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to be abolished; that all existin perpetual pensions and payments and all hereditary offices should e abolished: that where no service or merely nominal service is rendered by the holder of an hereditary office or the original grantee of a pension, the pension or pa 'ment should in no case continue beyond the life of the present older and that in all cases the method of commutation ought to ensure a real and substantial saving to the nation (the existing rate, about 27 years' purchase, being considered by the committee to be too high). These recommendations of the committee were adopted by the government and outstandin hereditary pensions were Ergidually commuted, the only ones le t outstandin being those to
rd Rodney (£2000) and to Earl Nelson (£5000), on the consolidated fund.
Political Pensions.—By the Political Offices Pension Act 1869,
nsions were instituted for those who had held litical office.
or the purposes of the act political offices were divided into three classes: (1) those with a yearly salary of_ not less than £5000; (2) those with a salary of less than £5000 and not less than £2000;
) those with a .salary of less than £2000 and more than £1000.
or service in these offices there may be awarded pensions for life in the following scale: (1) a first class pension not exceeding £2000 a year, in res t of not less than four years' service or its equivalent, in an office 0 the first class; (2) a second class pension not exceeding
1200, in respect of service of not less than six years or its equivalent, in an office of the second class; (3) a third class pension not exceeding £800 a year, in respect of service of not less than ten years in an office of the third class. The service need not be continuous, and the act makes provision for counting service in lower classes as a qualification for pension in a hi her class. These pensions are limited. in number to twelve, but a older must not receive any other pension out of the public revenue, if so, he must inform the treasury and surrender it if it exceeds his political pension, or if under he must deduct the amount. He may, however, hold office while‘a ensioner, but the pension is not payable during the time he holds 0 ce. To obtain a political pension, the applicant must file a declaration stating the grounds upon which he claims it and that his income from other sources is not sufficient to maintain his station in life.
Civil List Pensions.—These are pensions granted by the sovereign from the civil list upon the recommendation of the first lord of the treasu . By 1 8t 2 Vict. e. 2 they are to be granted to “such rsons on y as have just claims on the royal beneficence or who y their personal services to the Crown, or by the performance of duties to the public, or by their useful discoveries in science and attainments in literature and the arts, have merited the gracious consideration of their sovereign and the gratitude of their country." A sum of £1200 is allotted each year from the civil list, in addition to the pensions already in force. From a Return issued in 1908 the total of civil list pensions payable in that year amounted to
£ dudicial, Municipal, &c.—There are certain offices of the executive whose pensions are regulated by particular acts of parliament. Judges of the Supreme Court, on completing fifteen ears' service or becoming permanently incapacitated for duty, w atever their length of serVice, may be granted a pension e ualto two-thirds of their sala (judicature Act 1873). The lord c ancellor of England however 5 ort a time he ma have held office, receives a pension of £5000, but he usually continues to sit as a law lord in the House of Lords—so also does the lord chancellor of Ireland, who receives a pension of £3,692 65. 1d. A considerable number of local authorities have obtained special parliamentary powers for the purpose of superannuating their officials and workmen who have reached the age of 60—65. Poor law officers receive superannuation allowances under the Poor Law Officers Superannuation Acts 1864—1897.
Ecclesiastical Pensions.—-Bishops, deans, canons or incumbents who are incapacitated by age or infirmity from the discharge of their ecclesiastical duties may receive pensions which are a charge upon the revenues of the see or cure vacated.
Navy pensions were first instituted by William III. in 1693 and regularly established by an order in council of Queen Anne in 1700. Since then the rate of pensions has undergone various modifications and alterations; the full regulations concerning pensions to all ranks will be found in the quarterl Navy List, published by the authority of the Admiralty. In a dition to the ordinary pensions there are also good-service pensions, Greenwich Hospital pension and pensions for wounds. An officer is entitled to a pension when he is retired at the age of 45, or if he retires between the a es of 1+0 and 45 at his own request, otherwise he receives only hal pay.
he amount of his pension depends upon his rank, len th of service and age. The maximum retired pay of an admira is £850 per annum, for which 30 years' service or its equivalent in half-pay time is necessary; he may, in addition, hold a good service pension of £300 per annum. The maximum retired pay of a vice-admiral, with 29 years' service is 725; of rear-admirals with 27 years' service £600 per annum. ensions of captains wlio retire at the age of 55, commanders, who retire at 50. and lieutenants who retire at 45, range from £200 per annum for 17 years’ service to £525 for 24 years' service. The pensions of other officers are calculated in the same way. according to age and length of service. The
ood-service pensions consist of ten pensions of 00 per annum or flag-officers, two of which may be held by vice- mirals and two by rear-admirals; twelve of £150 for captains; two of £200 a year and two of £150 a year for engineer officers; three of £100 a year for medical officers of the navy; six of £200 a year for general officers of the Royal Marines and two of £150 a year for colonels and lieut.colonels of the same. Greenwich Hospital pensions range from £150 a year for flag officers to £25 a year for warrant officers. All seamen and marines who have completed twenty-two years' service are entitled to pensions ranging from 10d. a day to a maximum of 1s. 2d. a day, according to the number of good-conduct badges, together with the good-conduct medal, possessed. Petty officers, in addition to the rates of pension allowed them as seamen, are allowed for each year's service in the capacity of superior petty officer, 15s. 2d. a year, and in the capacity of inferior petty ofl‘icer 7s. 7d. a year. Men who are discharged the service on account of injuries and wounds or disability attributable to the service are pensioned with sums varying from 6d. a day to 2s. a day. Pensions are also given to the widows of officers in certain circumstances and compassionate allowances made to the children of officers. In the Navy estimates for 1908—1909 the amount required for halfpay and retired-pay was £868,800, and for pensions, gratuities and compassionate allowances £1,334,600, a total of £2,203,400.
Army.—The system of pensions in the British Army is somewhat intricate, provision being made for dealing with almost every case separately. As a general rule officers can retire after eight years' service on a pension of £100 per annum for ten ears, provided that they take commissions in either the Imperial \eomanry or Special Reserve and attend the annual trainings diirin that period. The other pensions are as follows: 2nd lieutenants, lieutenants, captains and majors after 15 years' service (or 12 years in the West India regiment), £120, if 45 yearsof age £200; majors, after 25 years'service, £200. Royal artillery or royal engineers if commissioned, after 21 years of age, £300, if 48 years of age, £300; lieutenant-colonels, after 3 years as such, with 15 years' service, £250, with 27 years' service, £300, with 30 years' service, £365, after term of employment as lieutenant-colonel commanding a unit, or staff appointment as lieutenantcolonel, or after 5 years as lieutenant-colonel cavalry and infantry,
420. Royal artillery, royal en ineers and army service corps, £450; Colonels, after 5 years as co onel, cavalry and infantry, £420. oyal artillery, royal engineers and army service cor s, £450, after completing the term of command of a regimental district or a regiment of foot-guards, or employed in any other capacit for three years, £450— 500 according to age; Brevet-colonels, wit the substantive rank 0 lieutenant-colonel, receive, cavalry or infantry, £120; royal artillery, royal engineers and army service corps, £450. It ajor-generals retire at the age of 62 with a pension of £700; lieutenant-generals at 67 with £850; generals at 67 with £1000.
Officers whose first permanent commission bears date prior to the 1st of January, 1887, retire with a gratuity in lieu of pension.
Officers of the departmental corps retire either with pensions ranging from £1125 yearly to [05. daily, or with gratuities ranging from £2500 to £1000.
Warrant officers with 5 years' service as such, and 20 years' total service, receive 3s. 6d. per diem if dischar ed from the service on account of disability, reduction of establis ment or age. On discharge for any reasons (except misconduct or inefficienc ) they receive from 5. 6d. to 5s. per diem, according to length 0 service and corps. f they have less than 5 years service as warrant officers, but not less than 21 years' total service, they receive at least 3s. per diem; and if discharged at their own request after 18 ears' total service, 25. 7M.
dditional pensions are given at the rate of 6d. per diem for gallant conduct, and lid. to ls. per diem for re-emplo ed pensioners on completing their second term of employment, wit 3d. per diem extra i promoted while so serving. Special pensions are also granted in exceptional cases.
For the purposes of pensions, non-commissioned officers are divided into four classes, corresponding roughly to quartermastersergeants, colour-sergeants, sergeants arid corporals.
With not more than 21 years total service, and with the following continuous service in one of the above classes, the rates of pensions (per diem) are:—
In the ordinary sense of the word, pensions in the United States are confined to federal judges and officers of the army and navy, but the United States “ Pension Fund ” is so singular a feature of the national budget, that it is desirable to give an account of the dificrent classes of allowances which are granted. In the United States allowances for services in wars prior to the 4th of March 1861 are called “ old war ” pensions, and may be divided into three classes, viz.,(1) invalid pensions, based upon wounds or injuries received, or disease contracted in the course of duty, (2) “ service ” pensions, and (3) land bounties, both granted for service irrespective of injuries.
The first provision made by Congress for pensions was a resoiution passed on the 26th of August 1776, promising invalid pensions to officers and men of the army or navy who lost a limb or were otherwise disabled in the War of Independence, at a rate equal to half of their monthly pay as officers or soldiers during life or continuance of the disability, those not~ totally disabled to receive an adequate monthly pension not to exceed half of their pa . Then followed various Acts of Congress enlarging the provisions or invalid pensions and extendin them to those who had been in the war of 1812, and to the wi ows and children of those who died in the war or from wounds received in the war. The act of the 3rd of May 1846,
rovided for the prosecution of the war with Mexico and for pensionmg those volunteers wounded or otherwise disabled in service. Other acts were subsequently passed making further provision for nsion on account of service in the Mexican war. The first general
w granting “ service" pensions was not passed until the 18th of March 1818, thirty-five years after the termination of the War of Independence. Its beneficiaries were required to be in indi ent circumstances and in need of assistance from their country. wo years later Con ress became alarmed by reason of the large number of claims filed about 8000), and enacted what was known as the “ Alarm Act," re uiring each applicant for pension and each pensioner on the 10 Is to furnish a schedule of his whole estate and income, clothing and beddin excepted. Many pensioners were dr0pped who were possessed o as much as $150 worth of property. Numerous acts were, however, passed from time to time liberalizing the law or dealing more generously with the survivors of the Revolution. Service pensions were not granted to widows of the soldiers of this war until 1836, and then only for a period of five
ears and on condition that the marriage of the soldier was prior to his last service, and that the soldier's service was not less than six months. In 1853. seventy years after the close of the war, the limitation as to the time of marriage was removed. The rolls in 1901 contained nine and in 1908 two pensions based upon service in the War of Independence. The last survivor was Daniel F. Bakeman, who died on the 5th of April 1869, aged 109 years and 6 months.
The first law granting service pensions on account of the war of 1812 was passed in 1871, fift -six years after the close of the war. This act required sixty days servrce. Widows were not pensionable unless the marriage to the soldier had taken place rior to the treaty of peace of 15th February 1815. On 9th arch 1878, sixty-three years after the war, an act was passed reducing the requisite period of service to fourteen days and removing the limitations as to date of marriage. In 1908 the pension rolls
contained the names of 471 widows of this war, the last male survivor having died in 1905, at the age of 105 years. Service pensions were provided for those who served in the Black Hawk war, Creek war, Cherokee disturbances and the Seminole war (1832 to 18 2), on the 27th of july 1892, fifty years after the period embrace in the act; they were granted to those who had served for thirty days and were honourably discharged, and to their widows. In 1908 there were 1820 survivors and 3018 widows, pensioners of the Indian wars. Service pensions were granted to the survivors of the war with Mexico by an act passed on the 29th of January 1887, thirty-nine years after the Guadeloupe-Hildalgo treaty. The pensions were granted to those who were honourably discharged and to the widows, for service of sixty days, if sixty-two years of age, or disabled or dependent. This law was liberalized by the acts of the 5th of Janua 1893, 23rd of April 1900, 6th of February 1907, and 19th of Apri 1908, increasing the pension to $15 for those who have reached the age of seventy years, and to $20 for those seventy-five years and over. In 1908 the pension rolls contained the names of 2932 survivors and 691 widows on account of service in the Mexican war. To give title to ounty land, service must have been for at least fourteen days or in a battle prior to 3rd March 1855; and if in the navy or regular army, must have been in some war in which the United States was engaged. Bounty land warrants are issued for 160 acres, and over 0,000,000 acres have been granted under the different Bount Lan Acts.
For servrces rendered in the Civil War 1861-65) in the army or navy of the United States, or in their various branches, the law provided two distinct systems of pensioning—(l) the general laws, granting pensions for wounds or injuries received, or disease contracted in service in the line of duty, the pensions ranging from $6 to $100 per month; and (2) the so-called Dependent Pension Act and amending acts, granting pensions for permanent disabilities regardless of the time and manner of their origin, provided they were not the result of vicious habits, the pensions rangin from $6 to 812 per month. What is known as the eneral law or disabilities incurred in service and in the course of uty was constituted in the act of the 14th of uly 1862, as amended by the act of the 3rd of March 18 3. Un er its provisions the following classes of persons are entit ed to benefit, viz. any ofiicer of the arm , navy or marine corps, or any enlisted man in the military or nava service of the United States, whether regularly mustered or not; any master or any pilot, engineer, sailor or other person not regularly mustered, serving upon any gunboat or war-vessel of the United States; any acting assistant or contract surgeon; any provost-marshal, deputy provost-marshal or enrolling officer; subject to the several conditions in each particular case prescribed in the law. This law also embraces in its provisions the following classes, each class being subject to certain specified conditions, viz. widows, children under sixteen years of age, dependent parents, and brothers and sisters. This act has been the subject of numerous amendments along more liberal lines. As an illustration a case may be cited where a soldier lost both hands in the service in the course of dut , and was discharged in 1862. He is entitled to a pension of 8 per month from the date of his discharge. Under subsequent acts he is entitled to $25 per month from 4th July 1864; $31-25 from 4th June 1872; $50 from 4th June 1874; $72 from 17th June 1878, and $100 from 12th February 188 .
Under the general law a widow or de nrfent relative could not be pensioned unless the cause of the so dier's death originated in service in the line of duty; if it were so shown, a widow might be pensioned whether she were rich or r. Upon the death or remarriage of the widow the minor chil ren 0f the soldier under the age of Sixteen years become entitled to pension. If the soldier died of causes due to his service, and left no widow or minor children, his other relatives become entitled, if dependent, in the following order, viz; first, the mother; secondly, the father; thirdl , orphan sisters and brothers under sixteen years of a e, who shal be pensioned jointly. In 1908 the number of inva ids pensioned under the general law was 142,044, and the number of widows and dependent relatives was 81,168.
The so~called Dependent Pension Act was based upon an Act of Congress ap roved 27th June 1890, which was amended on 9th May 1900. r0 erly speaking, it might be called “ de ndent " only as regards wi ows and parents. The main conditions as to the soldier or sailor were, ninety days' service, an honourable discharge, and a rmanent disabilit from disease or otherwise, not the result of is own vicious habits, to such an extent as to render him unable to maintain himself by manual labour. The rates of pension under this act were $6, $8, $10 and $12 per month. Widows became entitled under this law if they married the soldier or sailor prior to 27th June 1890, provided they were without means of support other than their daily labour, and an actual net_income not exceeding $250 per year, and had not remarried. Claims of children under sixteen years of age were governed by the same conditions as applied to claims of Widows, exce t that their dependence was presumed, and need not be shown evidence. If a minor child was insane, idiotic or otherwise physica ly or mentally helpless. the pension continued during the life of said child or during the riod of disabilit . Furtheracts made more liberal prowsion‘s. T at of the 6th 0 February 1907, granted pensions to persons who had served ninety days 'or more in the military or naval service in the civil war, or sixty days in the Mexican war, and were honourably discharged, no other conditions being attached. The rate of pension was fixed at $12 per month when sixty-two years of age, 815 per month when seventy years of age and $20 per month when seventy-five years of age. The act of April 1908, fixed the rate of pension for widows, minor children under the
e of sixteen and helpless minors on the roll or afterwards to be p aced on it at $12 per month, and granted pensions at the same rate to the widows of persons who served ninety days or more during the civil war, without regard to their pecuniary condition. In 1 08 there were 140,600 invalids on the roll, and 4294 minor and help ess children. In the same year under the act of 1907 there Were 338,341 dependants, while under the act of 1908, 188,445 widows were put on the roll. All women employed by competent authority as nurses during the Civil War for six months or more, who are unable to earn a su port, are granted a pension of $12 per month by an act of t e 5th of August 1892. In 1908 tlfie pension rolls contained the names of 3110 pensioners under t is act.
There were on the roll in 1908 on account of the Spanish war, 11,786 invalids and 3722 dependants. The total amount paid in pensions in 1908 on account of that war and the insurrection in the Philippine Islands was $3,654,122. The grand total of pensioners on the roll for all wars was, in 1 08, 951,687.
In addition to pensions, the Unite States government grants the following gratuities: First: If a soldier lost a limb in the service, or as a result of his service in line of duty, he is furnished with an artificial limb free of cost every three years, or commutation therefor, and transportation to and from a place where he shall select the artificial limb. Second: An honourably discharged soldier or sailor is given reference for appointment to places of trust and profit, and preférence for retention in all civrl service positions. Third: There are ten National Soldiers' Homes situated at convenient and healthy points in different arts of the country, where comfortable quarter’s, clothing, medica attendance, library and amusements of different kinds are provided free of all expense; government providing the soldiers free transportation to the home, continuing payments of pension while the are members of the home, and increasing the same as disabiities increase. Fourth: There are thirty homes maintained by the different states, which are similar in their purpose to the National Homes, the sum of $100 per year being paid by the general overnment for each inmate. Many of these state homes also provi e for the wives and children of the inmates, so that they need not be separated while they are members of such home. Fifth: Schools are established by the difierent states for the maintenance and education of soldiers' orphans until they attain the age of sixteen years.
From the close of the Civil War in 1865 to 1908, the government of the United States aid to its pensioners for that war the sum of 33,33,595025. T e payments on account of all wars for the fisc year ended on the 30th of June 1908 were $153,093,086. Over 817,000,000 has been paid to surgeons for making medical examinations of pensioners and applicants for pensions. The total disbursement for pensions from 1790 to 1908 amounted to 83,751,108,809. No other nation or government in all time has dealt so liberally with its defenders.
The money appropriated by Congress for the ayment of pensions is disbursed by eighteen pension agents esta lished in different parts of the country. Pensions are aid uarterly, and the a encies are digided into three classes, one o whic pays on the 4th 0 every mont .
PENSIONARY, a name given to the leading functionary and legal adviser of the principal town corporations of Holland, because they received a salary, or pension. At first this oflicial was known by the name of “clerk” or “advocate.” The office originated in Flanders. The earliest “pensionaries” in Holland were those of Dort (1468) and of Haarlem (1478). The pensionary conducted the legal business of the town, and was the secretary of the town council and its representative and spokesman at the meetings of the Provincial States. The post of pensionary was permanent and his influence was great.
In the States of the province of Holland pensionary of the order of nobles (Riddcrsehop) was the foremost official of that assembly and he was na med—until the death of Oldenbarneveldt in torg—the land's advocate, or more shortly, the advocate. The importance of the advocate was much increased after the outbreak of the revolt in 1572, and still more so during the long period .1586—1619 when John van Oldenbarneveldt held the office. »The advocate drew up and introduced all resolutions, concluded debates and counted the votes in the Provincial Assembly. When it was not in session he wasa permanent member of the college of deputed councillors' who carried on the administration. He was minister of justice and of finance.
All correspondence passed through his hands, and he was the head and the spokesman of the deputation, who represented the province in the States General. The conduct of foreign affairs in particular was entrusted almost entirely to him.
After the downfall of Oldenbarneveldt the office of lands’advocate was abolished, and a new post, tenable for five years only, was erected in its place with the title of Raad~Prnsionaris or Pensionary of the Council, usually called by English writers Grand Pensionary. The first holder of this office was Anthony Duyck. Jacob Cats and Adrian Pauw, in the days of the stadtholders Frederick Henry and William of Orange II. had to be content with lessened powers, but in the stadtholderless régime 1650—1672 the grand pensionarybecame even more influential than Oldenbarneveldt himself, since there was no prince of Orange filling the offices of stadtholder, and of admiral and captain-general of the Union. From 1653—1672 John de Witt, re-elected twice, made the name of grand pensionary of Holland for ever famous during the time of the wars with England. The best known of his successors was Anthony Heinsius, who held the office from 1688 to his death in 1720. He was the intimate friend of William III., and after the deCease of the king continued to carry out his policy during the stadtholderless period that followed. The office was abolished after the conquest of~Holland by the French in r795.
See Robert Fruin, Geschiedenis der Staats-Instellingen in Nederland, The Hague, 1901; G. W. Vreede, Inleiding tot eene Gesch. der Nederloridsche Diplomatic (Utrecht, 1858). (G. E.)
PENTAMETER, the name given to the second and shorter line of the classical elegaic verse. It is composed of five (révre) feet or measures (ué-rpa), and is divided into two equal parts of two and a half feet each: the second of these parts must be dactylic, and the first may be either dactylic or spondaic. The first part must never overlap into the second, but there must be a break between them. Thus:
The body is sub-cylindrical or somewhat convex above, flatter below, broad and oval in front and narrowed and elongate behind. Its integument is marked by a large number of transverse grooves simulating the segmentation of Annelids, and near the anterior extremit close to the mouth are two airs of recurved chitinous books. he alimentary canal is a simp e tube traversing the body from end to end, the anus opening at the extremity of its narrowed tail-like termination. The nervous system is represented by an oesophageal collar and a suboesophageal ganglion, whence paired nerves pass outwards to innervate the anterior extremity and backwards towards its osterior end. No respiratory or circulatory organs are known. T e sexes are distinct but dissimilar in size, the female being usually much larger than the male. The enerative organs occu y a large part of the body cavity. In the emale the ovary is a ar e unpaired organ from the anterior end of which arise two ovi ucts, and connected with the latter are a pair large so-called copulatory pouches, which perhaps act as receptacula seminis. These and the oviducts lie on the anterior half of the body; but the oviducts themselves soon unite to form a single tube of great length, which runs backwards to its posterior extremity, terminating in the genital orifice close to the anus. In the male, on the contrary, this orifice is situated in the anterior half of the body, not far behind the mouth. The orifice leads into a large pouch lodging a air of very long penes, which are coiled up when not in use. 'lPhe two testicles, which extend far back into the posterior art of the body, are long and tubular. Anteriorly their vasa de crentia soon unite into a common duct, which opens into the pouch containin the penes. Also communicating with this pouch is a pair of long slender flagelliform tubes, of which the function is unknown.
The structure of the adult Lingualula or Pentastomum, above described, does not supply convincing evidence of relationship with the Acari. At the same time some Acari, like Eriophycs (Phytoptus) and Demadex, have the body elongated and annulated, but in these groups the elongation of the body is caudal or post-anal, as is attested b the position of the anus far forwards on its ventral surface. gain, the adult Pentastomum shows no trace of appen— dages, unless the two pairs of chitinous hooks are to be regarded as the vestiges of jaws or ambulatory limbs. In the embryo, however, what have been regarded as remnants of limbs may be seen.
In the mature stage Pentastomida live in the respiratory passages of mammalia, principally in the nasal cavities. The remarkable life-history of one species, Linguatula taenioides, has been worked out in detail and presents a close analogy to that of some Cestodes. The adults live in the nose of dogs, where they have been known to survive over fifteen months. Each female lays a vast number of eggs, about 500,000 being the estimated amount. These are expelled along with mucus by the sneezing of the host. If they fall on pasture land or fodder of any kind and are eaten by any herbivorous animal, such as a hare, rabbit, horse, sheep or ox, the active embryos or larvae are set free in the alimentary canal of the new host.
These larvae are minute oval creatures with a comparatively short apically fringed caudal prolongation and furnished with two pairs of short two-clawed processes, which may re resent the limbs of anthropods and po'ssibl the two pairs of legs ound in Acari of the family Eriophyidae. he larva is also armed anteriorly with a median piercing probe and a pair of sharp hooks by means of which it perforates the walls of the alimentary tract and makes its wa into the body cavity, lungs or liver. Here it becomes encyste , and losing its boring apparatus and claw-bearing processes remains for a time quiescent. After a series of moults it asses into the second larval stage, somewhat like the arent but di ering in having each integumental ring armed with a ringe of backward y directed short bristles. This sexually immature stage, regarded at one time as representing a distinct species and named Linguatula denticulala, is reached in about six or seven months and measures from 6 to 8 mm. in length. In the event of the host escaping bein killed and eaten it is believed that some of these larvae wander a ut or ultimately make their way to the exterior, possibly through the bronchi; nevertheless it seems to be certain that they can only reach sexual maturity in the nasal passages of some carnivorous animal, and the chance of attainin this environment is afforded when the viscera of the host are devoured by some flesh-eating mammal.
The adult female of L. laenioides measures about 4 in. long and the male barely one-fourth of that. The adult and immature stages are. however, by no means confined respectively to carnivorous and herbivorous species of mammals. The adult stage, for example, has been found in the nasal passages of sheep, goats,
horses and even of man, and the larval stage in the pleural and peritoneal cavities of dogs and cats. (R. I. P.)
PENTATEUCH, the name found as early as in Tertullian and Origen corresponding to the Jewish mm “mm mm (the five-fifths of the Torah, or Law), and applied to the first five books of the Old Testament (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy). The several books were named by the Jews from their initial words, though at least Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy had also titles resembling those viz. nun: min, n'npan van (Appearpextmiap, Origen, in Eus., H. E. vi. 25), and "‘"n "m. The Pentateuch, together with Joshua, Judges and Ruth, with which it is usually united in Greek MSS., makes up the Octateuch; the Pentateuch and Joshua together have recently been named the Hexateuch. On the critical questions arising from the Pentateuch or Hexateuch, see BIBLE and the articles on the several books.
PENTECOST, a feast of the Jews, in its original meaning a “ harvest feast, ” as consisting of the first-fruits of human toil (Exod. xxiii. 16), extending over the seven weeks which fairly correspond with the duration of the Canaanite harVest. Hence it was the closing feast of the harvest gladness.
The agricultural character of this feast clearly reveals its Canaanite origin (see HEBREW RELIGION). It does not, however, rank equal in importance with the other two agricultural festivals of pre-exilian Israel, viz. the M 0556!]: or feast of unleavened cakes (which marked the beginning of the corn-harvest), and the Asiph (“ ingathering,” later called succdlh, “ booths ”) which marked the close of all the year’s ingathering of vegetable products. This is clear in the ideal scheme of Ezekiel (xlv. 21 seq.) in which according to the original text, Pentecost is omitted (see Cornill’s revised text and his note ad Ioc.). It is a later hand that has inscribed a reference to the “feast of weeks ” which is found in our Massoretic Hebrew text. Nevertheless occasional allusions to this feast, though secondary, are to be found in Hebrew literature, ag. Isa. ix. 3 (2 Heb.) and Ps . iv. 7 (8 Heb.).
In both the early codes, viz..in Exod. xxiii. 16 (E) and in Exod. xxxiv 22 (J, in which the harvest festival is called “ feast of weeks ”) we have only a bare statement that the harvest festival took place some weeks after the opening spring festival called M assfith. It is in Deut. xvi. 9 that we find it explicitly stated that seven weeks elapsed between the beginning of the corn-harvest (“ when thou puttest the sickle to the corn ”) and the celebration of the harvest festival (deir). We also note the same generous inclusion of the household slaves and of the resident alien as well as the fatherless and widow that characterizes the autumnal festival of “ Booths.”
But when we pass to the post-exilian legislation (Lev. xxiii. 10—21; cf. Num. xxviii. 26 seq.) we enter upon a far more detailed and specific series of ritual instructions. (1) A special ceremonial is described as taking place on “ the morrow after the Sabbath,” 11¢. in the week of unleavened cakes. The first-fruits of the harvest here take the form of a sheaf which is waved by the priest before Yahweh. (2) There is the offering of a male lamb of the first year without blemish and also a meal offering of fine flour and oil mixed in defined proportions as well as a drink-offering of wine of a certain measure. After this “ morrow after the Sabbath " seven weeks are to be reckoned, and when we reach the morrow after the seventh Sabbath fifty days have been enumerated. Here we must bear in mind that Hebrew numeration always includes the day which is the terminus a quo as well as that which is term. ad quem. On this fiftieth day two wave-loaves made from the produce of the fields occupied by the worshipper (“ your habitations ”) are offered together with seven unblemished lambs of the first year as well as one young bullock and two rams as a burnt offering. We have further precise details respecting the sin-offering and the peaceofi'erings which were also presented.l This elaborate ceremonial connected with the wave-ofi'ering (developed in the post-exile period) took place on the morrow of the seventh Sabbath called
1On the critical questions involved in these ritual details of
a “ day of holy convocation ” on which no servile work was to be done. It was called a “ fiftieth-day feast." Pentecost or “ Fiftieth ” day is only a Greek equivalent of the last name (revmxoarfi) in the Apocrypha and New Testament. The orthodox later Jews reckoned the fifty days from the 16th of Nisan, but on this there has been considerable controversy among Jews themselves. The orthodox later Jews assumed that the Sabbath in Lev. II, 15 is the 15th Nisan, or the first day of the feast of Massoth. Hitzig maintained that in the Hebrew calendar 14th and zrst Nisan were always Sabbaths, and that rst Nisan was always a Sunday, which was the opening day of the year. “ The morrow after the Sabbath” means, according to Hitzig, the day after the weekly Sabbath, viz. 22nd Nisan. Knobel (Comment. on Leviticus) and Kurtzagree with Hitzig’s premises but differ from his identification of the Sabbath. They identify it with the 14th Nisan. Accordingly the “ day after ” falls on the i 5th. (See Purves’s article, “ Pentecost,” in Hastings’s Diet. of the Bible, and also Ginsburg’s article in Kitto's Cyclopaedia). Like the other great feasts, it came to be celebrated by fixed special sacrifices. The amount of these is diflerently expressed in the earlier and later priestly law (Lev. xxiii. 18 seq.; Num. 26 seq.); the discrepancy was met by adding the two lists. The later Jews also extended the one day of the feast to two. Further, in accordance with the tendency to substitute' historical for economic explanations of the great feasts, Pentecost came to be regarded as the feast commemorative of the Sinaitic legislation.
To the Christian Church Pentecost acquired a new significance through the outpouring of the Spirit (Acts ii.). (See Wm'rSUNDAY.) '
It is not easy to find definite parallels to this festival in other ancient religious cults. The Akitu festival to Marduk was a spring festival at the beginning of the Babylonian year (Nisan). It therefore comes near in time to the feast of unleavened cakes .rather than to the later harvest festival in the month Sivan called “feast of weeks.” Zimmern indeed connects the Akitu festival with that of Purim 0n the 15th Adar (March); see K.A.T.8 p. 514 seq. Also the Roman Cerealia of April 12th— rgth rather correspond to Magsfith than to Ka‘sir. (O. C. W.)
PENTELICUS (Bpthnaaés, 0r Hewehurdv 6pc; from the deme Hewékn; mod. Mendeli), a mountain to the N.E. of the Athenian plain, height 3640 it. Its quarries of white marble were not regularly worked until after the Persian wars; of this material all the chief buildings of Athens were constructed, as well as the sculpture with which they were ornamented. The ancient quarries are mostly on the south side of the mountain. The best modern quarries are on the north side. The top of Pentelicus commands a view over the plain of Marathon, and from it the Athenian traitors gave the signal to the Persians by a flashing shield on the day of the battle. There was a statue of Athena on the mountain.
PENTHEUS, in Greek legend, successor of Cadmus as king of Thebes. When Dionysus, with his band of frenzied women (Maenads) arrived at Thebes (his native place and the first city visited by him in Greece), Pentheus denied his divinity and violently opposed the introduction of his rites. His mother Agave having joined the revellers on Mount Cithaeron, Pentheus followed and climbed a lofty pine to watch the proceedings. Being discovered he was torn to pieces by Agave and others, who mistook him for some wild beast. His head was carried back to Thebes in triumph by his mother. Labdacus and Lycurgus, who offered a similar resistance, met with a like fearful end. Some identify Pentheus with Dionysus himself in his character as the god of the vine, torn to pieces by the violence of winter. The fate of Pentheus was the subject of lost tragedies by Thespis and Pacuvius.
belonged to a branch of the sovereign house of Brittany. Henry d’Avaugour, heir of this dynasty, was dispossessed of the countship in 1235 by the duke of Brittany, Pierre Mauclerc, who gave it as dowry to his daughter, Yolande, on her marriage in 1238 to Hugh of Lusignan, count of La Marche. Duke John I. of Brittany, Yolande's brother, seized the countship on her death in 1272. In 1337 Joan of Brittany brought Penthievre to her husband, Charles de Chfitillon-Blois. In 1437 Nicole de Blois, a descendant of this family, married Jean de Brosse, and was deprived of Penthiévre by the duke of Brittany, Francis 11., in 1465. The countship, which was restored to Sebastian of Luxemburg, heir of the Brosses through his mother, was erected for him into a duchy in the peerage of France (duché-pairie) in 1569, and was afterwards held by the duchess of Mercceur, daughter of the first duke of Penthiévre, and then by her daughter, the duchess of Vendome. The duchess of Vendbme’s grandson, Louis Joseph, inherited Penthiévre in 1669, but it was taken from him by decree in 1687 and adjudged to Anne Marie de Bourbon, princess of Conti. In 1696 it was sold to the count of Toulouse, whose son bore the title of duke of Penthiévre. This title passed by inheritance to the house of Orleans.
PENTHOUSE, a sloping roof attached to a building either to serve as a porch or a covering for an arcade, or, if supported by walls, as a shed, a “ lean-to.” In the history of siegecraft, the word is particularly applied to the fixed or movable constructions used to protect the besiegers when mining, working battering-rams, catapults, &c., and is thus used to translate Lat. vinea and pluteus, and also testudo, the shelter of locked shields of the Romans. The Mid. Eng. form of the word is penlis, an adaptation of 0. Fr. apentis, Med. Lat. appenditium or appendicium, a small structure attached to, or dependent on, another building, from appendere, to hang on to. The form “penthouse ” is due to a supposed connexion with “ house ” and Fr. pente, sloping roof. The more correct form “ pentice ” is now frequently used.
PENTSTEMON, in botany, a genus of plants (nat. order Scrophulariaceae), chiefly natives of North America, with show open-tubular flowers. The pentstemon of the florist has, owever, sprung from P. Hartwegii and P. Cobaea, and possibly some others. The plants endure English winters unharmed in favoured situations. They are freely multiplied by cuttings, selected from the young side shoots, planted early' in September, and kept in a close cold frame till rooted. They winter safely in cold frames, protected by mats or litter during frost. They produce seed freely, new kinds being obtained by that means. When special varieties are not required true from cuttings, the simplest way to raise pentstemons is to sow seed in heat (65° F.) early in February, afterwards pricking the seedlings out and hardening them off, so as to be ready for the open air by the end of May. Plants formerly known under the name of Chelone (ag. C. barbata, C. campanulala) are now classed with the pentstemons. ,
PENUMBRA (Lat. paene, almost, umbra, a shadow), in astronomy, the partial shadow of a heavenly body as cast by the sun. It is defined by the region in which the light of the sun is partially but not wholly cut off through the interception of a dark body. (See Ecursa.)
PENZA, a government of eastern Russia, bounded N. by the government of Nizhniy-Novgorod, E. by Simlzirsk, and S. and W. by Saratov and Tambov; area r4,992 sq. m.; pop. (est. 1906) 1,699,000. The surface is undulating, with deep valleys and ravines, but does not exceed 900 ft. above sea-level. It is principally made up of Cretaceous sandstones, sands, marls and chalk, cOVered in the east by Eocene deposits. Chalk, potter’s clay, peat and iron are the chief mineral products in the north. The soil is a black earth, more or less mixed with clay and sand; marshes occur in the Krasnoslobodsk district; and expanses of sand in the river valleys. There are extensive forests in the north, but the south exhibits the characteristic features of a steppeland. The government is drained by the Moksha, the Sura (both navigable), and the Khoper, belonging to the Oka, Volga and Don systems. Timber is floated down