it is derived lar ely from limestone. here is some of the same formation as wel as that derived from red shales on the sandstone hills in the south-east province and in many of the middle and western valleys, but often . a belt of inferior slate soil adjoins a limestone belt, and man of the ridges are covered with a still more sterile soil derived rom white and grey sandstones. The north-west and north-east sections contain some glacial drift but the soil in these arts is not suitable for cultivation except in the larger valleys in t e north-west where it is drained by glacial grave] or there is some sandy loam mixed with clay.
Agricultura—Pennsylvania is noted for its mineral wealth and manufactures rather t an for its agricultural resources, but in 1900 about two-thirds of its land was included in farms, a little more than two-thirds of its farm-land was improved, and in several crops the state has long ranked high. The number of farms increased from 127,577 in 1850 to 224,248 in 1900, the increase resulting in part from a reduction of their size but more lar ely from the appropriation of new lands for farming purposes. he average size in 1900 was 86-4 acres. Nearly 60% of them containe less than 100 acres and only about 27% contained 260 acres or more. More than seven-tenths (160,105) were worked by owners or part owners, and only 34,529 by share tenants, and 23,737 by cash tenants. Hay, Indian corn, wheat, oats, potatoes, fruits, vegetables and tobacco are the principal crops. Of the total crop acreage in 1899 nearly two-fifths was devoted to hay and forage, and the value of the hay crop in 1909 1 (when the crop was 3,742,000 tons, valued at $54,633,000) was greater than that of any other state in the Union except New York. Hay is rown in lar est quantities in the north, and in the section sonar-east of lue Mountain. More than one-half of the crop acreage in 1899 was devoted to cereals, and of the total cereal acreage 32 "/Z, was of wheat, 31-2 % was of Indian com, 248% was of oats, 6-5 % was of rye, and 53% was of buckwheat. The product of Indian corn was 48,800,000 bushels in 1909; of wheat 26,265,000 bushels; of oats 25,948,000 bushels; of barley 196,000 bushels; of rye 5,508,000 bushels; and of buckwheat 5,665,000 bushels.
Indian corn, wheat and rye, are cultivated most extensively in the south-east counties. Some of the larger oat-producing counties also are in the south-east, but most of the buckwheat, barley and oats are grown in the north and west counties. The dairy business, for which much of the hay crop is needed, has grown with the growth of the urban population as is shown in part by a steady increase in the number of dairy cows from 530,224 in 1850 to 1,140,000 in 1910; the value of the dairy products in 1899 ($35,860,110) was exceeded only in New York. The number of other cattle has fluctuated somewhat, but there were 917,000 in 1910 as against 623,722 in 1850. Horses increased in number