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of medicine, and an enrolment of 4570 students, of whom 2989 were in the college (412 in the school of arts; 987 in the Towne scientific school; 472 in the Wharton school, and 253 in the evening school of accounts and finance; 384 in courses for teachers; and 481 in the summer school), 3 53 in the graduate school, 327 in the department of law, 559 in the department of medicine, 385 in the department of dentistry, and 150 in the department of Veterinary medicine.

In August 1907 the excess of the university’s assets over its liabilities was $13,239,408 and the donations for the year were $305,814. A very large proportion of the university's investments is in real estate, especially in Philadelphia. In 1907 the total value of real estate (including the university buildings) was $6,829,154; and libraries, museums, apparatus and furniture were valued at $2,025,357. Students' tuition fees vary from $150 to $200 a year in the college; and are $160 in the department of law, $200 in the department of medicine, $150 in the department of dentistry and 8100 in the department of veterinary science. 'The income from tuition fees in 1906—1907 was $458,396; the ayments for “educational salaries" amounted to $433,311, and or “ administration salaries " to $135,314.

The university publishes the following series: Astronomical Series (1899 sqq.); Contributions from the Botanical Laboratory (1892 sqq.); Contributionsfrom the Laboratory onygiene (1898 sqq.); Contributions from the Zoological Laboratory (1893 sqq.); Series in History (1901 sqq.); Series in Mathematics (1897 sqq.); Series in Philology and Literature (1891 sqq.); Series in Romanic Languages and Literatures (1907 sqq.); Series in Philosophy (1890 sqq.); Series in Political Economy-and Public Law (1885 sqq.); TheAmcrican La-w Register (1852 sqq.); The University of Pennsylvania Medical Bulletin (1888 q.); Transactions of the Department of Archaeology (1904 sqq.);the ournal of Morphology (1887 sqq.);and Transactions and Proceedings of the Botanical Society of Pennsylvania (1897 sqq.). There are also occasional publications by institutes and departments connected with the university. Student publications include: a daily, The Pennsylvanian (1885); the weekly, Old Penn (1902); a comic monthly, The Punch Bowl; a litera monthly, The Red and Blue; a quarterly of the department 0 dentistry, The Penn Dental Journal; an annual, The Record; and The Alumni Register (1896), a monthly.

Benjamin Franklin in 1749 published a pamphlet, entitled Profiosals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania, which led to the formation of a board of twenty-four trustees, nineteen of whom, on the 13th of November 1749, met for organization and to promote “the Publick Academy in the City of Philadelphia,” and elected Benjamin Franklin president of the board, an ofiice which he held until 1756. So closely was Franklin identified with the plan that Matthew Arnold called the institution “the University of Franklin.” On the rst of February 1750 there was conveyed to this board of trustees the “ New Building” on Fourth Street, near Arch, which had been erected in 1740 for a charity school—a use to which it had not been put—and as a ‘f house of Publick Worship,” in which George Whitefield had preached in November 1740; the original trustees (including Franklin) of the “ New Building ” and of its projected charityschool date from 1740, and therefore the university attaches to its seal the words “founded 1740." In the “ New Building ” the academy was opened on the 7th of January 1751, the city having voted £200 in the preceding August for the completion of the building. On the 16th of September 1751 a charitable school “ for the instruction of poor Children gratis in Reading, Writing, and Arithmetick ” was opened in the “ New Building.” The proprietaries, Thomas and Richard Penn, incorporated “ The Trustees of the Academy and Charitable School in the Province of Pennsylvania” in 1753; and in 1755 issued a. confirmatory charter, changing the corporate name to “ The Trustees of the College, Academy and Charitable School,” &c., whereupon William Smith (1727-1803) of the university of Aberdeen, who had become rector of the academy in 1752 and had taken orders in the Church of England in 1753, became provost of the college. In 1756 Dr Smith established a complete and liberal curriculum which was adopted by Bishop James Madison in 1777 when he became president of the College of William and Mary. In 17 57 the first college class graduated. Under Smith's control the Latin school grew in importance at the expense of the English school, to the great annoyance of Franklin. In 1762—1764 Dr Smith collected for

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the college in England about {6900; and in 1764 his influence had become so strong that it was feared that the college would become sectarian. The Forms and others deprecated this and the trustees bound themselves (1764) to “ use their utmost endeavours that . (the original plan) be not narrowed, nor the members of the Church of England, nor those dissenting from them be put on any worse footing in this seminary than they were at the time of receiving the royal brief." From September 1777 to June 1778 college exercises were not held because Philadelphia was occupied by British troops. In 1779 the state legislature, on the ground that the trustees’ declaration in 1764 was a “ narrowing of the foundation," 1 confiscated the rights and property of the college and chartered a new corporation “the Trustees of the UniVersity of the State of Pennsylvania "; in 1789 the college was restored to its rights and property and Smith again became its provost; in 1791 the college and the university of the State of Pennsylvania were united under the title, “ the University of Pennsylvania,” whose trustees were elected from their own members by the board of trustees of the college and that of the university. In 1802 the university purchased new grounds 011 Ninth Street, between Market and Chestnut, where the post office building now is; there until 1829 the university occupied the building erected for the administrative mansion 0f the president of the United States; there new buildings were erected after 1829; and from these the university removed to its present site in 1872.

The provosts have been: in 1755—1779 and in 1789—1803, William Smith; in 1779—1791, of the university of the state of Pennsylvania, John Ewing (1732—1802); in 1807—1810, John McDowell (1750—1820);in 1810—1813,]ohn Andrews (1746—1813); in 1813—1828, Frederick Beasley (1777—1845); in 1828—1833, William Heathcote De Lancey (1797—1865); in 1834—1853, John Ludlow (1793—1857); in 1854—1859, Henry Vethake (1792-1866) ; in 1860—1868, Daniel Raynes Goodwin (181 1—1890); in 1868—1880, Charles Janeway Stillé (1819—1899); in 1881—1894, William Pepper (1843—1898); in 1894—1910, Charles Custis Harrison (b. 1844), and in 1911 sqq. Edgar Fahs Smith (b. 1856).

See T. H. Montgomery, .4 History of the University of Pennsylvania from its Foundation to A.D. 1770 (Philadelphia, 1900); George B. Wood, Early History of the University of_ Pennsylvania (3rd ed., ibid., 1896); J. B. McMaster, The University of Pennsylvania (ibid. 18 7); G. E. Nitzsche, O cial Guide to the University of Pennsyoania (ibid., 1906); an Edward P. Cheyney, “University of Pepn)sylvania," in vol. i. of Universities and their Sons (Boston, 1901 .

PENNY (Mid. Eng. peni or peny, from 0. Eng. form penig, earlier penning and pending; the word appears in Ger. Pfennig and Du. Penning; it has been connected with Du. Pond, Ger. Pfand, and Eng. “pawn,” the word meaning a little pledge or token, or with Ger. Pfanne, a pan), an English coin, equal in value to the one-twelfth of a shilling. It is one of the oldest of English coins, superseding the sceatta or sceat (see NUMISMATICS; and BRITAIN: Anglo Saxon, § “ Coins ”). It was introduced into England by Offa, king of Mercia, who took as a model a coin first struck by Pippin, father of Charlemagne, about 7 3 5, which was known in Europe as noous dcnarius. Ofi'a’s penny was made of silver and weighed 22% grains, 240 pennies weighing one Saxon pound (or Tower pound, as it was afterwards called), hence the term pennyweight (dwt.). In 1527 the Tower pound of 5400 grains was abolished, and the pound of 5760 grains adopted instead. The penny remained, with some few exceptions, the only coin issued in England until the introduction of the gold fiorin by Edward III. in 1343. It was not until the reign of Edward I. that halfpence and farthings became a regular part of the coinage, it having been usual to subdivide the penny for trade purposes by cutting it into halves and quarters, a practice said to have originated in the reign of lEthelred II. In 1257, in the reign of Henry III., a gold penny,

1 Probably the actual reason was that the assembly, dominated by the advocates'of the radical constitution of 1776, was attempting

to punish the trustees of the college, who were almost all “ anticonstitutionalists."

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The last coinage of silver pence for general circulation was in the reign of Charles II. (1661—1662), since which time they have only been coined for issue as royal alms on Maundy Thursdays. Copper halfpence were first issued in Charles II.’s reign,1 but it was not until 1797, in the reign of George III., that copper pence were struck. This copper penny weighed 1 oz. avoirdupois. In the same year copper twopences were issued weighing 2 02., but they were found too cumbersome and were discon— tinued. In 1860 bronze was substituted for the copper coinage, the alloy containing .95 parts of copper, 4 of tin, and 1 of zinc. The weight was also reduced, 1 lb of bronze being coined into 48 pennies, as against 24 pennies into which 1 lb of copper was coined.

PENN YAN, a village and the county-seat of Yates county, New York, U.S.A., situated N. of Keuka Lake, on the outlet extending to Lake Seneca, about 170 In. W. of Albany, and about 95 m. E. by S. of Buffalo. Pop. (1905), 4504; (1910) 4597. It is served by the New York Central 81 Hudson River and the Northern Central railways and by electric railway to Branchport, and has steamboat connexions with Hammondsport at the head of Keuka Lake. The lake, one of the most beautiful of the so-called “ finger lakes ” of central New York, abounds in lake and rainbow trout, black bass, pickerel and pike, and there are many summer cottages along its shores. At Keuka Park, on the west shore of the lake, is Keuka College (1890), and at Eggleston’s Point is held a summer “natural science camp ” for boys. The village is the seat of the Penn Yan Academy (1859). The lake furnishes water-power, and among the manufactures are paper, lumber, carriages, shoes, 81c. Much ice is shipped from the village. Penn Yan is an important shipping point in the apple and grape-growing region of central New York, and winemaking is an important industry. The first frame dwelling at Penn Yan was built in 1799; the village became the county-seat in 182 3, when Yates county was created, and was incorporated in 1833. The first settlers were chiefly followers of Jemima Wilkinson (1753—1819), a religious enthusiast, born in Cumberland township, Providence county, Rhode Island, who asserted that she had received a divine commission. She preached in Rhode Island, Connecticut, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania. Obtaining a large tract (which was called Jerusalem in 1789) in the present Yates county, she founded in 1788 the village of Hopeton on the outlet of Keuka Lake about a mile from Seneca Lake. Many followers settled there, and she herself lived there after 1790. Some of her followers left her before 1800, and then the community gradually broke up. The name of the village is said to have been derived from the first syllables of “ Pennsylvania ” and “ Yankee,” as most of the early settlers were Pennsylvanians and New Englanders.

‘ The figure of Britannia first appeared on this issue of copper coins. The original of Britannia IS said to have been Frances Stewart, afterwards duchess of Richmond (Pepys, Diary, Feb. 25, 1667). It was in Charles ll.'s-rei 11, too, that the ractice was established of placing the sovereign s bust in a direction contrary to that of his predecessor.

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85a): Lewis C. Aldrich, History of Yates County, New York (Syracuse, 1 92 .

PENNYROYAL, in botany, a herb formerly much used in medicine, the name being a corruption of the old herbalist’s name “ Pulioll-royall,” Pulegium regium. It is a member of the mint genus, and has been known to botanists since the time of Linnaeus as Mentha pulegium. It is a perennial herb with a slender branched stern, square in section, up to a foot in length and rooting at the lower nodes, small opposite stalked oval leaves about half-inch long, and dense clusters of small reddish-purple flowers in the leaf axils, forming almost globular whorls. It grows in damp gravelly places, especially near pools, on heaths and commons. It has a strong smell somewhat like that of spearmint, due to a volatile oil which is readily obtained by distillation ,with water, and is known in pharmacy as Oleum pulegii. The specific name recalls its supposed property of driving away fleas (pulices). Like the other mints it has carminative and stimulant properties.

PENOBSCOT, a tribe of North American Indians of Algonquian stock. Their old range was the country around the river Penobscot in Maine. They sided with the French in the colonial wars, but made a treaty of peace with the English in 1749. They fought against the English in the War of Independence, and were subsequently settled on an island in the Penobscot riVer, near Oldtown.

PENOLOGY (Lat. poena, punishment), the modern name given to penitentiary science, that concerned with the processes devised and adopted for the repression and prevention of crime. (See CRIME; CRIMINOLOGY; Parson; JUVENILE OFFENDERS; RECIDIVISM, 81c.)

PENRHYN, GEORGE SHOLTO GORDON DOUGLAS-PEN— NANT, 2nd BARON (1836—1907), was the son of Colonel Edward Gordon Douglas (1800-1886), brother of the 19th earl of Morton, who, through his wife, Juliana, elder daughter and coheir of George Hay Dawkins-Pennant, of Penrhyn Castle, Carnarvon, had large estates in Wales and elsewhere, and was created Baron Penrhyn in 1866. Dawkins had inherited the estates from Richard Penryn, who was created Baron Penryn in 1763, the title becoming extinct on his death in 1808.

George Douglas-Pennant was conservative M.P. for Carnarvonshire in 1866—1868 and 1874—1880, and succeeded his father in the title in 1886. A keen sportsman, a benevolent landlord, a kind and considerate employer, Lord Penrhyn came of a proud race, and was himself of an imperious disposition. He came prominently before the public in 1897 and subsequent years in connexion with the famous strike at his Welsh slatequarries. During his father's lifetime the management of the Penrhyn quarry had been left practically to an elective committee of the operatives, and it was on the verge of bankruptcy when in 1885 he took matters in hand; be abolished the committee, and with the help of Mr E. A. Young, whom he brought in from London as manager, he so reorganized the business that this slate-quarry yielded a profit of something like {150,000 a year. The new men and new methods were, however, not to the taste of the trade unionist leaders of the quarrymen, and in 1897, when the “ new unionism ” was rampant in labour questions throughout England, a strike was deliberately fomented. Lord Penrhyn refused to recognize the union or its officials, though he was willing to consider any grievances from individual quarrymen, and a protracted struggle ensued, in which his determination was invincible. He became the object of the bitterest political hostility, and trade unionism exerted itself to the utmost, but vainly, to bring about some form of government intervention. Penrhyn strikers perambulated the country, singing and collecting contributions to their funds. But in spite of every pressure Lord Penrhyn insisted on being master of his own property, and by degrees the agitation collapsed. His death on the 10th of March 1907 evoked general and genuine regret. Lord Penrhyn was twice married, and had fifteen surviving children. He was succeeded in the title by his eldest son, Edward Sholto (b. 1864), who was Unionist MP. for South Northamptonshire from 189 5 to 1900.

PEHRITH, a municipality of Cumberland county, New South Wales, Australia, on the Nepean River, 34 m. by rail W. by N. of Sydney. Penrith and the adjoining township of St Mary’s are chiefly remarkable for their connexion with the railway. The iron tubular bridge which carries the line over the Nepean is the best of its kind in the colony, while the viaduct over Knapsack Gulley is the most remarkable erection of its kind in Australia. There are large engineering works and railway fitting shops at Penrith, which is also the junction for all the western goods traffic. The inhabitants of both towns are mainly railway employés. Pop. (1901), of Penrith 3 539, of St Mary’s 1840.

PENRITH, a market town in the Penrith parliamentary division of Cumberland, England, in a valley near the river Eamont, on the Cockermouth, Keswiqk & Penrith, London 81 North Western and North Eastern railways. Pop. of urban district (1901), 9182. It contains some interesting brasses. A 14th-century grammar school was refounded by Queen Elizabeth; and there are two mansions dating from the same reign, which have been converted into inns. Though there are breweries, tanneries and saw-mills, the town depends mainly on agriculture. There are some ruins of a castle erected as a protection against the Scots. Near Penrith on the south, above the precipitous bank of the Eamont, stands a small but beautiful old castellated house, Yanwath Hall. To the north-east of the town is Eden Hall, rebuilt in 1824. Among many fine paintings, it contains portraits by Hoppner, Kneller, Lely, Opie and Reynolds. The “ Luck of Eden Hall,” which has been celebrated in a ballad by the duke of Wharton, and in a second ballad written by Uhland, the German poet, and translated by Longfellow, is an enamelled goblet, kept in a leathern case dating from the times of Henry IV. or Henry V. It was long supposed to be Venetian, but has been identified as of rare Oriental workmanship. The legend tells how a seneschal 'of Eden Hall one day came upon a company of fairies dancing at St Cuthbert’s Well in the park. These flew away, leaving their cup at the water’s edge, and singing “ If that glass either break or fall, Farewell to the luck of Eden Hall.” Its true history is unknown.

Penrith, otherwise Penreth, Perith, Perath, was founded by the Cambro-Celts, but on a site farther north than the present town. In 1222 Henry III. granted a yearly fair extending from the eve of Whitsun to the Monday after Trinity and a weekly market on Wednesday, but some time before 1787 the market day was changed to Tuesday. The manor in 1242 was handed over to the Scottish king who held it till 1295, when Edward I.

'seized it. In 1397 Richard II. granted it to Ralph Neville, first earl of Westmorland; it then passed to Warwick the kingmaker and on his death to the crown. In 1694 William III. granted the honour of Penrith to the earl of Portland, by whose descendant it was sold in 1787 to the duke of Devonshire. A court leet and view of frankpledge have been held here from time immemorial. In the 18th and early part of the 19th century Penrith manufactured checks, linen cloth and ginghams, but the introduction of machinery put an end to this industry, only the making of rag carpets surviving. Clock and watch-making seems to have been an important trade here in the 18th century. The town suffered much from the incursions of the Scots, and Ralph, earl of Westmorland, who died 1426, built the castle, but a tower called the Bishop’s Tower had been previously erected on the same site. In 1597—1598 a terrible visitation of plague attacked the town, in which, according to an old inscription on the church, 2260 persons perished in Penrith, by which perhaps is meant the rural deanery. During the Civil War the castle was dismantled by the Royalist commandant. In 1745 Prince Charles Edward twice marched through Penrith, and a skirmish took place at Clifton. The church of St Andrew is of unknown foundation, but the list of vicars is complete from 1223.

PENRY, JOHN (1559-1593), Welsh Puritan, was born in Brecknockshire in 1559; tradition points to Cefn Brith, a farm near Llangammarch, as his birthplace. He matriculated at

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Peterhouse, Cambridge, in December 1580, being then almost certainly a Roman Catholic; but soon became a convinced Protestant, with strong Puritan leanings. Having graduated B.A., he migrated to St Alban’s Hall, Oxford, and proceeded M.A. in July 1586. He did not seek episcopal ordination, but was licensed as University Preacher. The tradition of his preaching tours in Wales is slenderly supported; they could only have been made during a. few months of 1586 or the autumn of r 587. At this time ignorance and immorality abounded in Wales. In 1562 an act of parliament had made provision for translating the Bible into Welsh, and the New Testament was issued in 1567; but the number printed would barely supply a copy for each parish church. Indignant at this negligence, Penry published, early in r 587, The Equity of an Humble Supplication—in the behalf of the country of Wales, that some order may be taken for the preaching of the Gospel among those people. Archbishop Whitgift, angry at the implied rebuke, caused him to be brought before the High Commission and imprisoned for about a month. On his release Penry married a lady of Northampton, which town was his home for some years. With the assistance of Sir Richard Knightley and others, he set up a printing press, which for nearly a year from Michaelmas 1588 was in active operation. It was successively located at East Moulsey (Surrey), Fawsley (Northampton), Coventry and other places in Warwickshire, and finally at Manchester, where it was seized in August 1589. On it were printed Penry’s Exhortation to the governours and people of Wales, and View of . . . such publike wants and disorders as are in the service of God . . . in Wales; as well as the celebrated Martin Marprelate tracts. In January 1 590 his house at Northampton was searched and his papers seized, but he succeeded in escaping to Scotland. ' There he published several tracts, as well as a translation of a learned theological work known as Theses Genevenses. Returning to England in September 1592, he joined the Separatist Church in London, in which he declined to take office, though after the arrest of the ministers, Francis Johnson and John Greenwood, he seems to have been the regular preacher. He was arrested in March 1593, and efforts were made to find some pretext for a capital charge. Failing this a charge of sedition was based on the rough draft of a petition to the queen that had been found among his private papers; the language of which was indeed harsh and offensive, but had been neither presented nor published. He was convicted by the Queen’s Bench on the zrst of May 1593, and hanged on the 29th at the unusual hour of 4 p.m., the signature of his old enemy Whitgift being the first of those affixed to the warrant.

See the Life, by John \Vaddington (I854).

PENRYN, a market town and port, and municipal and contributary parliamentary borough of Cornwall, England,

)2 m. N.W. of Falmouth, on a branch of the Great Western

railway. Pop. (1901), 3190. It lies at the head of the estuary of the Penryn River, which opens from the main estuary of the Fal at Falmouth. Granite, which is extensively quarried in the neighbourhood, is dressed and polished at Penryn, and there are also chemical and bone manure works, engineering, iron and gunpowder works, timber-yards, brewing, tanning and paper-making. The harbour dries at low tide, but at high tide has from 9 to 12'} ft. of water. Area, 291 acres.

Penryn owed its development to the fostering care of the bishops of Exeter within whose demesne lands it stood. These lands appear in Domesday Book under the name of Trelivel. In 1230 Bishop Briwere granted to his burgesses of Penryn that they should hold their burgages freely at a yearly rent of 12d. by the acre for all service. Bishop Walter de Stapeldon secured a market on Thursdays and a fair at the Feast of St Thomas. The return to the bishop in 1307 was £7, i3s. 2%. from the borough and £26, 75. 5d. from the forum. In 1311 Bishop Stapeldon procured a three days' fair at the Feast of St Vitalis. Philip and Mary gave the parliamentary franchise to the burgesses in 1553. James I. granted and renewed the charter of incorporation, providing a mayor, eleven aldermen and twelve councillors, markets on Wednesdays and Saturdays, and fairs on the 1st of May, the 7th of July and the 21st of December. The charter having been surrendered, James II. by a new charter inter alia confined the parliamentary franchise to members of the corporation. This proviso however was soon disregarded, the franchise being freely exercised by all the inhabitants paying scot and lot. An attempt to deprive the borough of its members, owing to corrupt practices, was defeated by the House of Lords in 1827. The act of 1832 extended the franchise to Falmouth in spite of the rivalry existing between the two boroughs, which one of the sitting members asserted was so great that no Penryn man was ever known to marry a Falmouth woman. In 1885 the united borough was deprived of one of its members. The corporation of Penryn was remodelled in 1835, the aldermen being reduced to four. Its foreign trade, which dates from the 14th century, is considerable. The extra-parochial collegiate church of Glasney, founded by Bishop Bronescombe in 1265, had a revenue at the time of its suppression under the act of 1545 of £221,185. 4d.

See Victoria County History, Cornwall; T. C. Peter, Glasney Collegiate Church.

PENSACOLA. a city, port of entry, and the county-seat of Escambia county, Florida, U.S.A., in the N.W. part of the state, on Pensacola Bay, about 6 m. (11 m. by channel) N. of the Gulf of Mexico. Pop. (1900) 17,747; (1910) 22,982. It ranks second in size among the cities of Florida. The city is served by the Louisville 81 Nashville and the Pensacola, Alabama. 81 Tennessee railways, and by steamers to West Indian, European and United States ports. The harbour1 is the most important deep-water harbour south of Hampton Roads. The narrow entrance is easily navigable and is defended by Fort Pickens on the west end of Santa Rosa Island, with a great sea-wall on the Gulf side (completed in 1909), Fort McRee on a small peninsula directly opposite, and Fort Barrancas on the mainland immediately north-east of Fort McRee. On the mainland 1 111. east of Fort Barrancas are a United States Naval Station, consisting of a. yard (84 acres enclosed) with shops, a steel floating dry dock and marine barracks; and a reservation (1800 acres) on which are a naval hospital, a naval magazine, two timber ponds, a national cemetery, and the two villages of Warrington and Woolsey, with a population of about 1500,. mostly employés of the yard. The city’s principal public buildings are the state armoury, the Federal building, and the city hall. The mean annual temperature is about 72° F., and breezes from the Gulf temper the heat. Pensacola is a shipping point for lumber, naval stores, tobacco, phosphate rock, fish, cotton and cotton-seed oil, meal and cake, and is one of the principal markets in the United States for naval stores. In 1895 the foreign exports were valued at $3,196,609, in 1897 at $8,436,679, and in 1909 at $20,971,670; the imports in 1909 were valued at $1,479,017. The important factor in this vast development has been the Louisville & Nashville railway, which after 1895 built exten"ive warehouses and docks at Pensacola. There are excellent coaling docks—good coal is brought hither from Alabama—and a grain elevator. Among the manufactures are sashes, doors and blinds, whiting, fertilizers, rosin and turpentine, and drugs.

Pensacola Bay may have. been visited by Ponce de Leon in 1513 and by Panfilo de Narvaez in 1528. In 1540 Maldonado, the commander of the fleet that brought De Soto to the Florida coast, entered the harbour, which he named Puerta d’Auchusi, and on his recommendation De Soto designated it as a basis of supplies for his expedition into the interior. In 1559 apermanent settlement was attempted by Tristan de Luna, who renamed the harbour Santa Maria, but two years later this settlement was abandoned. In 1696 another settlement was made by Don Andres d’Arriola, who built Fort San Carlos near the site of the present Fort Barrancas, and seems to have named the place Pensacola. In 1719, Spain and France, being at war, Pensacola was captured by Sieur de Bienville, the French

1 In 1881 the United States government began to improve the harbour by dredging, and in June 1909 the depth of the channel, for a minimum wrdt of about 300 ft., was 30 ft. at mean low water.

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governor of Louisiana. Later in the same year it was successively re-taken by a Spanish force from Havana and recaptured by Bienville, who burned the town and destroyed the fort. In 1723, three years after the close of hostilities, Bienville relinquished possession. The Spanish then transferred their settlement to the west end of Santa Rosa Island, but after a. destructive hurricane in 1754 they returned to the mainland. In 1763, when the F loridas were ceded to Great Britain, Pensacola became the seat of administration for West Florida and most of the Spanish inhabitants removed to Mexico and Cuba. During the War of American Independence the town was a place of refuge for many Loyalists from the northern colonies. On the 9th of May 1781 it was captured by Don Bernardo dcGalvez, the Spanish governor at New Orleans. Most of the English inhabitants left, but trade remained in the hands of English merchants. During the War of 1812 the British made Pensacola the centre of expeditions against the Americans, and in 1814 a British fleet entered the harbour to take formal possession. In retaliation General AndrewJackson attacked the town, driving back the British. In 1818, on the ground that the Spanish encouraged the Seminole Indians in their attacks upon the American settlements in the vicinity, Jackson again captured Pensacola, and in 1821 Florida was finally transferred to the United States. On the 12th of January 1861 the Navy Yard was seized by order of the state government, but Fort Pickens, defended first by an insignificant force under Lieut. Adam J. Slemmer (1828—68) and afterwards by a larger force under Lieut.-Colonel Harvey Brown (1796—1874), remained in the hands of the Union forces, and on the 8th of May 1862 the Confederates abandoned Pensacola. Pensacola was chartered as a city in 1895.

PENSHURST, a village in the south-western parliamentary division of Kent, England, at the confluence of the Eden and Medway, 4% m. S.W. of Tonbridge. Pop. (1901), 1678. The village is remarkable for some old houses, including a timbered house of the 15th century, and for a noted factory of cricket implements. The church, chiefly late Perpendicular, contains a large number of monuments of the Sidney family and an effigy of Sir Stephen de Penchester, Warden of the Cinque Ports in the time of Edward I. Penshurst Place is celebrated as the home of the Sidney family. Anciently the residence of Sir Stephen de Penchester, Penshurst was granted to Henry VIII.’s chamberlain, Sir William Sidney, whose grandson, Sir Philip Sidney, was born here in 1554. It passed to Sir Philip's younger brother Robert, who in 1618 was created earl of Leicester. On the death of the seventh earl in 1743 the estates devolved upon his niece Elizabeth, whose only child married Sir Bysshe Shelley of Castle Goring. Their son was created a baronet in 1818 as Sir John Shelley-Sidney, and his son was created Baron de L’Isle and Dudley in 1835. The mansion is quadrangular, and has a fine court, chapel and hall (c. 1341) with open timber roof and a minstrels’ gallery. The various rooms contain an interesting collection of portraits, armour and other family relics. The praises of the park and the house have been sung in Sir Philip Sidney’s Arcadia, and by Ben Jonson, Edmund Waller and Robert Southey.

PENSION (Lat. pensio, a payment, from Pendere, to weigh, to pay), a regular or periodical payment made by private employers, corporations or governments, in consideration either of past services or of the abolition of a post or office. Such a pension takes effect on retirement or when the period of service is over. The word is also used in the sense of the payment by members of a society in respect of dues.

United Kingdom.

In the United Kingdom the majority of persons in the employ of the government are entitled to pensions on reaching a certain age and after having served the state for a certain minimum number of years. That such is the case, and moreover that it is usual to define such pensions as being given in consideration of past services, has led to the putting forward very generally the argument that pensions, whether given by a government or by private employers, are in the nature of deferred pay, and that holders of posts which carry pensions must therefore be rewarded by a remuneration less than the full market rate, by the difference of the value of the pension. This view is hardly correct, for the object of attaching a pension to a post is not merely to reward past services, but to attract continuity of service by the holder as well as to enable the employer to dispense with the services of the employé without hardship to him should age or infirmity render him less efiicient. Dissatisfaction had been expressed from time to time by members of the English civil service with the system in force, viz. that the benefit of long service was confined only to survivors, and that no advantage accrued to the representatives of those who died in service. This was altered by an act of 1909. See Royal Commission on Superannuation in the Civil Service: Report and Evidence (1903). For the general pensions given by the state to the aged poor see OLD A01:

PENSIONS.

Civil Service.——ln the English civil service the grant of pensions on superannuation is regulated b statute. the four principal acts being the Superannuation Acts 0 18 , 1859, 1887 and 1909. To qualify for a pension it is necessary that a ciV1l servant should have been admitted to the service with a certificate from the civil service commissioners, or hold an office specially exempted from this requirement; (2) that he should give his whole time to the public service; (3) that he should draw the emoluments of his office from public funds exclusively; (4) that he should have served for not less than ten years; (5) that if under the age of 60 years he should be certified to be permanentl incapable, from infirmity of body or mind; of discharging his 0 cial duties, or have been removed from his oflice on the ground of his inability to discharge his duties efficiently. On retirement on these conditions a civil servant is ualified for a pension calculated at one-eightieth of his retiring sa ary (or, in certain cases, of his average salary for the last three years) for each complete year of service, subject to a maximum of forty-eightieths. Civil servants retiring on the ground of ill health after less than ten years' service qualify for a gratuity of one month's pa for each year of service. Previous to the Superannuation Act 0 19 the pension was calculated at the rate of one-sixtieth of the retiring salary for each com leted year of service, subject to a maximum of forty-sixtieths. his is still the rate for those who entered the service previous to the passing of the act (September 20, 1909) unless they availed themselves of the permission in the act to take advanta e of its provisions, which were more than a compensation for the owering of the rate. The act gave power to the treasury to grant by way of additional allowance to a civil servant who retired after not less than two years' service. in addition to his superannuation, a lump sum ual to one-thirtieth of his annual salary and emoluments multipied by the number of completed years he has served, so however. that such lump sum does not exceed one and a half times his salary, while if he retires after attaining the age of sixty-five ears, there must be deducted from that lump sum one-twentieth or every completed year that he has served after attaining that age. In the case of those [who entered the service before the assing of the act, and take advantage of the act, this additional allowance is increased by one-half per cent. for each completed year served at the passing of the act. The act also provided that where a civil servant died alter serving five years or u wards, a gratuity equal to his annual salary and emoluments mig t be granted to his legal personal representatives. Where the civil servant attains the age of sixty-five this gratuity is reduced by one-twentieth for each completed year beyond that age. On the other hand, where the civil servant has retired from the service and all the sums received b him at his death on account of superannuation are [ex than h1s annual aala his representatives may receive the difference as a gratuity. Prowsion was also made in the act for granting compensation on abolition of office, provided that such compensation does not exceed what the recipient might be granted or be entitled to if he retired on the ground of ill health. Pensions are also sometimes awarded in excess of the scale as a reward for special services, as compensation for injury in certain cases, or to holders of r0fessional offices, appointed at an a e exceeding that at w ich

ublic' service ordinarily begins. In t e estimates for civil services or the ear 1909—1910, there was rovided for non-effective and charitabe services (as pensions andpgratuities in lieu of pensions are known as) the sum of £9,625,920; this, however, included an item of £8,750,000 for old-age pensions, leaving a sum of £875,920. There was charged on the Consolidated Fund, on account of pensions and compensation allowance for civil, judicial and other services, a sum of £142,767, while the following sums for civil pensions were provided in the estimates of the several departments: War Office, £158,000; Admiralt£y, £369,800; Customs and Excise, £412,358;

Inland Revenue, 116,096; Post Office, £649,000; Royal Irish Constabulary, “16,500; Dublin Metropolitan Police, £33,646, making a total 0 £2,298,167, or a gross total for civil pensions of

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£3,174,087. A return is published annually containing a complete list of the various pensions.

Perpetual or Heredilar Pensions.—Perpetual pensions were freely granted either to avourites or as a reward for political services from the time of Charles II. onwards. Such ensions were very frequently attached as “ salaries " to laces wh1ch were sinecures, or, Just as often, posts which were rea ly necessary were grossly overpaid, while the duties were discharged by a deputy at a small salary. Prior to the reign of Queen Anne such pensions and annuities were charged on the hereditary revenues of the sovereign and were held to be binding on the sovereign‘s successors (The Bankers' Case, 1691; State Trials, xiv. -43). By 1 Anne c. 7 it was provided that no portion of the ereditary revenues could be charged with pensions beyond the life of the reignin ' sovereign. This act did not affect the hereditary revenues 0 Ireland and Scotland, and many persons were quartered, as they had been before the act, on the Irish and Scottish revenues who could not be provided for in England—for example, the duke of St Albans, illegitimate son of Charles IL, had an Irish pension of £800 a year; Catherine Sedley, mistress of James II., had an Irish pension of £5000 a year; the duchess of Kendall and the countess of Darlington, mistresses of George I., had pensions of the united annual value of £5000, while Madame de \Valmoden, a mistress of George II., had a pension of £3000 (Lccky, History of Ireland in the Eighteenth Century). These pensions had been granted in every conceivable form—during the pleasure of the Crown, for the life of the sovereign, for terms of years, for the life of the grantee, and for several lives in being or in reversion (Erskine May, Constitutional History of En land). On the accession of George III. and his surrender of t e hereditary revenues in return for a fixed civil list, this civil list became the source from which the pensions were paid. The subsequent history of the civil list will be found under that heading (C1vn. LIST), but it ma be here mentioned th t the three pension lists of England, Scotland and IrelandTWer consolidated in 1830, and the civil pension list reduced to £75,000, irhe aemainder of the pensions bemg charged on the Conso idatcd

un .

In 1887, Charles Bradlaugh, M.P., protested strongly against the ayment of perpetual pensions, and as a result a Committee of the ouse of Commons inquired into the subject (Rep0rt of Select Committee on Perpetual Pensions, 248, 1887). An appendix to the Report contains a detailed list of all heredita pensions, payments and allowances in existence in 1881, wit an explanation of the origin in each case and the ground of the original grant; there are also shown the pensions, &c., redeemed from time to time, and the terms upon which the redemption took place. The nature of some of these pensions may be gathered from the following exam les: To the duke of Marlborough and his heirs in perpetuity, 4000 per annum; this annuity was redeemed in August 1884 for a sum of £107,780, b the creation of a ten years' annuity of £12,796, 17s. per annum. y an act of 1806 an annuity of £5000 per annum was conferred on Lord Nelson and his heirs in perpetuity.

n 1793 an annuity of £2000 was conferred on Lord Rodne and his heirs. All these pensions were for services rendered, and alt ough justifiable from that point of view, a preferable policy is pursued in the zoth century, by parliament voting a lump sum, as in the cases of Lord Kitchener in 1902 (£50,000) and Lord Cromer in 1907 £50,000). Charles Il. granted the office of receiver-general and controller of the seals of the court of king's bench and common pleas to the duke of Grafton. This was purchased in 1825 from the duke for an annuity of £843, which in turn was commuted in 1883 for a sum of £22,714, 12:». 8d. To the same duke was iven the ofiice of the pipe or remembrancer of first-fruits and tent s of the clerg . This office was sold by the duke in 1765, and after passing t rough various hands was purchased by one R. Harrison in 1798. In 1835 on the loss of certain fees the holder was compensated by a perpetual pension of £62, 9s. 8d. The duke of Grafton also possessed an annuity of £6870 in respect of the commutation of the dues of butlerage and prisage. To the duke of St Albans was granted in 1684 the office of master of the hawks. The sums granted by the original patent were: master of hawks, salary, £ 91, 1s. 5d.; four falconers at £50 per annum each,d£200; provision 0? hawks, £600; provision of pigeons, ,hens an other meats, £182, 105.; total, £1373, 11s. 5d. This amount was reduced b office fees and other deductions to £965, at which amount it stoo , nntii commuted in 1891 for £18,335. T0 the duke of Richmond and his heirs was granted in 1676 a duty of one shilling per ton on all coals exported from the Tyne for consumption 1n England. This was redeemed in 179 for an annuity of £19,000 (chargeable on the consolidated fund? which was afterwards redeemed for £6 3,33%:l The duke of Hamilton, as hereditary kee er of the pa ace, olyrood House, receiVed a perpetual pension 0 £45, 105., and the descendants of the heritable usher of Scotland drew a salary of £242, 105. The conclusions of the committee were that pensions, allowances and payments should not in future be granted in perpetuity, on the ground that such grants should be limited to the persons actually rendering the services, and that such rewards should be defrayed by the generation benefited; that offices with salaries and without duties, or with merely nominal dUties, ought

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