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from 350,398 in 18 o to 619,000 in 1910. The number of mules increased steadily rom 2259 in 1850 to ,000 in 1910. The raisin of shee and swine was of considerably less relative importance in 1910 t an in 1850, there being 1,882,357 sheep and 1,040, 66 swine in 1850 and 1,112,000 sheep and 931,000 swine in 1910. The dairy business is largest in the regions around Philadelphia and Pittsburg, and in Erie and Bradford counties. Cattle other than dairy cows as well as horses and sheep are most numerous in the western counties, in Bradford county on the north border, and in some of the counties of the south-east. Swine are most numerous in the south-east and south-west counties. The state ranks high in the production of potatoes, cabbagcs, lettuce and turnips, and it produces large crops of sweet Indian corn, tomatoes. cucumbers, musk-melons, asparagus and celery. The total value of all vegetables produced in 1899 was $15,832,904, an amount exceeding that of any other state except New Y ork. A large portion of the vegetables are grown in the vicinity of Philadelphia or in the vicinity of Pittsburg. The culture of tobacco, which was introduced as early as 1689, was a small industry until the middle of the 19th century, but it then developed ra idly except during a brief interruption caused by the Mex1can ar. In 1909 the crop was 30,732,000 lb. More than two-thirds of the state's crop of 1899 was produced in Lancaster county, which is one of the largest tobaccmproducing counties in the United States, and most of the other third was produced in York, Tio , Bradford and Clinton counties. Apples, cherries and pears are t e principal orchard fruits. Grapes, ches, lums and prunes, apricots, strawberries, raspberries an loganrries, blackberries and dewberries, currants and“ gooseberries are also grown. Orchard fruits are most abundant south-east of Blue Mountain, and small fruits near the larger cities, but about two-thirds of the grapes are grown in Erie county. Floriculture is an important industry in Philadelphia and its vicinity. The sale of nursery products, more than one-half of which were grown in Chester and Montgomery counties, amounted in 1899 to $541,032, and although this was ess than one-third that of New York it was exceeded in only three other states. Minerals—Pennsylvania is by far the most important coalpgoducing state in the Union, and as much of the iron ore of the ke Superior region is brought to its reat bituminous coal-field for rendering into pig-iron, the value of t e state's mineral products constitutes a lar e fraction of the total value for the entire country; in 1907, when t e value of the mineral products of the state was $657,783,345, or nearly onethird that of all the United States, and in 1908 when the total for the state was $473,083,212, or more than one-fourth that of the whole United States, more than four— fifths of it was represented by coal and pi -iron. With the exception of two small areas in Colorado an New Mexico, Penns vania contains the only anthracrte-coal region in the country. his is in the east of the state, and although it has a total area of about 3 00 sq. m., its workable measures are mostly in Lackawanna, uzerne, Carbon, Schuylkill and Northumberland counties in an area of less than 500 m. This coal was discovered as early as 1762 near the site of t e present city of Wilkes-Barre and during the War of Independence it was used at Carlisle in the manufacture of war materials, but it was of little commercial importance until early in the next centu . In 1815 the output was reported as only 50 tons, but it steadi y rose to 74,347,102 tons (valued at $158,178,849) in 1908. Besides having practically all the anthracite, Pennsylvania has the thickest bituminous coal-measures. and most of the coal obtained from these is of the best qualit . They form the northern extremity of the great Appalachian coal- eld and underlie an area of 15,000 sq. m. or more in the west of the state. The Pittsburg district, comprisin the counties of Alleghen , Washington, Fa 'ette and Westmore nd, is exceptionally pr uctive, and the coa in Allegheny and Washington counties is noted for its gas-producin qualities, while in Fayette and \Vestmoreland counties is obtained 1 e famous Connellsville coking coal. The bituminous coal was first used at near! the same time as the anthracite and it was first shipped from Pittsburg in 1803. In 1840 the state's output was 464,826 tons. It increased to 1,000,000 tons in 1850, to -1 1,760,000 tons in 1875, to 79,842,326 tons in 1900, to 150,143,177 tons in 1907; and was 117,179,527 tons in 1908, when it was 352% of that of the entire count and was valued at $118,816,303. In 1880 the output of coal anthracite and bituminous) in Pennsylvania was 66% of that of the entire country; in 1908 it was 482%; but in the latter year the Pennsylvania mines produced more coal than the combined roduction of all the countries of the world excepting Great Britain, Germany and Austria-Hungary, and it was nearly our times as much as the total mined in Austria, nearly five times as much as that mined in France, and seven times as much as the output of Russia in that ear. Extending from the south—west corner of the state throu h reene, Washington, Allehen , Beaver. Bmler, Venango, Carion, Forest, Elk, Warren, fi/lc n and Tie counties is the Pennsylvania section of the Appalachian oil~fie d which, with the small section in New York, furnished nearly all' of the country's supply of petroleum for some years following the discovery of its value for illuminating purposes. he mineral was made known to white men by the Indians, who sold it, under the name of Seneca oil, as a cure for various ills, and burned it at some of their ceremonies. The early settlers in

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west Pennsylvania also found that some unknown people had dug pits several feet in depth around the oil springs apparently for the purpose of collecting the oil. But it was not until the middle of the 19th century that its value as an illuminating oil became known and not until 1859 was the first petroleum well drilled. Th's was the Drake well, on the flats of Oil Creek at Titusville; it was about 70 ft. in depth, and when 25 barrels were pumped from it in a day its production was considered enormous. By the close of 1861 wells had been drilled from which 2000 to 3000 barrels flowed in a day without pumping, and the state's yearly output continued to increase unti 1891, when it amounted to 31,424,206 barrels. Since then, however, wells have been going dry, and when, in 189 , the output fell to 19,144,390 barrels it was exceeded by that 0 Ohio. It went down quite steadily to 9,424,325 in 1908, and in that year Pennsylvania was out-ranked as an oil- roducing state by Oklahoma, California, Illinois, Texas and Ohio. Fri drilling for some of the first 011 wells gas escaped, and in a few instances this was used as a fuel for generating steam in the boilers of the drillin -engines. In some instances, too, wells which were drilled for oi produced only gas. A little later, about 1868, successful experiments were made with gas as a manufacturing fuel, and in 1872 the gas indust was fairly well established near Titusville by drilling a well an piping the as for consumption both as fuel and light. The value of the state s output increased from approximatel $75,000 in 1882 to approximately $19,282,000 in 1888, and the total value of its output during these and the intervening years was more than 80% that of a] the United States. The 1ndustry then became of greater importance in several other states and declined in Pennsylvania until in 1896 the value of Pennsylvania's product amounted to only $5,528,610, or 42-570 of that of the United States. This tern orary decline was, however, followed by a rather steady rise andp in 1908 the output was valued at $19,104,944, which was still far in excess of that of an other state and nearly 35"o of that of the entire country. he gas region has an area 0 about 15,000 sq. m. and embraces about all of the Penns lvania section of the Alleghany plateau except a narrow belt a orig its east and south-east border. There are deposits of various kinds of iron ore in the eastern, south-eastern, middle and some of the western counties, and from the middle of the 18th century until near the close of the 19th Pennsylvania ranked high among the iron-ore-producing states. As late as 1880 it ranked first, with a product amounting to 1,951,496 long tons. But the state‘s iron foundries moved rapidly westward after the first successful experiments in making pig-iron with bituminous coal, in 1845, and the discovery, a few years later, that rich ore could be obtained there at less cost from the Lake Superior region resulted in a decline of iron-mining within the state until, in 1 2, the product amounted to only 822,932 long tons, 72-2% of w ich was magnetite ore from the Cornwall mines in Lebanon county which have been among the largest producers of this kind of ore since the erection of the Cornwall furnace in 1742. In 1908 the entire iron-ore product of the state, amounting to 443,161 long tons, was not 1-3 % of that of the United States, but the production of the magnetite-ore alone (343,998 long tons) was more than onefifth that of all the United States. In the manufacture of pig-iron Pennsylvania is easily first among the states, with a product value in 1908 of $111,385,000, nearly 43-8 % of that of the entire country. Pennsylvania has extensive areas of limestone rock suitable for making cement, and in Northampton and Lehigh counties enormous

uantities of it are used in this industry. Natural-rock cement was

rst made in the state soon after the discovery, in 1831, of deposits of cement rock near Williamsport, Lycoming county, and the industry was greatly promoted in 1850 when the vast deposits in the lower Lehigh Valley were discovered and large uantities of cement were required in the rebuilding of the Lehigh Canal. Competition produced in Lehigh county the first successful Portland cement plant in the United States in 1870. The output of the natural-rock cement continued greater than that of the Portland until 1896, but for the succeeding ten years the enormous development of the cement industry was almost entirely in the Portland branch, its production in the state increasing from 825,054 barrels in 1896 to 8,770,45 barrels in 1902, and to 18,254,806 barrels (valued at $13, ,807 in 1908, when it was more than 30% of that of the Unit States. The production of natural-rock cement was 608,000 barrels in 1896 and only 252,479 barrels (valued at $87,192) in 1908. Limestones and dolomites suitable for building purposes are obtained chiefly in Montgomery, Chester and Lancaster counties, and even these are generally rejected for ornamental work on account of their colour, which is usually bluish, grey or mottled. However until increased facilities of transport brought more desirable stones into competition they were used extensively in Philadelphia and with them the main building of Girard College and the United States Naval Asylum were erected and the long rows of red-brick residences were trimmed. There are limestone quarries in nearly two-thirds of the counties and great quantities of the stone are used for flux in the iron furnaces, for making uicklime, for railway ballast and for road making. The total va ue of the limestone output in 1908 amounted to 84,0 7,471, and the total value of all stone quarried was $6,371,152. 11 Dau hin county is a quarry of bluish-brown Triassic sandstone that as been used extensively especially in Philadelphia, for the erection of the so-called brown stone fronts. On the Pocono plateau is a large deposit of a finegrained dark-blue stone of the Devonian formation which is known as the Wyoming Valley stone, and, like the New York “ bluestone," which it closely resembles, is much used for window and door trimmings, steps and flagging. Several of the western counties contain Carboniferous or sub-Carboniferous sandstones that are' used locally for building and for various other purposes. In 1908 the value of Pennsylvania sandstone and bluestone was $1,368,784. Northampton, Lehigh and York counties contain the most productive slate quarries 1n the country, and in 1908 the value of their output was $3,902,958; the Northampton and Lehigh slate is the only kind in the United States used for school blackboards. There is an extensive area in the south—east part of the state containing shale clay of a superior uality for making common brick. Kaolin abounds in Chester and elaware counties, and fire-cla in several of the western counties. In 1908 the state ranked rst in the value of its output of brick and tile ($18,981,743), which was 1474 % of the entire product of the United States, and was second onl to Ohio in the total value of its clay products ($14,842,982), w ich was 11-14% of that for the entire country. Glass sand abounds both in the eastern and in the western sections and for many years Pennsylvania has used this more extensively in the manufacture of glass than any other state. Deposits of crystalline graphite are found in Chester and Berks counties. In Chester county, also, is one of the most productive deposits of feldspar, second in importance only to those of Maine. Soapstone is quarried in Montgomery and Northampton counties, phosphate rock, in juniata county; rocks from which mineral paints are made, in several counties, and there is some garnet in Delaware county.

Manufactures.—The state ranks second to New York in the value of its manufactures, which increased from $155,044,910 in 1850 to $1,955,551.332 (factory products alone) in 1905, a growth which has been promoted by an abundance of fuel, by a good port on the Atlantic seaboard, by a network of canals which in the early years was of much importance in connecting the rt with the Mississippi river s stem, by its frontage on Lake Erie which makes the ores of the Lake Superior region easily accessible, and by a great railway system which has been built to meet the demands arising from the natural resources. By far the most important industry is the production of iron and steel. The manufacture of iron was established on a commercial basis in 1716—1718, when a furnace was built on Manatawney Creek above Pottstown, and before the close of the colonial era Pennsylvania had risen to first rank among the iron-producing colonies, a position which it has always held among the states of the Union. So long as charcoal only was used in the furnaces (until about 1840) and during the brief period in which this was replaced largely by anthracite, the indust was of chief importance in the eastern section, but with the gra ual increase in the use of bituminous coal, or of coke made from it, the industry moved westward, where, especially in the Pittsburg district, it received a new impetus by the introduction of iron ore from the Lake Superior region. The value of the output of iron and steel increased from $264,571,624 in 1890 to $471,228,844 in 1905, and the state furnished 46-5 % of the pig-iron and 54 0 of the steel and malleable iron produced in the entire country. The manufactureyof great quantities of coke has resulted~from the demand for this roduct in the iron and steel industry and from the abundance 0 coking coal; the manufacture of lass has been promoted by the supply of glass sand and natural gas in the west of the state; the manufacture of leather by the abundance of hemlock bark; the manufacture of pottery, terra-cotta and fire-clay roducts by the abundance of raw material; the manufacture of sifk and silk goods by the large number of women and girls who came into the state in families of which the men and boys were employed in mining and picking anthracite coal; and in each of these industries as well as in a few others the state has for many years produced a large portion of the country's product.

In 1905 the twelve leading manufactures, with the value of each, were: steel and malleable iron, $363,773,577; foundry and machineshop products, consistin most largely of steam locomotives, metalworking machinery an pumping machinery, $119,650,913; pigiron, $107,455,267; leather, $69,427,852; railway cars and repairs by steam railway companies, $61,021,374; refined petroleum, $47,459,502; silk and silk goods, $39,333, 20; tobacco, cigars and cigarettes, $39,079,122; flour and grist-mil products, $38,518,702; refined sugar and molasses, $37,182,504; worsted goods, $35,683,015; and malt liquors, $34,863,823. The most marked advances from 1900 to 1905 were in worsted goods (61-4 %) structural iron-work (60 %). and tin and terne-plate (54-4 ‘34,). Philadelphia is the great manufacturing centre. \Vithin its limits, in 1905, all the sugar and molasses were manufactured and much of the petroleum was refined, nearly all of the iron and steel ships and steam locomotives were built, and 93 % 0f the carpets and rugs were made, and the total value of the manufactures of this cit in that year was nearly one-third of that for the entire state. early 20 °/,', of the iron and steel was produced by Pittsbur together with Allegheny,with which it has since been consolidate , and the production of these is the leading industry of New Castle, Johnstown, Duquesne, McKeesport, Sharon, Braddock and Dubois. also in the west part of

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the state and of Reading, Harrisburg, Steelton, South Bethlehem, Pottstown, Lebanon, Phoenixville and Danville in the east part. The silk and cement industries are confined largely to the eastern cities and boroughs; the coke, tin and terne-plate, and pickling industries to the western; and the construction and repair of railway cars to Altoona, Meadville, Dunmore, and repair of railway cars to Altoona, Meadville, Dunmore, Chambersburg, Butler and Philadelphia.

Transport and Commerce—The new road cut through the {runiata region in the march of the army of Brigadier-General john orbes, against Fort Duquesne in 1758, was a result of the influence of Pennsylvania, for it was considered even then a matter of great importance to the future prosperity of the province that its seaport, Philadelphia, be connected with navigation on the Ohio by the easiest line of communication that could be had wholly within its limits. As early as 1762 David Rittenhouse and others made a survey for a canal to connect the Schuylkill and the Susquehanna rivers, and in 1791 a committee of the state legislature reported in favour of a project for-establishing communication by canals and river improvement from Philadelphia to Lake Erie by way of the Susquehanna river. Before anything was done, the need of improved means of transportation between Philadel hia and the anthracite coal-fields became the more pressing. T e Schuylkill Canal Company, chartered in 1815, began the construction of a canal along the Schuylkill river from Philadelphia to Mount Carbon, Schuylkill county, in 1816, and completed it in 1826. In 1818 the Lehigh Navigation Company was formed to improve the navigation of the ILehigh river from its confluence with the Delaware to Coal art, and two years later coal was successfully carried down the ehigh and Delaware rivers to Philadelphia in “arks” or rectan ular boxes, two or more of which were joined together and steere by a long oar. So prosperous was the business that in 1827—1829 the company built a number of locks which made the Lehigh navigable in either direction, and in 1827—1832 the state did the same for the Delaware between the mouth of the Lehigh and Bristol. The Union Canal Company, incorporated in 1811, completed a canal from Middletown on the Susquehanna to Readin on t e Schuylkill in 1827. In 1824 the state legislature authorize the appointment of a commission to explore routes from the Schuyl~ kill to Pittsburg, and from the West Branch of the Susquehanna t0 the Alleghen , and in the three or four succeeding ears the state committ itself to a very extensive system 0 internal improvements. Work was begun on the system ,in 1826 and was continued without interruption until 1840, when the com leted or nearly completed portions embraced a railway from Phi adelphia to Columbia on the Susquehanna, a canal up the Susquehanna and the Juniata from Columbia to Hollidaysburg, a portage railway from Hollidaysburg through Blair's Gap in the Allc hany Front to

ohnstown on the Conemaugh river, a canal down tlgie Conemaugh,

iskiminetas, and Allegheny rivers to Pittsburg, a canal up the Sus uehanna and its west branch from the mouth of the juniata to arrandsville, in Clinton county, a canal up the Sucquehanna and its north branch from Northumberland nearly to the New York border, and a canal up the Delaware river from Bristol to the mouth of the Lehigh; considerable work had also been done on two canals to connect the Ohio river with Lake Erie. Work was stopped, in 1840, before the system was completed because of the intense popular discontent arising from the burden of debt which had been assumed and because the success of competing railways was then fully assured. In 1845 the state began to sell its canals and railwa s to private corporations and the sale was completed in 1859. The western division of the system was abandoned by the new owners in 1865 and the worked portion of the east division gradually decreased until it, too, was wholly abandoned in 1904. with the exception of the Delaware Division Canal, which since 1866 has been worked by the Lehigh Coal 8L Navi ation Company in connexion with the Lehi h Canal. In its natura condition there were bars in the Delaware river below Philadelphia which obstructed the navigation of vessels drawing more than 17—20 ft. of water, but in 1899 the Federal government adopted a roject for obtaining a channel having a minimum depth of 30 ft. he Federal government has much improved the navigation of the Monon ahela and Allegheny rivers and is committed to a project for sack-water navigation on the Ohio which is expected to give Pittsburg communication with the sea by vessels drawing 9 ft. of water.

The first railway in the state was that built in 1827 by the Lehigh Coal & Navigation Company from Mauch Chunk to its mines, 9 m. distant; but this was only a gravity road down which cars loaded with coal descended by their own gravity and up which the empty cars were drawn by mules. In 1823 a company was incorporated to build a railway from Philadelphia to Columbia, but nothing further was done until 1828, when the state canal commissioners were directed to build this road 'and the Allegheny Portage railway from Hollidaysburg to Johnstown. The atter was built with ten inclined planes, five on each side of the summit at Blair's Gap and cars were drawn up these by stationary engines. Both the Philadelphia & Columbia and the Alleghen Portage railways were completed in 1834; From these and ot er begins nings the state's railway mileage gradually increased to 1240 m. in 1850. to 4656 m. in 1870, to 8639 m. in 1890 and to 11,373 m. at the end of 1908, when it was exceeded by onl two states in _the Union, Texas and Illinois. The rincipal rai ways are the lines operated by the Pennsylvania Rai road Company from New York to Washington through Philadelphia; from Philadelphia_ to Cincinnati, Cleveland, Chicago and St Louis throu h Harrisburg and Pittsburg; from Baltimore, Marylandpto So us Point on Lake Ontario (Northern Central) through Harrisburg and Williamsport; from Williams ort to Buffalo and to Erie, and from Pittsbur _to Buffalo; the Philadelphia & Reading; the Lehigh valley; the tie; the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western; the Baltimore 8: Ohio; and the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburg. _

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The state has one port of entry along the Atlantic coast, one on the Ohio river, and one on the Great Lakes. Philadel hia, the Atlantic port, exports chiefly petroleum, coal, grain and our, and imports chiefly iron ore, sugar, drugs and chemicals, manufactured iron, hemp, jute and flax. In 1909 the value of its exports, $80,650,274, was greater than that of any other Atlantic port except New York, and the value of its imports, $78,003,464, was greater than that of any except New York and Boston. _Pittsburg ranks high among the interior ports of the country in form n commerce and first among the cities of the United States in t e tonnage of its domestic commerce. Erie is quite unimportant among the lake ports in foreign commerce, but has a large domestic trade in iron ore, copper, wheat and flour.

Populalian.—The population of Pennsylvania was 434,373 in 1790; 602,365 in 1800; 810,091 in 1810; 1,049,458 in 1820; 1,348,233 in 1830; 1,724,033 in 1840; 2,311,786 in 1850; 2,906,215 in 1860; 3,521,951 in 1870; 4,282,891 in 1880; 5,258,014 in 1890; 6,302,115 in 1900; 7,665,111 in 1910. Of the total in 1900, 985,250, or 156%, were foreign-born, 156,845 were negroes, 1639 were Indians, 1927 were Chinese and 40 were Japanese. Nearly 95% of the foreign-born was composed of natives of Germany (212,453), Ireland (205,909), Great Britain (180,670), Poland (76,358), Austria. (67,492),Ita.ly (66,655 ,Russia (50,959), Hungary (47,393) and Sweden (24,130). Of the native popula— tion (5,316,865) 907% were born within the state and a little more than two-fifths of the remainder were natives of New York, Maryland, Ohio, New Jersey, Virginia, New England, Delaware and West Virginia. Almost two-thirds of the Indians were in Cumberland county where, at Carlisle, is a United States Indian Industrial School. In 1906 the total number of communicants of difl'erent religious denominations in the state was 2,977,022, of whom 1,717,037 were Protestants and 1,214,734 were Roman Catholics. There is a large number of the smaller religious sects in the state; the principal denominations, with the number of communicants of each in 1906, are: Methodist (363.443), Lutheran (335,643). Presbyterian (322,542), Reformed Church (177,270), Baptist (141,694), Protestant Episcopalian (99,021), United Brethren (55,574), United Evangelical Church (45,480), Disciples of Christ (26,458), German Baptist Brethren (23,176), Eastern Orthodox Churches (22,123), Mennonites (16,527), Congregational (14,811), Evangelical Association (13,294), Friends (12,457), Church of God or “Winnebrennerians ” (11,157), and Moravian (5322).

Of the total population in 1900, 3,223,337,0r 1-1 %, were urban (Le. in places having a population of 4000 or more , 762,846, or 12-15%, were semi-urban (111:. in incorporated places having a population less than 4000) and 2,315,932, or 36-75 ‘31,, were rural (Le. outside of the incorporated places). From 1890 to 1900 the urban population increased 854,730, or 36%, and the semi-urban 134,077, or 184 %, but the rural increased only 55,195, or 2-4 "/0. The populations of the principal cities in 1900 were as follows: Philadelphia, 1,293,697; Pittsburg, 321,616; Allegheny, 129,896 (subsequently: annexed to Pittsburg); Scranton, 102,026; Reading, 78, 61; he, 52,733; Wilkes-Barré, 51,721; Harrisburg, 50,167; ncaster, 41,459; Altoona,88,973 ; Johnstown, 35,936; Allentown, 35,416; McKeesport, 34,227; hester, 33,988; York. 33,708; Williamsport, 28,757; New Castle, 28-339: Easton, 25,238; Norristown, 22,265; Shenandoah, 20,321; Shamokin (borough), 18,202; Lebanon, 17,628.

Administration.-—Pennsylvania has been governed under constitutions of 1776, 1790 and 1838 ; the present government is under the constitution of the 16th of December 1873 with amendments adopted on the 5th of November 1901. An amendment to the constitution to be adopted must be approved by a majority of the members elected to each house of the general assembly in two successive legislatures and then, at least three months after the second approval of the general assembly, by a. majority of the popular vote cast on the adoption of the amendment. All male citizens over 21 years of age,

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who have been citizens of the United States for one month, residents of the state for one year and of the election district for two months immediately preceding the election, have the right of suffrage, provided they have paid within two years a state or county tax, which shall have been assessed at least two months and paid at least one month before the election. The Australian or “ Massachusetts” ballot, adopted in 1891 under a law which fails to require personal registration, by a provision like that in Nebraska makes it easy to vote a straight ticket; party names are arranged on the ballot according to the number of votes secured by each party at the last preceding election.

Executive.—The office of governor, superseded in 1776 by a president and council of twelve, was restored in 1790. Under the present constitution the governor serves for four years and is ineligible for the next succeeding term. The governor and lieutenant-governor must be at least 30 years old, citizens of the United States, and inhabitants of the state for seven years last preceding election; no member of Congress or person holding any ofiice under the United States or Pennsylvania may be governor or lieutenantgovernor. The governor controls a large amount of patrona e, appointing, subject to the advice and consent of two-thirds of 51a senate, a secretary of the commonwealth and an attorney-general during pleasure, and a superintendent of public instruction for four years, and may fill vacancies in various offices which occur during the recess of the senate. He has a right of veto, extending to items in appropriation bills, which may be overridden by a two-thirds vote in each house. His power of pardon is limited, being subject to the recommendation of three members of a board which consists of the lieutenant-governor, secretary of the commonwealth, attorneygeneral and secretary of internal affairs. The other executive officials are the lieutenant-governor and the secretary of internal affairs, elected for four years, the auditor-general, elected for three years, the treasurer, elected for two years, and (all appointed by the governor) the secretary of the commonwealth, the attorne -general and a superintendent of public instruction. All those cffoscn by election are ineligible fora second consccutive term except the secretary of internal affairs. The department of internal affairs consists of six bureaus: the land office, vital statistics, weather service, assessments, industrial statistics, and railroads, canals, telegraphs and telephones. There are also many statutory administrative officials and boards, such as the adjutant-general, insurance commissioner, board of health, board of agriculture, board of public grounds and buildings, commissioners of fisheries, and factory and mining inspectors.

Le Mature—During the colonial period and the early years of state ood the legislature was composed of one house, but the bicameral system was adopted in the constitution of 1790. There are fifty senators, elected for four years, and approximately two hundred representatives, elected for two years. Senators must be at least 25 years old, citizens and inhabitants of the state for four years next before election and inhabitants of the senatorial districts from which each is elected for one year next before election; representatives must be at least 21 years old and must have lived in the state three years and in the district from which elected one year next before election. To avoid the possibility of metropolitan domination provision is made that no city or county shall be entitled to more than one-sixth of the total number of senators. Sessions are biennial. The powers of the two houses are the same except that the senate exercises the usual right of confirmin appointments and of sitting as a court of impeachment, while the ouse of Representatives initiates money bills and impeachment cases. ‘

Judiciary—The supreme court consists of seven judges elected by the voters of the state at lar e. Minority representation is secured by the provision that each e ector shall vote for one less than the number of judges to be chosen at each election. The state is divided into three su reme judicial districts, the eastern, the middle and the western. T is court was formerly very much overworked, but it was relieved by an act of the 2 th of June 1895 establishing a superior court (now of seven judges) with appellate 'urisdiction. There were in 1910 fifty-six district courts of common pleas, one for each county of forty thousand inhabitants and not more than four counties in a district. The jud es of the common pleas are also judges of the courts of oyer an tcrminer,quarter sessions of the peace and general gaol delivery, and the orphans' courts, although there are separate orphans’ courts in the counties (ten in 1909) having a population of more than one hundred and fifty thousand. Justices of the peace are elected in wards, districts, borou hs and townships. In the colonial period all judges were appointe by the governor during good behaViour. The constitution of 1776 provided or terms of seven years, that of 1790 restored the life term, and that of 1838 fixed the terms for judges of the common pleas at_tc.n years and judges of the supreme court at fifteen. A constitutional amendment of 1850 provided that all judges should be elected by the people.1

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{The constitution of 1873 made provision for minority representation as follows: “ Whenever two Judges of the supreme court are

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